Resiliencia de las comunidades y del medio natural Población en general

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1 ADGER, NEIL W Social and ecological resilience: are they related? in Progress in Human Geography, SAGE Publications 24, 3, pp Doi: / Continente EUROPEO-REINO UNIDO Amenazas ambientales Resiliencia de las comunidades y del medio natural This article defines social resilience as the ability of groups or communities to cope with external stresses and disturbances as a result of social, political and environmental change. This definition highlights social resilience in relation to the concept of ecological resilience which is a characteristic of ecosystems to maintain themselves in the face of disturbance. There is a clear link between social and ecological resilience, particularly for social groups or communities that are dependent on ecological and environmental resources for their livelihoods. But it is not clear whether resilient ecosystems enable resilient communities in such situations. This article examines whether resilience is a useful characteristic for describing the social and economic situation of social groups and explores potential links between social resilience and ecological resilience. The origins of this interdisciplinary study in human ecology, ecological economics and rural sociology are reviewed, and a study of the impacts of ecological change on a resource-dependent community in contemporary coastal Vietnam in terms of the resilience of its institutions is outlined ADGER, NEIL W., P.M. KELLY 1999 Social Vulnerability to Climate Change and the Architecture of Entitlements, in Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol 4, number 3-4, pp Continente AMERICANO-E.U.A Cambio climático Respuesta social-economía The objective of this paper is to outline a conceptual model of vulnerability to climate change as the first step in appraising and understanding the social and economic processes which facilitate and constrain adaptation. Vulnerability as defined here pertains to individuals and social groups. It is the state of 1

2 individuals, of groups, of communities defined in terms of their ability to cope with and adapt to any external stress placed on their livelihoods and well-being. This proposed approach puts the social and economic well-being of society at the centre of the analysis, thereby reversing the central focus of approaches to climate impact assessment based on impacts on and the adaptability of natural resources or ecosystems and which only subsequently address consequences for human well-being. The vulnerability or security of any group is determined by the availability of resources and, crucially, by the entitlement of individuals and groups to call on these resources. This perspective extends the concept of entitlements developed within neoclassical and institutional economics. Within this conceptual framework, vulnerability can be seen as a socially-constructed phenomenon influenced by institutional and economic dynamics. The study develops proxy indicators of vulnerability related to the structure of economic relations and the entitlements which govern them, and shows how these can be applied to a District in coastal lowland Vietnam. This paper outlines the lessons of such an approach to social vulnerability for the assessment of climate change at the global scale. We argue that the socio-economic and biophysical processes that determine vulnerability are manifest at the local, national, regional and global level but that the state of vulnerability itself is associated with a specific population. Aggregation from one level to another is therefore not appropriate and global-scale analysis is meaningful only in so far as it deals with the vulnerability of the global community itself ALLEN, KATRINA M Community -based disaster preparedness and climate adaptation: local capacity building in the Philippines, in Disasters, Overseas Development Institute. 30(1): DOI: /j x Continente EUROPEO REINO-UNIDO Cambio Climático Capital social 2006 ASIATICO Filipinas Community-based disaster preparedness (CBDP) approaches are increasingly important elements of vulnerability reduction and disaster management strategies. They are associated with a policy trend that values the knowledge and capacities of local people and builds on local resources, including social capital. CBDP may be instrumental not only in formulating local coping and adaptation strategies, but also in situating them within wither development planning and debates. In theory, local people can be mobilised to resist 2

