Applied Behavior Analysis Reinforcement. Elisabeth (Lisa) Kinney, M.S. September 26, 2007

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Applied Behavior Analysis Reinforcement. Elisabeth (Lisa) Kinney, M.S. September 26, 2007"

Transcription

1 Applied Behavior Analysis Reinforcement Elisabeth (Lisa) Kinney, M.S. September 26, 2007

2 Pairing to Teach New Reinforcers Avoiding satiation Helping child mature Avoiding cavities Creating interest in peer activities Getting ready for school reinforcers The bottom line: money Establishing people & praise as reinforcers

3 Autism and Reinforcers What is autism? What are reinforcers for typically developing children? What are reinforcers for children with autism? How do we marry the two? Intrinsic & extrinsic reinforcement

4 Factors Influencing Reinforcer Effectiveness 1. Immediacy 2. Intensity 3. Contingency 4. Establishing Operations Deprivation Satiation 5. Individual Variation

5 1. Immediacy Errorless learning: the student is not allowed to make a mistake If the student does not perform the behavior correctly or does nothing, (s)he is prompted to correctly perform the target response before a new trial begins (Behaviorspeak, 2003). prompt dependency; failure to generalize Delay of reinforcement: used in everyday conversation to refer to the ability of reinforcers that are not immediately presented following a target behavior to influence a student s behavior (Behaviorspeak, 2003).

6 2. Intensity Magnitude: a measure of the intensity of behavior (Behaviorspeak, 2003) Magnitude of reinforcement Enthusiasm Other Verbal Behavior video

7 3. Consistency in Reinforcing Contingency: an if/then statement that describes the cause and effect relation between a given behavior and the consequence of that behavior. If you engage in behavior x, then you will receive consequence y. Direct reinforcer contingency: the behavior produces direct access to the reinforcer Indirect reinforcement contingency: after the behavior are intervening steps before receiving the reinforcer Thompson & Iwata, 2000

8 4. Establishing Operations Deprivation: to increase the potency of a reinforcer by not delivering it to the individual for a time (Behaviorspeak, 2003). same old same old; examples Satiation: when a reinforcer loses its effectiveness through overuse (Behaviorspeak, 2003). PRIMARY REINFORCERS susceptible GENERALIZED REINFORCERS most immune

9 5. Variation Variety is the spice of life

10 Making Choices I Prefer That! Dignity of the child Research supports it! Opens doors: restaurants, favorite colors, gift list Can be a more reliable way to identify a reinforcer for skill development Can help avoid boredom & satiation Can teach child to vary behavior

11 Making Choices I Prefer That! How to teach choice making (p. 75) 1. Specify the Choice (e.g., ball or tissue ) 2. Behavioral Definition of the Choice: clear enough for 2 people to be consistent (e.g. child points to item) 3. Description of Program: clearly describe how to instruct the child for consistency 4. Instruction or Cue for the Choice (e.g. present ball and tissue of child s reach; which one? ) 5. Consequences for choices made 6. Collect Data for clarity, determining

12 Making Choices I Prefer That! How to Teach Choice making Define, prompt, reinforce, fade, take data Start with a highly preferred and a highly non-preferred Use pictures to bridge a language delay Encourage scanning of both or all choices Give the item chosen, even if you know it will be rejected

13 Making Choices I Prefer That! Advanced Choice making Choice Board (p. 88) Which one?

14 Making Choices I Prefer That! Advanced Choice making Choice Making in a Schedule all done

15 Making Choices I Prefer That! Advanced Choice making Benefits of Using Pictures Words are fleeting Fosters independence

16 Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement Behavior is reinforced each time it occurs. Used when teaching new behavior Intermittent Reinforcement Behavior is reinforced some of the time it occurs. Used to maintain already learned behavior

17 Intermittent Reinforcement Fixed Ratio Schedules Every fixed number of responses Variable Ratio After a variable number of responses, on average Fixed Interval After a fixed interval of time Variable Interval After a variable period of time, on average

