Dr. Donald A. Wilhite School of Natural Resources University of Nebraska-Lincoln

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1 Dr. Donald A. Wilhite School of Natural Resources University of Nebraska-Lincoln Mexico s National Drought Program Meeting, Mexico City November 2013

2 How do we prepare for and mitigate the impacts of drought? Why have nations made so little progress on drought policy and preparedness?

3 Natural and Social Dimensions of Drought Decreasing emphasis on the natural event (precipitation deficiencies) Increasing emphasis on water/natural resource management & policy Increasing complexity of impacts and conflicts Meteorological Rainfall Deficiencies Heat Stress Agricultural Soils Crops Range Livestock Forests Hydrological Water Supply Snow Depth Irrigation Recreation Tourism Hydropower Socio-economic Societal Impact Drought Risk Reduction Time/Duration of the event

4

5 Resources Available Expert meeting to develop a compendium of best practices on national drought policy Promoting standard approaches to Vulnerability and Impact Assessments Implementing effective Drought Monitoring and Early Warning Systems Enhancing Preparedness and Mitigation Actions Implementing Emergency Response and Relief measures that reinforce National Drought Policy Understanding the Cost of Inaction. Applied Climate Sciences School of Natural Resources

6 HMNDP Declaration Encourage all Governments to develop and implement National Drought Policies.... develop proactive drought mitigation and planning measures risk reduction promote greater collaboration to enhance the quality of observation and delivery systems improve public awareness of risk and drought preparedness. Applied Climate Sciences School of Natural Resources

7 HMNDP Declaration Encourage all Governments to develop and implement National Drought Policies.... consider economic instruments and financial strategies risk sharing establish emergency relief plans based on sound natural resources management principles link drought preparedness plans to local and national development or disaster risk management plans Applied Climate Sciences School of Natural Resources

8 National Drought Policy Preparedness Plans based on the principles of risk reduction

9 How to start the process? Mapping out a strategy! Leadership! Financial Resources Required? Cost?

10 A drought policy should be broadly stated and... Establish a clear set of risk-based principles or guidelines to govern drought management. Consistent and equitable for all regions, population groups, and economic/social sectors. Consistent with the goals of sustainable development. Reflect regional differences in drought characteristics, vulnerability and impacts.

11 A drought policy should (continued) Promote the principles of risk management by encouraging development of Early warning and delivery systems; Reliable seasonal forecasts; Preparedness plans at all levels of government, within river basins, and the private sector; Vulnerability assessments who and what is at risk and why. Mitigation actions that reduce drought impacts and the need for government intervention; Coordinated emergency response that ensures targeted and timely relief, consistent with drought policy goals, during drought emergencies.

12 Key Elements/Pillars of a Drought Preparedness Plan Monitoring/early warning, prediction and information delivery systems Integrated monitoring of key indicators Precipitation, temperature, soil moisture, streamflow, snowpack, groundwater, etc. Use of appropriate indices Reliable seasonal forecasts Development/delivery of information and decision-support tools

13 Key Elements/Pillars of a Drought Preparedness Plan Risk and impact assessment Conduct of risk/vulnerability assessments Monitoring/archiving of impacts/losses Mitigation and response Proactive measures to increase coping capacity Response measures that support the principles of drought risk reduction

14

15 The process for RISK-BASED DROUGHT MANAGEMENT POLICY & PLANNING was from the TOP DOWN in Australia! Federal Regional State/Local/ Tribal has been from the BOTTOM UP in the U.S.!

16 New initiative from GWP and WMO launched at HMNDP, March Consultation meeting held at World Water Week, September 2013, Stockholm.

17

18 Building an effective national drought management policy and supporting preparedness plans is like assembling the pieces of a puzzle. All relevant agencies/ministries, stakeholder groups, sectors, and regions must be included in the policy and planning process. This approach will lead to a successful outcome.

19 Progress toward National Drought Policies

20 Guidelines for the Development of National Drought Management Policies and Preparedness Plans

21 National Drought Policy: A 10-Step Process Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Appoint a national drought policy commission State or define the goals and objectives of a riskbased national drought management policy Seek stakeholder participation and resolve conflicts between key water use sectors Inventory data and financial resources available and identify groups at risk Prepare/write the key tenets of a national drought management policy and preparedness plans (monitoring, early warning and prediction; risk and impact assessment; mitigation and response)

22 National Drought Policy: A 10-Step Process (continued) Step 6 Step 7 Step 8 Step 9 Step 10 Identify research needs and fill institutional gaps Integrate science and policy aspects of drought management Publicize the national drought management policy and preparedness plans, build public awareness Develop education programs for all age and stakeholder groups Evaluate, test and revise drought management policy and supporting preparedness plans

23 Citizens Advisory Committee (optional) Drought Task Force Monitoring Committee Drought Plan Organizational Structure Assessment Reports Situation Reports Risk Assessment Committee Working Groups

24 A series of 4-5 workshops sponsored by WMO, FAO, UNCCD, UN- Water and the Convention on Biological Diversity (Eastern Europe, Latin America, Africa and Asia)

25

26 Takeaway Messages Climate is changing climate state and climate variability. Extreme climate events are increasing in frequency globally and locally, managing impacts critically important we must increase our resilience to drought. Time is NOW to change the paradigm from crisis to drought risk management. Time is NOW for all drought-prone nations to adopt appropriate drought policies to reduce the impacts of future drought episodes through risk-based management.

27 Thanks for your attention! Applied Climate Sciences Contact Information: School of Natural Resources University of Nebraska-Lincoln School of Natural Resources

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