Identifying Long-Term Latent Damages from Salt Water Flooding

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1 Identifying Long-Term Latent Damages from Salt Water Flooding The Port Authority of New York & New Jersey Office of Emergency Management Presented to: Society of American Military Engineers (SAME) NJ, Philadelphia and NYC Posts & The Infrastructure Security Partnership (TISP) November 12, 2013

2 Identifying Long-Term Latent Damages from Salt Water Flooding Latent Damage the damage we can t see, that we don t always detect - Mike Sweeney, P.E., Senior VP and Metro New York Area District Leader, HNTB Corporation "Post-Sandy Recovery Effort Should Be Treated As An Opportunity To Repair Latent Damage ; Times of Trenton guest opinion column, October 3, Aside from the immediately recognizable destruction and disrepair, the school is still discovering latent damage, such as pipes rusting out, and dealing with government and insurance agencies more than six years later. Xavier University of Louisiana, The story of how one performance contract is improving university facilities beyond pre-hurricane Katrina conditions ;

3 Identifying Long-Term Latent Damages from Salt Water Flooding Based upon experience and lessons learned shared by other recovery managers. Hurricanes are disasters that take multiple years and multiple phases to overcome as some damage is yet to be exposed. OEM commissioned our disaster recovery consultants, Adjusters International, to identify and document the effects of inundation and material compatibility of, our built environment in the context of salt water: Salt Water Flooding Effects Inspection, Monitoring & Advisory Services Program.

4 Identifying Long-Term Latent Damages from Salt Water Flooding Challenges for the Port Authority Identify roots and causes of component failures Yet to be realized Repetitive (repairs already completed) Drawing a clear line between deferred maintenance (pre-disaster condition) and potential disaster damage Convincing FEMA and the FTA of the imminence of asset failure For the Port Authority, component failure has critical implications on operational and life safety components (train signals, airfield lighting, tunnel pumping capacity, etc.) Need to benchmark and document conditions before too much time passes in order for claim to be viable!

5 Identifying Long-Term Latent Damages from Salt Water Flooding Goals of the Program 1. Resurvey facilities to determine full extent of flooding and damages. Tremendous political and economic pressure to restore facility operations necessitated temporary fixes and workarounds. 2. Identify conditions warranting early action and/or intervention to stabilize critical components (secondary risks). 3. Maximize recoveries through investigation and documentation of sources of component failure as a result of the long-term effects of storm surge and flooding.

6 Identifying Long-Term Latent Damages from Salt Water Flooding Methodology Conduct visual inspections using qualified inspectors to look for the typical effects of salt water flooding: Concrete soaking and corrosion Material corrosion Erosion and undermining Displacement and dislodgement Electrical short circuiting Create a comprehensive clearinghouse of component condition, benchmarked against non-effected components, documenting the evidence of: salt residue, efflorescence, staining, trapped water, infiltration points, unexpected corrosion, spalling/carbonation, cracking, erratic operation

7 Categories of Components Inspected Aviation JFK International Airport LaGuardia International Airport Newark Liberty International Airport Teterboro Commuter Airport Specific Components Included: Runway and taxiway centerline, edge, guard-bar and signage lighting Deck and high mast lighting Substations Pump houses Air & landside pavement Blast fences, dikes and outfalls Traffic signals and toll plazas General electrical and mechanical systems

8 Categories of Components Inspected Rail Ways & Structures (tunnels, tracks & buildings) Power, Signal & Communication Cars & Equipment Transportation & Fare Collection Specific Components Included: Tunnel rings, bench walls and track beds System power and signal cables, relays, switches and impedance boxes Track switches, rails and clamping clips Fire protection systems Substation switchgear Vent buildings, caissons & maintenance facility structures and equipment Station cosmetic and mechanical systems General electrical and mechanical systems

9 Categories of Components Inspected Port Commerce Brooklyn PA Marine Terminal Howland Hook Container / Port Ivory Port Elizabeth / Newark Port Jersey North & South Specific Components Included: Seawalls, headwalls and paved surfaces Buildings and building utilities Deck and high mast lighting Substations Fire protection systems Lift stations Traffic and railroad ways, structures and signals General electrical and mechanical systems

10 Categories of Components Inspected Tunnels, Bridges & Terminals Lincoln Tunnel Holland Tunnel Specific Components Included: Tunnel portals and bulkheads Tunnel rings, bench walls, road beds and tiled surfaces Fresh air and exhaust plenums Land and river vent building structures and utilities Pump room mechanical and electrical systems Fire protection systems Traffic signal and communication systems General electrical and mechanical systems

11 Categories of Components Inspected World Trade Center Tower 1 Transportation Hub Retail Parking / Central Chiller Plant Vehicle Security Center Specific Components Included: Monolithic concrete and reinforcing steel Power distribution systems and conduit Substations Fire protection systems Grounding and bonding systems Escalator and elevator pits General electrical and mechanical systems

12 Salt Residue Salt will consume the surface it occupies until either it, or the surface is exhausted

13 Salt Residue Areas easily contrasting where concrete exposed to floodwaters absorbed and retained salt residue, and where not exposed, stayed contamination free