18 Name the Reinforcement Schedule Child is praised when she walks to circle time Child receives popcorn when she requests it Child is tickled when an adult sees a desired behavior Child is tickled every time the desired behavior occurs Child receives chocolate chip after putting 5 pennies in a bank

19 Schedules Schedule of reinforcement: a statement of the ratio of responses to reinforcers (Behaviorspeak, 2003). CONTINUOUS INTERMITTENT: FIXED or VARIABLE EXTINCTION & resistance to extinction examples; waiting; delay to reinforcer post reinforcement pause in lean fixed schedules scalloping in fixed interval schedules

20 Name the Reinforcement Schedule Child receives chocolate chip after putting 20 pennies in a bank You call a friend on the phone and she answers Recess at 10 o clock Paycheck Slot machine Speeding ticket

21 Token Systems I ll Buy That! What is a token system? Advantages of token systems How to start a token system Troubleshooting token systems Fading token systems

22 Token Systems I ll Buy That! What is a token system? Money, money, money, money Neutral items (tokens, stickers, slash marks, numerals, marbles) paired with reinforcers over time, that then become reinforcers themselves. Trade in tokens for a back-up reinforcer

23 Token Systems I ll Buy That! Advantages of token systems Who s tired? Whose biceps are larger than they should be? Who s broke? Whose dentist bill is larger than it should be? Who s short on time? Allows for repetition Increases time spent on instruction / decreases time spent with reinforcers Open s doors to inclusion, regular education, community, and family activities

24 Token Systems I ll Buy That! How to start a token system (p. 103) 1. Choose a behavior that your child is good at and a behavior to increase (Fig. 5-4) 2. Identify back-up reinforcers (can be present or pictured) choice making 3. Choose a token that hold s your child s interest, is safe, easy to deliver 4. Pairing and teach how to exchange tokens for back-up reinforcer (Fig. 5-2)

25 Token Systems I ll Buy That! 1. Pairing Establish an Exchange Ratio Delay to Reinforcement - waiting Target goal 1:1 to start Delivering tokens Attention to token Collect, remove, present, post, etc. 2. Teaching how to exchange tokens for back-up reinforcer (Fig. 5-2)

26 Token Systems I ll Buy That! Troubleshooting Token Systems (p.115) Make it easier Vary reinforcers Re-evaluate choice making Make it more fun - worth the effort Take a break Stick to your program

27 Token Systems I ll Buy That! Fading Token Systems (p. 117) First increase Exchange Ratio Eventually money becomes the reallife reinforcer Trial and error: token system can be reserved for behavior that is more challenging for the child

28 Impulsivity & Self-Control Impulsivity: When faced with a choice, impulsivity refers to the tendency to engage in a behavior that produces a more immediate (but smaller) reward as opposed to engaging in a behavior that will produce a more delayed (but larger) reward (Behaviorspeak, 2003). Self-Control: the opposite of IMPULSIVITY. Refers to the tendency to engage in a behavior that produces a more delayed (but larger) reward as opposed to engaging in a behavior that will produce a more immediate (but smaller) reward (Behaviorspeak, 2003). Skinner s lollipop program; waiting; delay to reinforcer Lazy teaching

29 Extinction Withholding reinforcement for a behavior that was reinforced in the past Results: Initial increase in behavior Initial increase in magnitude Initial increase in variability Gradual decrease in frequency and magnitude until very low

30 Differential Reinforcement DR : an intermittent schedule of reinforcement that is also a behavior management technique. DRH DRL DRO DRA DRI

31 Differential Reinforcement Providing reinforcement for desired responses and extinction for undesired responses: Correct vs. Incorrect Independent vs. Prompted Adaptive vs. Maladaptive What is the result?