3 unsustainable (vulnerability increasing) forms of development or livelihood practices and to raise local concerns more effectively with political representatives. This paper focuses on the potential of CBDP initiatives to alleviate vulnerability in the context of climate change, and their limitations. It presents evidence from the Philippines that, in the limited forms in which they are currently employed, CBDP initiatives have the potential both to empower and disempower, and warns against treating CBDP as a panacea to disaster management problems ANDERSON-BERRY, LINDA, DAVID KING 2005 Mitigation of the Impact of Tropical Cyclones in Northern Australia through Community Capacity Enhancement, in Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Climate Change, Springer, vol 10, no. 3, July, pp Continente AMERICANO-E.U.A. Ciclones tropicales Respuesta social-tecnológica OCEÁNICO Australia Community mitigation of hazard impact requires hazard knowledge and preparedness on the part of the members of diverse and complex communities. Longitudinal research in the tropical cyclone prone north of Australia has gathered extensive datasets on community awareness, preparedness and knowledge, in order to contribute to education campaigns and mitigation strategies. Data have been used to identify issues of vulnerability to cyclones and capacity to deal with the hazard. This has been developed as a community vulnerability and capacity model that may be applied to diverse communities in order to assess levels of capability to mitigate and deal with the cyclone hazard. The model is presented here in a simplified form as its development is evolving and ongoing ASHMORE, JOSEPH, ELIZABETH BABISTER, TOM CORSELLIS, JON FOWLER, ILAN KELMAN, ALLAN MCROBIE, PETER MANFIELD, ROBIN SPENCE, ANTONELLA VITALE 2003 Diversity and Adaptation of Shelters in Transitional Settlements for IDPs in Afghanistan, in Disasters, Overseas Development Institute 27 (4), pp DOI: /j x Continente EUROPEO-REINO UNIDO Frío 3

4 Diseño de refugios para personas desplazadas Personas desplazadas 2002 ASIÁTICO Afganistán Herat The diversity of shelters in transitional settlements for internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Herat, Afghanistan is described. The information is based on a field survey undertaken in March 2002 and highlights the adaptation techniques, which IDPs undertake to improve any provided shelter. Potential areas for improvement are indicated; for example, the possibility for using insulated, demountable liners to prevent cold-related deaths without sacrificing shelter flexibility along with the likely need for better agency coordination of the shelter responses they provide. The wider context in which the technical recommendations would be implemented must also be considered. Such issues include agency resources, political impediments to providing the desired option, and the preference fo many IDPs that the best shelter would be their home AUDEFROY, JOEL 2010 Post-disaster emergency and reconstruction experiences in Asia and Latin America: an assesment, in Development in Practice, Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, vol. 20, no. 6, August Continente EUROPEO-REINO UNIDO Desastres en general Procesos adaptativos postdesastre Población albergada AMERICANO Y ASIÁTICO Varios ejemplos en Asia y Latinoamérica From United Nations emergency-response strategies involving establishment of tent camps, to the reconstruction approach of FUNDASAL in El Salvador and housing responses of CARITAS in Asia, iti si clear that a giant step has been taken in thinking around emergency shelter as well as prevention and reconstruction proposals. This presentation will evaluate some update good practices in Asia and Latin America in the field of post-disaster emergency shelter using local skills, materials and tools, and a lot of participative processes AUDEFROY, JOEL 2006 Evaluación de algunas experiencias de prevención y mitigación de desastres en América Latina, in Revista POS-FAU, Universidad de Sao Paulo, no 19, junio, pp

5 Continente AMERICANO-BRASIL Desastres en general Programas de prevención y mitigación AMERICANO Varios países Los desastres de origen "natural" han provocado miles de muertos y heridos y daños materiales por miles de millones de dólares en los últimos veinte años. Estos desastres han sido originados no tanto por los fenómenos naturales extraordinarios sino más bien por la falta de planes y programas de prevención y mitigación de desastres. En este trabajo se analizan algunas experiencias exitosas en materia de prevención y mitigación de desastres en algunos países de América Latina AUDEFROY, JOEL 2009 Vivienda y ayuda humanitaria: los antecedentes de las acciones frente a los desastres, in Revista TRACE, Centro de Estudios Mexicanos y Centroamericanos, no 56, diciembre, pp Continente AMERICANO-MÉXICO Desastres en general Vivienda humanitaria y reconstrucción ASIÁTICO Pakistán, Indonesia, Sri Lanka La ayuda humanitaria llevada a cabo después de los desastres no es un fenómeno reciente. Si bien las acciones de las grandes agencias humanitarias internacionales son conocidas, tales como las de la Cruz Roja Internacional, OXFAM, y CARITAS Internacional entre otras, lo que es menos conocido, son las propuestas de arquitectos para agencias tales como Architecture et Developpement, Architectes sans Frontieres y Architectes de l'urgence (Francia) sobre el hábitat de emergencia y la reconstrucción. De hecho, si revisamos el tema en un corte histórico, observamos que las propuestas han sido bastante ligadas a corrientes y movimientos de la arquitectura sobre todo a partir del siglo XX. Este trabajo presenta los antecedentes de la participación de los arquitectos en el diseño de propuestas para emergencia y reconstrucción después de desastres y presenta algunas experiencias recientes a raíz del sismo de Pakistán, y del tsunami en Indonesia y Sri Lanka

