Creating governable EBM and MPA networks: An analytic framework and empirical results from the Philippines

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1 Creating governable EBM and MPA networks: An analytic framework and empirical results from the Philippines Patrick Christie Associate Professor SMA and JSIS Pew Fellow in Marine Conservation University of Washington

2 NCEAS Working Group: EBM feasibility 3 Main Goals Assessing how to modify governance structures to facilitate effective EBM in developing & developed contexts Generating practical ecological & social indicators for EBM Producing analysis & planning materials for EBM scientists, practitioners, and policy makers Four sites: Philippines, Benguela Current LME, Caribbean LME and Hawaii Coastal Management theme issue in 09 Educational manual in 09

3 Talk Outline Brief context review The need to broaden our understanding of the problems and the design policy responses Interview research related to marine conservation in the Philippines Policy implications

4

5 Forces Impacting the Philippine Coastal and Marine Environment biomass of fish stocks in several important fishery bays in the Philippines is less than 10 percent of what it was in

6 The management status of Philippine MPAs (Source: Coastal Conservation and Education Foundation)

7 While there is growing consensus surrounding the need for MPA networks, how can we move forward in a way that is governable, balanced, just, and, therefore, feasible? 7

8 Main Pew Fellowship Activities 1. conduct socio-ecological research with Coastal Conservation Education Foundation on three distinct types of MPA networks under development in the Philippines 2. use research findings to develop South Cebu MPA network in the Central Visayas of the Philippines 3. develop educational materials and multi-country training program for MPA 8 network practitioners

9 socio-ecological research on two emerging MPA networks under in the Central Philippines 9

10 Survey Research to Identify General Principles 500+ Interviews of Fishers, Community Project Participants, Community Leaders, Local Government Officials, Scientists, Practitioners Using correlation, factor and regression analysis to identify general principles derived from many sites Qualitative interview analysis with Atlas.ti to validate and provide detail and richness 10

11 36 MPA Research Sites 11

12 Perceived increase in number of fish by fishers in MPA area is significantly correlated to: CONTEXT Fishing grounds threatened by illegal commercial fishing (.38*) Distance from municipal center (.40*) Clear leader for MPA (.42**) Population size (-.45**) n=36; p<.05 = *; p<.01=** MPA MANAGEMENT Increased compliance (.39*) Improved enforcement (.36*) Strict punishment for rule infraction (.39*) Local community enforcement group strength (.34*) Municipal govt. skill level (.34*) NGO skill level (.36*) Increased intra-community conflict (.38*) Increased seriousness 12 of conflict (.37*)

13 Dependent Variable: Perceived increase in number of fish by fishers in MPA area Significant independent variables Coeff t p 2-tail Clear leadership for MPA Bantay dagat strength Threat from commercial fishing R=0.66 R2= 0.44 Adj R2=0.38 F=8.0 p<0.001 n=33 13

14 Dependent Variable: Perceived increase in number of fish by fishers in MPA area De la Victoria: I ll be six (6) years in this job by October my work is difficult because of the hazards that goes with it. When we do market denial, one box, for example coming from Zamboanga which we are able to confiscate will cost Ps100,00.00 to Ps150, About 100 kilos of dynamited fish. I received many death threats but I never carried a firearm even if I am authorized. For me, it s enough that I am doing my job well and I have a clear conscience. 14

15 Clear leadership for MPA Social network analysis for a successful MPA There are clear MPA leaders that need support and back up!!! 15

16 Creating multiple measures of Institutional Collaboration (dependent variable) 16

17 Dependent Variable: Collaboration of Barangays, Mayors and MPA Mgt Committees Significant independent variables Coeff t p 2-tail NGO technical skill level <.001 Training involvement Consultation with community during planning R=0.74 R2= 0.55 Adj R2=0.50 F=10.55 p<0.001 n=30 17

18 Dependent Variable: Collaboration of Communities, Mayors and MPA Management Committees What is the role of outside organization like the CCE Foundation in the cluster? Its role is to give seminar and disseminate the guidelines of our seaborne patrol if there are any, including the purpose of patrolling. There should always be a seminar. If we need legal opinion, they provide us the lawyers of The Environmental Law Center. If we need trainings for our additional Special Enforcement Team, they provide us technical assistance. 18

19 Dependent Variable: Increased Level of Conflict Surrounding MPA According to Resource Users Significant independent variables Coeff t p 2-tail Perception that enforcement is fair <.001 Community consulted during MPA planning Number of community groups Community decision where MPA located R=0.80 R2= 0.64 Adj R2=0.59 F=12.81 p<0.001 n=34 19

20 Key Policy Conclusions 1. Community and inter-community social dynamics will determine long term success of MPAs, MPA networks, and EBM 2. We are able to identify those conditions and processes that influence MPA success Need to improve communication, leadership development, human capacity of organizations and NGOs Ongoing participation and buy-in necessary 3. Scaling up management is important, BUT has to be attentive to key local social dynamics 4. Need to utilize socio-ecological measures of EBM and MPA network progress 20

21 21

22 Education and Outreach Data-based educational toolbox with: booklet, PPTs, GIS To be used in June 09 workshop Strengthening of Cebu MPAs as a socio-ecological MPA network Extension to coral triangle level 22

23 23

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