32 Lag Schedules of Differential Reinforcement Varied Conversation Statements Variability is a reinforceable dimension of behavior. Lag reinforcement schedule has been demonstrated to increase variability in basic research, but rarely used for increasing response variability in applied settings. Lag Schedule: a response is reinforced if it differs from a specified number of previous responses. Lee, R., McComas, J. J., & Jawor, J. (2002). The effects of differential and lag reinforcement schedules on varied verbal responding by individuals with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 35,

33 Lag Schedules of Differential Reinforcement Varied Conversation Statements Purpose of study: to investigate effects of lag schedule of differential reinforcement on varied and appropriate verbal responding to social questions by 3 males with autism. During baseline DRA resulted in little or no varied responding. During the intervention, a Lag 1 requirement was added to the DRA (Lag 1/DRA) resulting in an increase in the percentage of trials with varied and appropriate verbal responding for 2 participants. In addition, an increase in the cumulative number of novel verbal responses was also observed for the same 2 participants. Lee, R., McComas, J. J., & Jawor, J. (2002). The effects of differential and lag reinforcement schedules on varied verbal responding by individuals with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 35,

34 Lag Schedules of Differential Reinforcement Varied Activity Selection Evaluated effects of a lag differential reinforcement contingency on 2 students' activity selections using reversal designs. Results showed that the lag contingency was responsible for promoting increased novel selections, engagement in diverse activities, and greater progress with respect to programmed academic activities. Anthony P. Cammilleri & Gregory P. Hanley (2005). Use of a lag differential reinforcement contingency to increase varied selections of classroom activities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38,

35 Shaping Acquisition of New Responses Procedure to generate new responses No two responses are identical in form Pick desired end response Identify the first response to reinforce Provide differential reinforcement for successive approximations to the target response

36 Guidelines for Application Be Enthusiastic With Praise Avoid Satiation Use CRF for Acquisition Fade to Intermittent Schedules Fade to Naturally Occurring Reinforcers Be Creative Be Alert for Opportunities

37 Guidelines for Application (p.11-13) Immediately Vary reinforcers Link Tangible Reinforcers with Intangible Reinforcers (pairing) Sticker with Praise Make the Effort Match the Outcome Make a List and Update it regularly

38 Problem-Solving Reinforcement Is it too loud? Is it not enough? (magnitude) Do I need to pair it with a primary reinforcer again? (secondary reinforcers) Is it too predictable? (schedule) Is the child bored? (satiation) Is the frequency of reinforcement not enough? (lean schedule) Am I consistently reinforcing? (immediacy) Should I reinforce one aspect more than another? (differential reinforcement) What s the reinforcer for the spitting, biting, messiness (extinction)

39 Test Behavioral Training Name: Reinforcement Assessment & Schedules Date: 1. Reinforcing immediately is especially important with students who: a. learn slowly b. are just learning a new task c. a and b d. none of the above 2. Which of the following is reinforcing to all students? a. Chocolate candy b. Praise c. Hugs d. none of the above 3. To determine what might work as a reinforcer for a student you can: a. observe to see what (s)he spends most time doing b. ask the student or other people who know the student well c. test the student by providing a choice of items or activities d. all of the above 4. The reinforcement schedule most commonly used when teaching a new skill is: a. positive reinforcement b. continuous reinforcement c. fixed-interval reinforcement d. intermittent reinforcement 5. List two examples of unconditioned reinforcers: 6. List two examples of conditioned reinforcers: 7. Reinforcement is most effective when it is: a. delayed b. immediate c. withheld d. food

40 Thank you! Elisabeth (Lisa) Kinney, M.S. Behavior Analyst Woodfords Preschool 6 Opportunity Lane Waterville, ME (207)

41 Problem Behavior Function of Behavior: Generally speaking, the variable maintaining a given behavior (e.g., what might be reinforcing the behavior?) (Behaviorspeak, 2003). ACTIVITY REINFORCERS, ATTENTION- SEEKING, AVOIDANCE, COMMUNICATION, EDIBLE REINFORCERS, ESCAPE, TANGIBLES, SENSORY REINFORCERS Time out from reinforcement Extinction and resistance to extinction