6 Continente AUDEFROY, JOEL 2003 La problemática de los desastres en el hábitat urbano en América Latina, in Boletín del Instituto de la Vivienda, Facultad de Arquitectura y Urbanismo, Universidad de Chile, mayo, vol. 18, No. 47, Santiago de Chile INVI AMERICANO-CHILE Desastres en general Participación de autoridades, organizaciones y academia Población urbana AMERICANO México Distrito Federal Delegación Alvaro Obregón En este breve trabajo presentaremos los principales riesgos urbanos en América Latina, los procesos que llevan a una degradación y riesgos. Luego examinaremos las alternativas propuestas por los principales actoresw involucrados: autoridades locales, organizaciones sociales, organizaciones no gubernamentales y universidades. Terminaremos con el ejemplo de la Ciudad de México en donde llevamos a cabo un estudio que nos permitió conocer la percepción de las autoridades locales frente a los riesgos y de los habitantes en la Delegación Alvaro Obregón AYRES, R.U Environmental Market Failures: Are There Any Local Market- Based Corrective Mechanisms for Global Problems?, in Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol 1, number 3, pp Continente AMERICANO-E.U.A. Cambio climático Economía local-global The paper reviews various policy tools that have been discussed in the literature, including legal, administrative and fiscal (tax) schemes, as well as tradeable emission permits, and concludes that none of them are really suitable for dealing with global problems. An alternative is suggested, namely the use of tradeable individual consumption quotas for traded commodities at the national level, to be extended later to the global level by trading quotas among nations (assuming agreement can be reached on the basis for determining quotas) BASHER, R.E Data Requirements for Developing Adaptations to Climate 6

7 Continente Variability and Change, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol 4, number 3-4,, pp AMERICANO-E.U.A. Cambio climático Adaptación Gobiernos An extensive foundation of high quality data and information on the climate and on the biological, environmental and social systems affected by climate is required in order to understand the climate impact processes involved, to develop new adaptation practices, and to subsequently implement these practices. Experience of the impacts of current and past variability of climate and sea level is a prime source of information. Many practices are in use to reduce climate impacts, for example in engineering design, agricultural risk management and climate prediction services, though their roles as adaptations to climate change are not widely appreciated. While there are good data sets on some factors and in some regions, in many cases the databases are inadequate and there are few data sets on adaptation-specific quantities such as vulnerability, resilience and adaptation effectiveness. Current international action under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) pays little attention to adaptation and its information requirements. Furthermore there are trends toward reduced data gathering and to restrictions on access to data sets, especially arising from cost and commercialisation pressures. To effectively respond to the changes in climate that are now inevitable, governments will need to more clearly identify adaptation as a central feature of climate change policy and make a renewed shared commitment to collecting and freely exchanging the necessary data BAUM, SETH D., WILLIAM E. EASTERLING 2010 Space-time discounting in climate change adaptation, in Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Climate Change, Springer, vol 15, no. 6, august, pp Continente AMERICANO-E.U.A. Cambio climático Adaptación Discounting is traditionally interpreted as the technique for comparing the values of costs and benefits which occur at different points in time. It endeavors to incorporate how humans trade off values to be received in the 7

