Lawn Insects. Identification, Biology & Principles of Control. Annual White Grub Species. Major Cool-Season Lawn Turfgrass Insect Pests

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1 Lawn Insects Identification, Biology & Principles of Control Dr. David Shetlar The Ohio State University/OARDC OSU Extension Columbus, OH Major Cool-Season Lawn Turfgrass Insect Pests White Grubs Billbugs Chinch Bugs Sod Webworms 2 White Grub Damage Annual White Grub Species Masked Chafers (North America - N, S, SW, W, SE) Japanese Beetle (eastern NA) Oriental Beetle (northeastern NA) European Chafer (northeastern NA) Asiatic Garden Beetle (northeastern NA) Green June Beetle (south-transition NA) May/June Beetles(southern only) 3 4 White Grub Adults White Grub Third Instars Annual Grubs GJB, EC, SMC, NMC, JB, OB, AGB Multi-year Grubs, M/JB Multi-gen/yr 5 Grub, BTA 6 Annual Grubs GJB, EC, MC, JB, OB, AGB Multi-year Grubs, M/JB Multi-gen/yr Grub, BTA 1

2 Identifying Grub Species Japanese Beetle Identify grubs by raster pattern Japanese beetle has V- shaped pattern. Japanese beetle adult skeletonizing leaf Adults are easy to ID but they don t predict 7 grub populations! 8 Mating cluster of beetles in turf Japanese beetle distribution (2000) Japanese Beetle Life Stages egg 1st 2nd 3rd pupa adult instar larva 9 10 Japanese Beetle Annual Cycle JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC Masked Chafers Pair of masked chafers at night on turf Masked chafer eggs newly laid (below) 48 hours in moist soil (above)

3 Identifying Grub Species Masked chafers have no pattern! Masked Chafer Distribution Maps Northern Masked Chafer Southern Masked Chafer 13 Southwestern Masked Chafer 14 Western Masked Chafer Northern Masked Chafer Life Stages Masked Chafer Annual Cycle egg 1st 2nd 3rd pupa adult instar larva Green June Beetle Mature grub crawling on soil Identifying Grub Species GJB crawls on back! Adult Overwintering Japanese beetles Grub in overwintering burrow

4 Green June Beetle Distribution European Chafer Adult H. Niemczyk 19 European chafer adults swarming to tree at dusk for mating 20 Identifying Grub Species European chafers have Y-shaped anus & two rows of bristles that diverge at anus. European Chafer Distribution (2000) 21 Y-shaped anus with two rows of bristles. 22 European Chafer Life Cycle Oriental Beetle & Asiatic Garden Beetle 23 Three common color forms of Oriental beetle 24 Asiatic garden beetles feeding & mating 4

5 Identifying Grub Species Oriental beetle has two rows of small spines, in number. Asiatic garden beetle has vertical anus & broad U-shaped spine pattern. Oriental Beetle & Asiatic Garden Beetle Distribution Maps Oriental Beetle (2000) Asiatic Garden Beetle (2000) Billbug damage to lawn Bluegrass Billbug Adult and larva Bluegrass billbug adult on sidewalk 27 Larva in crown 28 Billbug Distribution Maps The Tug Test Bluegrass billbug Hunting billbug

6 Bluegrass Billbug Life Stages Bluegrass Billbug Life Cycle in Ohio small larva mature larva fresh pupa mature pupa callow adult mature adult Hairy Chinch Bug Damage to Lawn Hairy chinch bugs in thatch Hairy chinch bug adults - long wing & short wing forms Chinch Bug Distribution Maps Hairy Chinch Bug Life Stages Hairy chinch bug Common chinch bug 35 egg 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th short winged normal winged instar nymphs adult adult 36 6

7 Hairy Chinch Bug Life Cycle in Ohio Sod Webworms Spring damage Adult bluegrass webworm Larva and frass Sod Webworm Distribution Maps Bluegrass webworm Larger sod webworm Bluegrass Webworm in Ohio Striped sod webworm Cranberry girdler Where do grubs feed? Ans: Target Principle 41 Soil-Thatch Interface 42 7

8 What do grubs eat? Japanese Beetle Life Stages Egg Larva Pupa Adult Ans: THATCH, soil (oh, and roots) 43 1st 2nd 3rd Instar 44 Japanese Beetle Annual Cycle JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC Preventive-Early Curative Timing Traditional Control Timing Ranked Efficacy of White Grub Insecticides rate ave range % of tests Insecticide lb.ai./a. % control # tests % control below 70% Thiamethoxam (=Meridian) Halofenozide (=MACH2) Imidacloprid (=Merit) Trichlorfon (=Dylox, Proxol) Carbaryl (=Sevin) Diazinon Chlorpyrifos Turf Caterpillar Controls Insecticide Rate % Control # Tests Organophosphates Diazinon Dursban Dylox/Proxol Orthene Carbamates Sevin Turcam (=Dursban)

9 Turf Caterpillar Controls Insecticide Rate % Control # Tests Pyrethroids Astro DeltaGard Scimitar Tempo Spinosyn Conserve Turf Caterpillar Controls Insecticide Rate % Control # Tests Chloronicotinoid Merit Molt Accelerator (growth regulator) MACH Nematodes S. carpocapsae 1.0 bil H. bact. 0.5 bil Occurrence of Target Lawn Insect Pests April May June July August Sept Occurrence of Target Lawn Insect Pests April May June July August Sept -prv -prv -prv -prv &a &a controlled with CONSERVE Occurrence of Target Lawn Insect Pests April May June July August Sept Occurrence of Target Lawn Insect Pests April May June July August Sept -prv -prv -prv -prv &a &a controlled with MACH controlled with MERIT 9

10 Turf Insect Control (for homeowners) White Grubs (Preventive) GrubEx (halofenozide) Grub-B-Gon (halofenozide ) Season-Long Grub Control (imidacloprid) White Grubs (Curative) 24-hr Grub Control (trichlorfon = Dylox/Proxol) Turf Insect Control (for professionals) White Grubs (Preventive) MACH2 (halofenozide ) Merit (imidacloprid) White Grubs (Curative) Dylox / Proxol? (trichlorfon) Sevin?? Sevin?? Turf Insect Control (for homeowners) Billbugs halofenozide (preventive&curative - good) imidacloprid (preventive - good) pyrethroids (cyfluthrin - preventive) Chinch bugs imidacloprid (preventive - moderate) pyrethroids (cyfluthrin - poor) Sod webworms (not a problem in lawns) pyrethroids - good 57 Turf Insect Control (for professionals) Billbugs halofenozide (preventive&curative - good) imidacloprid (preventive - good) pyrethroids (preventive - fair) Chinch bugs imidacloprid (preventive - moderate) pyrethroids (curative - poor) Sod webworms (not a problem in lawns) pyrethroids (curative good) 58 Shameless Advertisement! Destructive Turf Insects, 2 nd Edition available from: Lawn and Landscape Media Group 4012 Bridge Avenue Cleveland, OH (Lori Skala) Visit:

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