42 Prompt Dependency & Reinforcement Prompt dependency: brought about by poor teaching, this refers to a condition wherein individuals do not respond to a stimulus unless they receive prompts beyond what typically developing individuals require in order to respond (Behaviorspeak, 2003). Generalization study (Koegel & Koegel, 199?) Prompt fading How does prompt dependency relate to reinforcement? Physical prompts

Dimensions of ABA. Applied Behavior Analysis for Educational Settings. Underlying Assumptions of ABA

Dimensions of ABA. Applied Behavior Analysis for Educational Settings. Underlying Assumptions of ABA Applied Behavior Analysis for Educational Settings Christopher Ewing Behavior Intervention Consultant Arkansas Department of Education Underlying Assumptions of ABA Determinism The universe is a lawful

More information

Applied Behavior Analysis Reinforcement. Elisabeth (Lisa) Kinney, M.S. September 19, 2007

Applied Behavior Analysis Reinforcement. Elisabeth (Lisa) Kinney, M.S. September 19, 2007 Applied Behavior Analysis Reinforcement Elisabeth (Lisa) Kinney, M.S. September 19, 2007 Skinner Box & Reinforcement In operant conditioning, behavior is also affected by its consequences, but the process

More information

What is ABA? What is ABA? Why use ABA? Getting Started. ABA Tools and Techniques. Basic ABA. Milestones Autism Organization

What is ABA? What is ABA? Why use ABA? Getting Started. ABA Tools and Techniques. Basic ABA. Milestones Autism Organization What is ABA? Basic ABA Kiersten Johnson Milestones Autism Organization Milestones.org 216-371-4765 Applied Behavior Analysis B.F. Skinner www.lovaas.com Based on learning and behaviors principals Reinforcement

More information

ABA & Teaching Methods

ABA & Teaching Methods ABA & Teaching Methods C H A P T E R 7 E A S T E R S E A L S S O U T H E A S T W I S C O N S I N S T A R T E A R L Y, S T A R T S T R O N G P R O G R A M ABA ABA = Applied Behavior Analysis Science devoted

More information

7/17/2014. Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Therapy Overview. Applied Behavior Analysis Therapy. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov

7/17/2014. Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Therapy Overview. Applied Behavior Analysis Therapy. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov Applied Behavior Analysis Therapy Continuum Autism Spectrum Alliance Presented: Tram Chum Newcomb B.A. ABA Program Coordinator and Junior Consultant www.autismspectrumalliance.com Applied Behavior Analysis

More information

Behaviorism & Education

Behaviorism & Education Behaviorism & Education Early Psychology (the use of nonobjective methods such as Introspection) Learning = behavior change movement toward objective methods Behaviorism Pavlov, Skinner (Focus on Sà R)

More information

Overview of Ch. 6: Behavioral Views of Learning

Overview of Ch. 6: Behavioral Views of Learning Overview of Ch. 6: Behavioral Views of Learning Understanding Learning The ABC s of Behavior Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Classroom Behavioral Interventions Problems & Issues Applied Behavior

More information

MANAGING BEHAVIOR IN THE CLASSROOM

MANAGING BEHAVIOR IN THE CLASSROOM MANAGING BEHAVIOR IN THE CLASSROOM Sonja Samek, Ed.S, BCBA District Behavior Analyst Collier County Public Schools OUR ROLE I have come to a frightening conclusion that I am the decisive element in the

More information

The ABC s of ABA. Claire Benson Kimberly Snyder Sarah Kroll Judy Aldridge

The ABC s of ABA. Claire Benson Kimberly Snyder Sarah Kroll Judy Aldridge The ABC s of ABA Claire Benson Kimberly Snyder Sarah Kroll Judy Aldridge ABA Overview Applied Behavior Analysis is NOT one set of procedures that can be applied to everyone. Applied Behavior Analysis is