8 future versus value received immediately into economic analysis. Interpreted as such, discounting neglects important spatial influences on how values are compared, thereby hindering cost-benefit analyses of climate change adaptation. In this article, we present new theory on space-time discounting and use it to analyze aspects of how humans adapt to climate change. Three climate change adaptation cases are considered. First, analysis of crop indemnity payments to farmers shows that failure to discount across space and time yields inaccurate evaluations of adaptation projects. Second, adaptation efforts of the Commonwealth of Nations show irregular patterns of international cooperation that suggest spatial discounting of adaptation which are not found in temporal discounting. Third, the nexus between climate change, migration, and conflict shows how various forms of spacetime discounting can influence whether climate change and migration will lead to conflict. Collectively, these cases demonstrate the analytical power of the space-time discounting theory and also show how the complexity of climate change adaptation can challenge and strengthen this theory. Finally, this article s analysis demonstrates that proper discounting must include space as well as time BOSHER, LEE (.); JOHN MORTON, GUILLAUME CHANTRY 2008 More to lose: the case for prevention, loans for strengthening, and "safe housing" Insurance - the case of central Vietnam, in Hazards and the built environment. Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN: Continente EUROPEO-REINO UNIDO Desastres en general Protección de la infraestructura Población urbana ASIÁTICO Vietnam As a specialist in disaster preparation, you have huge responsibilities. A failure to prepare for natural and human-induced disasters costs lives and money. When a natural or human-induced disaster hits a built-up area the amount of damage it does will depend largely on the extent to which the built assets in the area were developed to withstand it. To fail in this respect is therefore both ethically and financially negligent. What kinds of structural and non-structural alterations can be made to protect buildings from largescale disasters? How can we reduce the threat of these disasters, as well as the damage they cause? Presenting seven guiding principles, drawn from a broad range of disciplines and approaches, this book tackles the difficult questions about what can be done to attain built-in resilience. With contributions from many renowned experts and upcoming researchers in the 8

9 fields concerned, it comprehensively assesses the wide range of issues faced by practitioners. Whether you're studying construction management, researching hazard resilience issues or working on construction projects in hazardous regions, this book is for you BOSHER, LEE (.); ROHIT JIGYASU 2008 Structural adaptation in South Asia. Learning lesson from tradition, in Hazards and the built environment. Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN: Continente EUROPEO-REINO UNIDO Desastres en general Protección de la infraestructura Población urbana ASIÁTICO Sudeste asiático As a specialist in disaster preparation, you have huge responsibilities. A failure to prepare for natural and human-induced disasters costs lives and money. When a natural or human-induced disaster hits a built-up area the amount of damage it does will depend largely on the extent to which the built assets in the area where developed to withsand it. To fail in this respect is therefore both ethically and financially negligent. What kinds of structural and non-structural alterations can be made to protect buildings from longscale disasters? How can we reduce the threat of these disasters, as well as the damage they cause? Presenting seven guiding principles, drawn from a broad range of disciplines and approaches, this book tackles the difficult questions about what can be done to attain built-in resilience. With contributions from many renowned experts and upcoming researchers in the fields concerned, it comprehensively assesses the wide range of issues faced by practitioners. Whether you're studying construction management, researching hazard resilience issues or working on construction projects in hazardous regiones, this book is for you BOSHER, LEE, PATRICIA CARRILLO, ANDREW DAINTY, JACQUELINE GLASS, ANDREW PRICE 2007 Realising a resilient and sustainable built environment: towards a strategic agenda for the United Kingdom, in Disasters, Overseas Development Institute, 31(3): DOI: /j x Continente EUROPEO-REINO UNIDO 9

10 Emergencias naturales y antrópicas Mitigación de riesgos mediante cambios en la construcción de infraestructura EUROPEO Reino Unido Recent natural and human-inducted emergencies have highlighted the vulnerability of the built environment. Although most emergency events are not entirely unexpected, and the effects can be mitigated, emergency managers in the United Kingdom have not played a sufficiently proactive role in the mitigation of such events. If a resilient and sustainable built environment is to be achieved, emergency management should be more proactive and receive greater input frome the stakeholders responsible for the planning, design, construction and operation of the built environment. This paper highlights the need for emergency management to take a more systematic approach to hazard mitigation by integrating more with professions from the construction sector. In particular, design changes my have to be considered, critical infrastructures must be protected, planning policies should be reviewed, and resilient and sustainable agendas adopted by all stakeholders BOUWER, LAURENS M., C.J.H. JEROEN 2006 Financing climate change adaptation, in Disasters, Overseas Development Institute, 30(1): Continente EUROPEO REINO UNIDO Cambio Climático Financiamiento de políticas públicas de manejo de riesgos This paper examines the topic of financing adaptation in future climate change policies. A major question is whether adaptation in developing countries shoudl be financed under the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), or whether funding should come from other sources. We present an overview of financial resources and propose the employment of a two-track approach: one track that attempts to secure climate change adaptation funding under the UNFCCC; and a second track that improves mainstreaming of climate risk management in development efforts. Developed countries would need to demonstrate much greater mommitment to the funding of adaptation measures if the UNFCCC were to cover a substantial part of the costs. The mainstreaming of climate change adaptation could follow a risk management path, particularly in relation to disaster risk reduction. 'Climate-proofing' of development projects 10