14 Salt Residue Salt leaching from cracks and cold seams in the ceiling, seemingly as a result of the floor above flooding

15 Some ballast is inundated with enough salt that it has become conductive, enough so, to interrupt the signal system on the rail Salt Residue

16 Salt Residue Salt water ran from behind ceiling tiles the either rained down or migrated to the walls

17 Salt Residue There are high levels of salt concentrated at interfaces between steel components caused by the floodwaters. The small areas at the interfaces are draining slower than more open fixtures and objects

18 Salt Residue high levels of salt concentrated at interfaces between steel components caused by the floodwaters. The small areas at the interfaces are draining slower than more open fixtures and objects Salt deposits remain at the low point of drainage

19 Salt Residue

20 Salt Residue Salt deposits left on the end of this conduit suggest salt water infiltration of the entire conduit as well as others at similar elevations

21 Salt Residue Salt deposits left from leaking water in this conduit. The water entered from the vent building above. Residue at a coupling usually indicates salt water had been in the conduit

22 Salt Residue Salt residue in sign control boxes

23 Salt Residue Wire is most likely inundated with salt to approximately here Salt deposits here indicate salt water has infiltrated the wire insulation approximately 7

24 Trapped Water Has been found in components one year after the storm. It can act as a corrosive medium as well as a path to ground or between conductors

25 Trapped Water Saltwater had run through electrical conduits from the general purpose side to the explosion proof side (Class 1, Div. 1), through the poured seals, and into the associated electrical boxes. In certain cases, the seals were completely pushed into the boxes. In all cases, the code required seals were rendered useless.

26 Trapped Water

27 This conduit was filled with enough water to create a small fountain effect when opened Trapped Water

28 Trapped Water Water drained from this LB for more than 3 minutes. Standing water is being found in equipment more than 11 months after the storm.

29 Trapped Water

30 Trapped Water

31 Corrosion Premature component failure

32 Corrosion Chemical Compatibility Results 3 Chemical Selected: Sea Water 1 MATERIAL Brass Carbon Steel Cast iron Polyurethane Stainless Steel -304 Stainless Steel -316 COMPATIBILITY D-Severe Effect D-Severe Effect D-Severe Effect D-Severe Effect C-Fair C-Fair 1 Cole Parmer Corporation, Chemical Compatibility Database (09-Jan-2013)

33 Corrosion

34 Corrosion

35 Corrosion Rust filled condensate from this breaker Flood line..dripped through vent holes onto these controllers

36 This lever, corroded in place, needs to move freely to actuate this boiler overtemperature safety switch Corrosion

37 Corrosion Ground wire corrosion extends beyond insulation Components corroding for the second time despite a cleaning and rebuilding by the manufacturer

38 Corrosion Corroding motor windings and wire terminations

39 Corrosion The result of rust filled trunion wheel bearings There are four trunions on each side of the crane

40 Corrosion Brass valve stems and stem guides easily corrode in the presence of salt water

41 Corrosion A corroded valve stem and guide on this fire hose connection can make this valve inoperable

42 Corrosion Corroded valve position switch is subject to failure Brass valve stems and stem guides easily corrode in the presence of salt water

43 Corrosion induced scaling of this rebar may make it un-useable unless properly cleaned Corrosion

44 Loss of bond cables or impedance boxes result in loss of signal transmission to the Train Master Corrosion

45 Corrosion has been found several feet into conductors that were submerged Corrosion

46 Corrosion Bonding & Grounding

47 Corrosion Grounding & Bonding Accelerated corrosion will occur where salt has collected on this earth ground lug and ground wire

48 Corrosion Grounding & Bonding

49 Corrosion Grounding & Bonding Loss of bond cables or impedance boxes result in loss of signal transmission to the Train Master

50 Corrosion Grounding & Bonding The diameter of the corroded portion of this ground wire is smaller than the undamaged portion

51 Corrosion Grounding & Bonding Corrosion on grounding conductors and associated hardware

52 Summary of Observations to Date Total records 11,272 Total data 214,168 Total photos 14,090

53 Identifying Long-Term Latent Damages from Salt Water Flooding What we have learned so far There is still a lot of residual salt in, on, and around components It is having a negative effect and needs to be removed City water/ DI water is not effective in rinsing off residue Removing the visible residue is not sufficient to inhibit damage PANYNJ Engineering has begun detailed engineering assessments of the more critical component systems (structural and protection systems, power distribution, safety systems). This will determine the full extent and scope of damages as well as the recommended actions to permanently restore components to operation.

54 Identifying Long-Term Latent Damages from Salt Water Flooding What comes next? Monitor and document changes in component condition Educate State and Federal grantee agencies on long-term challenges Continue the disaster recovery process with FEMA and FTA How can industry assist? Develop a unified position on effects of sea salt on component performance (research & literature) Review the implications on current codes and standards Provide guidance to owner/operators

55 Identifying Long-Term Latent Damages from Salt Water Flooding Chris Spillman, Senior Manager Port Authority of New York & New Jersey Office of Emergency Management

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