More information

Steps for Implementation: Token Economy Programs

Steps for Implementation: Token Economy Programs Steps for Implementation: Token Economy Programs Neitzel, J. (2009). Steps for implementation: Token economy programs. Chapel Hill, NC: The National Professional Development Center on, Frank Porter Graham

More information

Heather Maurin, MA, EdS, PPS, LEP, BICM School Psychologist-Stockton Unified School District THE ABC S OF APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS

Heather Maurin, MA, EdS, PPS, LEP, BICM School Psychologist-Stockton Unified School District THE ABC S OF APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS Heather Maurin, MA, EdS, PPS, LEP, BICM School Psychologist-Stockton Unified School District THE ABC S OF APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS WHAT IS BEHAVIOR Every behavior has a purpose. There is no behavior that

More information

Differential Reinforcement. Things to Do. Select behaviors to be decreased or increased. Set criterion. Monitor the student s performance.

Differential Reinforcement. Things to Do. Select behaviors to be decreased or increased. Set criterion. Monitor the student s performance. Definition D ifferential reinforcement is the reinforcement of one form of behavior and not another, or the reinforcement of a response under one condition but not another. Differential reinforcement uses

More information

Steps for Implementation: Positive Reinforcement

Steps for Implementation: Positive Reinforcement Steps for Implementation: Positive Reinforcement Neitzel, J. (2009). Steps for implementation: Positive reinforcement. Chapel Hill, NC: The National Professional Development Center on, Frank Porter Graham

More information

1 2013 the Behavior Analyst Certification Board, Inc. All rights reserved.

1 2013 the Behavior Analyst Certification Board, Inc. All rights reserved. Coverage of the Behavior Analyst Certification Board Fourth Edition List by Cooper, Heron, and Heward s Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition The BACB Fourth Edition List is organized in three major

More information

SOUTHEAST MISSOURI STATE UNIVERSITY COURSE SYLLABUS. Department of: Human Environmental Studies Course No. CF 531

SOUTHEAST MISSOURI STATE UNIVERSITY COURSE SYLLABUS. Department of: Human Environmental Studies Course No. CF 531 SOUTHEAST MISSOURI STATE UNIVERSITY COURSE SYLLABUS Department of: Human Environmental Studies Course No. CF 531 Title of Course: Basic Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis New: Fall 2008 I. Catalog

More information

A Brief Explanation of Applied Behavior Analysis. conditioning to identify the contingencies affecting a student s behavior and the functions of the

A Brief Explanation of Applied Behavior Analysis. conditioning to identify the contingencies affecting a student s behavior and the functions of the A Brief Explanation of Applied Behavior Analysis Applied Behavior Analysis is the procedure for using the principles of operant conditioning to identify the contingencies affecting a student s behavior

More information

Addressing Challenging Behavior. Social Media. Challenging Behavior. Cigna Autism Awareness: Challenging Behavior. April 10, 2014

Addressing Challenging Behavior. Social Media. Challenging Behavior. Cigna Autism Awareness: Challenging Behavior. April 10, 2014 Addressing Challenging Melissa L. Olive, Ph.D., BCBA Applied al Strategies LLC 1 Social Media Follow our blog: www.appliedbehavioralstrategies.wordpress.com We keep a list of apps on our blog: http://appliedbehavioralstrategies.wordpress.com/2012/0

More information

Applied Behavior Analysis Speech Practices for Autism Spectrum Disorders

Applied Behavior Analysis Speech Practices for Autism Spectrum Disorders Applied Behavior Analysis Speech Practices for Autism Spectrum Disorders November 16, 2007 Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center Renee Downing-Van Ness M.A., CCC- SLP Stacey Liebross M.S., CCC-SLP

More information

Professional Development: Applied Behavior Analysis Video Series

Professional Development: Applied Behavior Analysis Video Series Autism Overview: Course 1 Autistic Spectrum Disorders, including Asperger s Disorder and Pervasive Developmental Disorder, are neurological disorders that can have a significant impact on all areas of

More information

Learning from Experience. Definition of Learning. Psychological definition. Pavlov: Classical Conditioning