11 taht currently do not consider climate and weather risk could improve their sustainability BRANCO, ADÉLIA, JOÂO SUASSUNA, SEMIRA VAINSENCHER 2005 "Improving Acces to Water Resources through Rainwater Harvesting as a Mitigation Measure: The Case of the Brazilian Semi-Arid Region, in Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Climate Change, Springer, vol 10, no. 3, July, pp Continente AMERICANO E.U.A Escasez de agua Respuesta social ONGs AMERICANO Brasil This paper focuses on the importance of rainwater harvesting to mitigate the scarcity of water in the semi-arid region of Brazil. It is a case study about the Million Cisterns Project, an initiative developed by NGOs with the support of Brazilian Federal Government Institutions and international funding organizations. The project is innovative in a series of ways when compared to mitigation measures previously implemented by the government. Instead of focussing on short-term, top-down, palliative measures based on the construction of dams and wells, it focuses on low cost, bottom-up, long-term measures and, most importantly, it involves an educational component. Thus, the provision of water is closely related to the empowerment of the most destitute population and this leads to the sustainability of the actions. The case study serves to illustrate the relevance of the partnership between grassroots organizations and governmental institutions in the context of mitigation BRUCE, J.P "Disaster Loss Mitigation as an Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change, in Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol 4, number 3-4,, pp Continente AMERICANO E.U.A. Amenazas relacionadas con el cambio climático; El Niño. Planeación territorial Extremes of climate and weather, storms, floods and droughts, require 11

12 vigorous adaptation measures in a generally stable climate or in one that is rapidly changing. These adaptation measures, to reduce loss of life, human suffering and economic losses come under the heading "disaster loss mitigation". Since 1990 the United Nations'' International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction has provided for international cooperation and information dissemination. Nevertheless, world-wide economic disaster losses in the 1990s have continued to show a rapid increase - and the increase for climate related disasters has been three to four times greater than those for geological disasters. Is some of this increased loss due to anthropogenic climate change? There is some evidence of increases in frequency of heavy rainfalls in a number of regions and of severe winter storms in the northern hemisphere. On the other hand, there is little global trend in frequency or intensity of tropical cyclones whose geographical distribution is more closely related to ENSO events. But is there a possibility that increases in intensity over the past few decades of El Niño and La Niña events are related to increased radiative forcing from greenhouse gases? Whatever the outcome of emerging research on extreme events in a changing climate, it is evident that climate adaptation through disaster mitigation measures is of increasing importance with growing populations in more vulnerable regions. Measures that must be supported vigorously include improved warning and preparedness systems, safer buildings, risk-averse land use planning, better protected urban infrastructure, and more resilient water supply systems, among others. Both national and international efforts must not be allowed to diminish after the end of the IDNDR in The task is only begun BUDREAU, DAVIN, GORDON MCBEAN 2007 "Climate change, adaptive capacity and policy direction in the Canadian North: can we learn anything from the collapse of the east coast cod fishery?, in Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol 12, no. 7, august, pp Continente AMERICANO-E.U.A. Cambio climático Recursos pesqueros Población local AMERICANO Canadá Scientific evidence gathered over the past five years suggests that northern Canada and the Arctic have undergone, and are undergoing, formidable environmental changes linked to global climate change. Environmental change in the north is expected to persist and intensify over the course of the 12