Learning from Experience. Definition of Learning. Psychological definition. Pavlov: Classical Conditioning Learning from Experience Overview Understanding Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Observational Learning Definition of Learning Permanent change Change in behavior or knowledge Learning

More information

Introduction to Applied Behavior Analysis

Introduction to Applied Behavior Analysis Introduction to Applied Behavior Analysis Glenwood, Inc. Teacher Training 2013 We may have gotten into the teaching profession to teach science, music, or foreign language, but pretty soon we discover

More information

Applied Behavior Analysis: What is it and what should the SLP know?

Applied Behavior Analysis: What is it and what should the SLP know? Applied Behavior Analysis: What is it and what should the SLP know? Amy Fetter, MA CCC-SLP, BCBA Candidate Karen Duerk, MA CCC-SLP, Program Specialist What is Applied Behavior Analysis? Applied Behavior

More information

What Constitutes a Behavioral Approach to Autism Treatment?

What Constitutes a Behavioral Approach to Autism Treatment? What Are the Key Program Elements of an ABA Autism Treatment Program Vincent J. Carbone, Ed.D., BCBA-D NYS Licensed Behavior Analyst Carbone Clinic New York Boston Dubai www.thecarboneclinic.ae www.carboneclinic.com

More information

Going to School and Being Effective

Going to School and Being Effective Going to School and Being Effective Doreen Granpeesheh, Ph.D., B.C.B.A. Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc. Today s Presentation What is Applied Behavior Analysis? How does it apply to Autism?

More information

Promoting Generalization of Positive Behavior Change: Practical Tips for Parents and Professionals

Promoting Generalization of Positive Behavior Change: Practical Tips for Parents and Professionals Promoting Generalization of Positive Behavior Change: Practical Tips for Parents and Professionals Jonathan Tarbox, PhD CARD Distinguished Lecturer Series Center for Autism & Related Disorders, Inc. CARD

More information

Classical vs. Operant Conditioning

Classical vs. Operant Conditioning Classical vs. Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning (R S RF ) A voluntary response (R) is followed by a reinforcing stimulus (S RF ) The voluntary response is more likely to be emitted by the organism.

More information

ADEPT Glossary of Key Terms

ADEPT Glossary of Key Terms ADEPT Glossary of Key Terms A-B-C (Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence) The three-part equation for success in teaching. Antecedents (A) Anything that occurs before a behavior or a skill. When teaching a skill,

More information

TREATMENTS FOR AUTISM

TREATMENTS FOR AUTISM 1 TREATMENTS FOR AUTISM Guideline for Evidence Levels: Established. Sufficient evidence is available to confidently determine that a treatment produces beneficial treatment effects for individuals on the

More information

Strategies to Promote Maintenance and Generalization of Skills for Children with Autism

Strategies to Promote Maintenance and Generalization of Skills for Children with Autism Strategies to Promote Maintenance and Generalization of Skills for Children with Autism Sarah E. Pinkelman, M.S., BCBA University of Oregon OBJECTIVES Understand the importance of programming for maintenance

More information

Operant Conditioning. Classical vs. Operant Conditioning. Classical vs. Operant Conditioning. Human Development and Learning

Operant Conditioning. Classical vs. Operant Conditioning. Classical vs. Operant Conditioning. Human Development and Learning Operant Conditioning EDS 248 Stephen E. Brock, Ph.D.,NCSP Classical vs. Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning (R S RF ) A voluntary response (R) is followed by a reinforcing stimulus (S RF ) As a result,

More information

Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors: Steps for Implementation

Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors: Steps for Implementation Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors: Steps for Implementation Vismara, L., Bogin, J., & Sullivan, L. (2009). Differential reinforcement of other behaviors: Steps for implementation. Sacramento,

More information

Classical Conditioning. Classical and Operant Conditioning. Basic effect. Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning. Classical and Operant Conditioning. Basic effect. Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning Classical and Operant Conditioning January 16, 2001 Reminder of Basic Effect What makes for effective conditioning? How does classical conditioning work? Classical Conditioning Reflex-basic