13 next century. When large-scale environmental changes take place, they inevitably affect people, especially when the cultures and livelihoods of those people depend on their relationship with the environment. Managing the local impacts of these changes is a matter of adaptation. This paper discusses some of the policy implications of adaptation government interventions aiming to build communities and regions capacities to adapt to environmental changes. Three arguments for adaptive capacity building interventions in the north are discussed, and these arguments are augmented by a comparative review of government reactions to the collapse of the cod fishery in Atlantic Canada. Reactive and proactive policy approaches are discussed, and it is suggested from the comparison that proactive approaches to intervention are desirable for building adaptive capacity BYJESH, KATTARKANDI, SOORA KUMAR, PRAMOD AGGARWAL S/D Simulating impacts, potential adaptation and vulnerability of maize to climate change in India in Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Climate Change, Springer, vol 15, no. 5, pp Continente AMERICANO E.U.A Cambio climático Seguridad alimentaria ASIÁTICO India Climate change associated global warming, rise in carbon dioxide concentration and uncertainties in precipitation has profound implications on Indian agriculture. Maize (Zea mays L.), the third most important cereal crop in India, has a major role to play in country s food security. Thus, it is important to analyze the consequence of climate change on maize productivity in major maize producing regions in India and elucidate potential adaptive strategy to minimize the adverse effects. Calibrated and validated InfoCrop-MAIZE model was used for analyzing the impacts of increase in temperature, carbon dioxide (CO2) and change in rainfall apart from HadCM3 A2a scenario for 2020, 2050 and The main insights from the analysis are threefold. First, maize yields in monsoon are projected to be adversely affected due to rise in atmospheric temperature; but increased rainfall can partly offset those loses. During winter, maize grain yield is projected to reduced with increase in temperature in two of the regions (Mid Indo-Gangetic Plains or MIGP, and Southern Plateau or SP), but in the Upper Indo-Gangetic Plain (UIGP), where relatively low temperatures prevail during winter, yield increased up to a 2.7 C rise in temperature. Variation in rainfall may not have a major impact on winter yields, as the crop is already well irrigated. Secondly, the spatio-temporal variations in projected changes 13

14 in temperature and rainfall are likely to lead to differential impacts in the different regions. In particular, monsoon yield is reduced most in SP (up to 35%), winter yield is reduced most in MIGP (up to 55%), while UIGP yields are relatively unaffected. Third, developing new cultivars with growth pattern in changed climate scenarios similar to that of current varieties in present conditions could be an advantageous adaptation strategy for minimizing the vulnerability of maize production in India CAMPBELL, DONOVAN S/D "Small farming in an era of global change and uncertainty, in Jamaican Geographer, Jamaican Geographical Society, no. 18, pp. 4 Continente AMERICANO-Jamaica Crisis agrícola y alimentaria Seguridad alimentaria 0 AMERICANO Jamaica Food security and domestic food protuction in Jamaica has been of concern for many years but the rapid escalation of oil and food prices in the global economy has brought these concerns sharply into focus in The global food crisis of has witnessed an overall 40% increase in food prices, numerous food riots and more countries restricting food export as a way to safeguard their supplies; leaving import-dependent countries in a panic. Locally, the absolute incapacitation of state efforts toward small agriculture since the 1970s has resulted in a decline in domestic food production and an increased dependence on food imports. The availability of food has become more insecure less land is under cultivation and more and more food is being imported for local consumption CAMPBELL, DONOVAN AND CLINTON BECKFORD S/D "Negotiating Uncertainty: Jamaican Small Farmers Adaptation and Coping Strategies, Before and After Hurricanes A Case Study of Hurricane Dean", in Sustainability, ; Journal Sustainability. (www.mdpi.com/journal/sustainability) doi: /su Continente EUROPEO-SUIZA Huracán Protección del patrimonio Granjeros en pequeña escala 2007 AMERICANO 14

15 Jamaica St. Elizabeth Potsdam, Top Hill, Southfield, and Flagaman In recent years, Jamaica has been seriously affected by a number of extreme meteorological events. The one discussed here, Hurricane Dean, passed along the south coast of the island in August 2007, damaging crops and disrupting livelihood activities for many small-scale farmers. This study is based on detailed ethnographic research in the southern coastal region of St. Elizabeth parish during the passage of Hurricane Dean, and explores the ways in which small farmers negotiate the stressors associated with hurricane events. The study employed a mix methods approach based on a survey of 282 farming households. The paper documents coping strategies employed by farmers in the immediate period of Hurricane Dean to reduce damage to their farming systems, and highlights the positive correlation between farmers perceptions of hurricanes and degree of damage to local farming systems. In addition, through an analysis of socio-economic and environmental data, the paper provides an understanding of the determinants of adaptive capacity and strategy among farmers in the area. The study indicated that despite high levels of vulnerability, farmers have achieved successful coping and adaptation at the farm level CAMPBELL, DONOVAN, DAVID BARKER, DUNCAN MCGREGOR 2011 Dealing with drought: Small farmers and environmental hazards in southern St. Elizabeth, Jamaica, Applied Geography, Elsevier, vol. 31, issue 1, January. doi: /j.appgeog Continente AMERICANO-E.U.A. Sequía Producción agrícola Agricultores AMERICANO Jamaica St. Elizabeth This paper reports on ongoing research on the impact of global environmental and economic change on small farming in Jamaica using a case study of southern St. Elizabeth. The area is one of the principal small farming regions in the country and supplies both the domestic market and the Jamaican tourist industry. Farmers in this rain shadow region are susceptible to multiple hazards, and have been particulary badly affected by hurricanes, droughts and bush fires in recent years. This paper focuses on farmers' responses to and perceptions of drought hazards, and explores contrasts between drought hazard impacts and hurricane hazard impacts in three communities in the study area. Farmers' coping strategies are examined

16 Continente CHATTERJEE, KALIPADA, SALEEMUL HUQ 2002 A Report on the Inter-regional Conference on Adaptation to Climate Change, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol 7, no. 4, pp AMERICANO-E.U.A. Cambio climático Adaptación Grupos de investigación 2002 ASIÁTICO India Nueva Delhi The IPCC Third Assessment highlighted theneed for adaptation to climate change.keeping in view the importance ofadaptation to climate change, particularlyin developing countries, DevelopmentAlternatives organised an Inter-regionalConference on Adaptation to Climate Change,during October 18-20, 2002, just before CoP8 at New Delhi. About 120 participants frommore than 20 countries, both developed anddeveloping, participated in the conference.the conference discussed vulnerability ofnatural and human systems and communitypractices to adapt to climate change. Theconference deliberated on training andcapacity building of communities forincreasing their resilience to adapt toadverse impacts of climate change. Theparticipants also came out with a set ofrecommendations for wider dissemination tovarious stakeholders during the COP 8 beingheld at New Delhi (from 23 October to 1November). The recommendations from theconference were used in the COP 8negotiations as well as the DelhiMinisterial Declaration. The ConferenceReport will provide a guideline for thedeveloping countries for initiating work onadaptation CLARK, G.E., S.C. MOSER, S.J. RATICK, K. DOW, W.B. MEYER, S. EMANI, W. JIN, J.X. KASPERSON, R.E. KASPERSON, H.E. SCHWARZ 1998 Assessing the Vulnerability of Coastal Communities to Extreme Storms: The Case of Revere, MA, USA, in Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol 3, numer 1, pp Continente AMERICANO-E.U.A. Tormentas severas Análisis cartográfico, censal y espacial AMERICANO Estados Unidos Massachussets Revere Climate change may affect the frequency, intensity, and geographic 16

17 distribution of severe coastal storms. Concurrent sea-level rise would raise the baseline of flooding during such events. Meanwhile, social vulnerability factors such as poverty and disability hinder the ability to cope with storms and storm damage. While physical changes are likely to remain scientifically uncertain into the foreseeable future, the ability to mitigate potential impacts from coastal flooding may be fostered by better understanding the interplay of social and physical factors that produce human vulnerability. This study does so by integrating the classic causal model of hazards with social, environmental, and spatial dynamics that lead to the differential ability of people to cope with hazards. It uses Census data, factor analysis, data envelopment analysis, and floodplain maps to understand the compound social and physical vulnerability of coastal residents in the city of Revere, MA, USA DISON, R.K Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change Editorial Policy Update 2003, in Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol 7, no. 4, pp Continente AMERICANO-E.U.A. SIN RESUMEN DIXON, R.K. S/D Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, in Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol 3, numbers 2-4, pp Continente AMERICANO E.U.A. Cambio climático Estrategias adaptativas SIN RESUMEN DIXON, R.K Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change Editorial Policy Update, in Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, Vol 8, no. 1, pp. 1-2 Continente AMERICANO-E.U.A. 17