More information

Chapter 7 - Operant Conditioning. Lecture Outline

Chapter 7 - Operant Conditioning. Lecture Outline Chapter 7 - Operant Conditioning Schedules and Theories of Reinf orcement Lecture Outline Schedules of reinforcement Continuous vs. intermittent schedules Four basic intermittent schedules Other simple

More information

Contact Information. Rebecca.cain@state.sd.us Phone 773-3678

Contact Information. Rebecca.cain@state.sd.us Phone 773-3678 Contact Information Rebecca.cain@state.sd.us Phone 773-3678 Learning Behavior/Changing Behavior Students learn any behavior in the same way they learn to read through instruction/modeling, practice, feedback,

More information

Behavioral Principles. S-R Learning. Pavlov & Classical Conditioning 12/2/2009

Behavioral Principles. S-R Learning. Pavlov & Classical Conditioning 12/2/2009 Behavioral Principles S-R Learning Classical conditioning The most basic form of learning; one stimulus comes to serve as a signal for the occurrence of a second stimulus (the response) Stimulus a physical

More information

Faulty Explanations for Behavior

Faulty Explanations for Behavior Functional Assessment of Behavior EDS 240 Stephen E. Brock, Ph.D., NCSP California State University, Sacramento Faulty Explanations for Behavior 1. Behavior occurs because of the student is bad 2. Behavior

More information

A. Learning Process through which experience causes permanent change in knowledge or behavior.

A. Learning Process through which experience causes permanent change in knowledge or behavior. Woolfolk, A. (2010). Chapter 6: Behavioral Views of Learning. In A. Woolfook (Ed.), Educational psychology (11th ed.). Columbus, OH: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon. This chapter begins by defining learning and

More information

Modifying Curriculum and Instruction

Modifying Curriculum and Instruction Modifying Curriculum and Instruction Purpose of Modification: The purpose of modification is to enable an individual to compensate for intellectual, behavioral, or physical disabi1ities. Modifications

More information

Using Principles and Strategies from Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) to Teach Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Using Principles and Strategies from Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) to Teach Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Principles and Strategies from Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) to Teach Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Amy Matthews, Ph.D., BCBA Jamie Owen-DeSchryver, Ph.D. Grand Valley State University

More information

ALTERING THE TIMING OF ACADEMIC PROMPTS TO TREAT DESTRUCTIVE BEHAVIOR MAINTAINED BY ESCAPE MERCEDES E. EBANKS WAYNE W. FISHER

ALTERING THE TIMING OF ACADEMIC PROMPTS TO TREAT DESTRUCTIVE BEHAVIOR MAINTAINED BY ESCAPE MERCEDES E. EBANKS WAYNE W. FISHER JOURNAL OF APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS 2003, 36, 355 359 NUMBER 3(FALL 2003) ALTERING THE TIMING OF ACADEMIC PROMPTS TO TREAT DESTRUCTIVE BEHAVIOR MAINTAINED BY ESCAPE MERCEDES E. EBANKS MARCUS INSTITUTE

More information

COMPREHENSIVE EXAMS GUIDELINES MASTER S IN APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS

COMPREHENSIVE EXAMS GUIDELINES MASTER S IN APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS COMPREHENSIVE EXAMS GUIDELINES MASTER S IN APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS The following guidelines are for Applied Behavior Analysis Master s students who choose the comprehensive exams option. Students who

More information

Classical vs. Operant Conditioning

Classical vs. Operant Conditioning Classical vs. Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning (R S RF ) A voluntary response (R) is followed by a reinforcing stimulus (S RF ) The voluntary response is more likely to be emitted by the organism.