18 Cambio climático SIN RESUMEN DOWNING, T.E., L. RINGIUS, M. HULME, D. WAUGHRAY 1997 Adapting to Climate Change in Africa in Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol 2, number 1, pp Continente AMERICANO-E.U.A. Cambio climático Agricultura-recursos hídricos AFRICANO The intersection of present vulnerability and the prospect of climate change in Africa warrants proactive action now to reduce the risk of large-scale, adverse impacts. The process of planning adaptive strategies requires a systematic evaluation of priorities and constraints, and the involvement of stakeholders. An overview of climate change in Africa and case studies of impacts for agriculture and water underlie discussion of a typology of adaptive responses that may be most effective for different stakeholders. The most effective strategies are likely to be to reduce present vulnerability and to enhance a broad spectrum of capacity in responding to environmental, resource and economic perturbations. In some cases, such as design of water systems, an added risk factor should be considered EBI, KRISTIE, JOEL SMITH, IAN BURTON, JOEL SCHERAGA 2006 Some Lessons Learned from Public Health on the Process of Adaptation in Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Climate Change, Springer, vol 11, no. 3, May, pp Cotinente AMERICANO E.U.A. Cambio climático Salud Sistemas de salud pública Lessons learned from more than 150 years of public health research and intervention can provide insights to guide public health professionals and institutions as they design and implement specific strategies, policies, and measures to increase resilience to climate variability and change. This paper 18

19 identifies both some modifications to public health systems that may enhance adaptive capacity, and lessons drawn from the history of managing environmental and other threats in the public health sector that may have relevance for other sectors as they design approaches to increase their adaptive capacity to more effectively cope with climate variability and change EL SHAER, H. M., C. ROSENZWEIG, A. IGLESIAS, M.H. EID, D. HILLEL Impact of Climate Change on Possible Scenarios for Egyptian Agriculture in the Future, in Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol 1 number 3, pp Continente AMERICANO E.U.A. Cambio climático Agricultura-Economía Agricultores AFRICANO Egipto If no timely measures are taken to adapt Egyptian agriculture to possible climate warming, the effects may be negative and serious. Egypt appears to be particularly vulnerable to climate change because of its dependence on the Nile River as the primary water source, its large traditional agricultural base, and its long coastline, already undergoing both intensifying development and erosion. A simulation study characterized potential yield and water use efficiency decreases on two reference crops in the main agricultural regions with possible future climatic variation, even when the beneficial effects of increased CO2 were taken into account. On-farm adaptation techniques which imply no additional cost to the agricultural system, did not compensate for the yield losses with the warmer climate or improve the crop water-use efficiency. Economic adjustments such as the improvement of the overall water-use efficiency of the agricultural system, soil drainage and conservation, land management, and crop alternatives are essential. If appropriate measures are taken, negative effects of climate change in agricultural production and other major resource sectors (water and land) may be lessened EL-RAEY, M., K. DEWIDAR, M. EL-HATTAB 1999 Adaptation to the Impacts for Sea Level Rise in Egypt, in Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol 4, number 3-4, pp Continente AMERICANO E.U.A. 19

20 Inundación Economía, Infraestructura AFRICANO Egipto Alejandría Assessment of the vulnerability and expected socioeconomic losses over the Nile delta coast due to the impact of sea level rise is carried out in details. Impacts of sea level rise over the Governorates of Alexandria and Port Said in particular, are evaluated quantitatively. Analysis of the results at Alexandria Governorate indicate that, if no action is taken, an area of about 30% of the city will be lost due to inundation. Almost 2 million people will have to abandon their homeland; 195,000 jobs will be lost and an economic loss of over 3.5 Billion is expected over the next century. At Port Said Governorate results indicate that beach areas are most severely affected (hence tourism), followed by urban areas. The agriculture sector is the least affected sector. It is estimated that the economic loss is over3.5 Billion is expected over the next century. At Port Said Governorate results indicate that beach areas are most severely affected (hence tourism), followed by urban areas. The agriculture sector is the least affected sector. It is estimated that the economic loss is over 2.0 Billion for 0.50 m SLR and may exceed $ 4.4 Billion for 1.25 m SLR. Options and costs of adaptation are analyzed and presented. Multi-criteria and decision matrix approaches, based on questionnaire surveys are carried out to identify priorities for the two cases. Analysis of these techniques of two options; the current policy (hard protection measures on some vulnerable areas) and no action (stopping these activities) have the lowest scores. Beach nourishment and integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) have the highest scores, however ICZM has high cost measures. The most costeffective option is the land-use change, however with relatively very high cost measure. It is recommended that an ICZM approach be adopted since it provides a reasonable trade off between costs and cost effectiveness ERIKSEN, S., P. KELLY 2007 Developing Credible Vulnerability Indicators for Climate Adaptation Policy Assessment, in Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Climate Change, Springer, vol 12, no. 4, may, pp Continente AMERICANO E.U.A. Cambio climático Adaptación Líderes políticos 20

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