More information

Function of Problem Behavior. Elisabeth Kinney October 24, 2007

Function of Problem Behavior. Elisabeth Kinney October 24, 2007 Function of Problem Behavior Elisabeth Kinney October 24, 2007 Functional Behavior Assessment Research based solution: Well-established procedures to systematically identify factors contributing to a child

More information

Implementation Checklist for PRT

Implementation Checklist for PRT Implementation Checklist for PRT Vismara, L. A. (2009). Implementation checklist for PRT. Sacramento, CA: The National Professional Development Center on, M.I.N.D Institute, University of California at

More information

PSY 5248: Applied Behavior Analysis 2 Thursdays 2:00PM 4:45PM, PSY 3

PSY 5248: Applied Behavior Analysis 2 Thursdays 2:00PM 4:45PM, PSY 3 Sp05 ABA2 1 PSY 5248: Applied Behavior Analysis 2 Thursdays 2:00PM 4:45PM, PSY 3 Matthew Normand, Ph.D., BCBA Office: 122 SOP Phone: (321) 674-7108 E-mail: mnormand@fit.edu (this is the best way to reach

More information

Applied Behavior Analysis What it is and what it isn t

Applied Behavior Analysis What it is and what it isn t Applied Behavior Analysis What it is and what it isn t August 22, 2008 Carole Marion, M.A. C.Psych Candidate ABA Consultant, St. Amant ST AMANT ABA PROGRAM ST AMANT ABA PROGRAM WHERE DID IT COME FROM?

More information

Autism Spectrum Disorder Challenging Behavior Functional Behavior Assessment Alicia Stephens June 13, 2013

Autism Spectrum Disorder Challenging Behavior Functional Behavior Assessment Alicia Stephens June 13, 2013 Autism Spectrum Disorder Challenging Behavior Functional Behavior Assessment Alicia Stephens June 13, 2013 + Superheroes social skills training, Rethink Autism internet interventions, parent training,

More information

Understanding Positive Reinforcement and Replacement Behaviors Within the Classroom

Understanding Positive Reinforcement and Replacement Behaviors Within the Classroom Understanding Positive Reinforcement and Replacement Behaviors Within the Classroom Reesha M. Adamson, PhD Kylie Kilpatrick, BA Paige Smith, MS Paris DePaepe, PhD Missouri State University (September 2015)

More information

Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS): Steps for Implementation

Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS): Steps for Implementation : Steps for Implementation Collet-Klingenberg, L. (2008). PECS: Steps for implementation. Madison, WI: The National Professional Development Center on, The Waisman Center, The University of Wisconsin.

More information

Section One: Classical Conditioning

Section One: Classical Conditioning Operational Definitions Learning Learning Page 1 of 8 o A relatively change in behavior (or behavior potential) due to Behaviorism experience o Research on learning has been influenced by this approach

More information

Operant Conditioning

Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning! Definition! Classical vs. Operant Conditioning! Four Basic Operant Procedures! Factors that make Operant procedures more effective! Primary and Secondary Reinforcers! Shaping Conditioning!

More information

treatment for ASDs Defining characteristics In-depth review of a few important principles Highlight ABA as essential to Vista s mission and success

treatment for ASDs Defining characteristics In-depth review of a few important principles Highlight ABA as essential to Vista s mission and success Introduction to Applied Behavior Analysis: A Presentation for Vista Parents The Vista School Today s Goals Discuss ABA in relation to effective treatment for ASDs Definition Defining characteristics In-depth

More information

Why behavior happens and why it doesn t. An Introduction to: Applied Behavior Analysis. Joshua Plavnick, PhD, BCBA-D; plavnick@msu.

Why behavior happens and why it doesn t. An Introduction to: Applied Behavior Analysis. Joshua Plavnick, PhD, BCBA-D; plavnick@msu. Why behavior happens and why it doesn t An Introduction to: Applied Behavior Analysis Joshua Plavnick, PhD, BCBA-D; plavnick@msu.edu 2/11/15 Agenda Overview of applied behavior analysis Focus on critical

More information

Role Plays for Teacher Classroom Management

Role Plays for Teacher Classroom Management Role Plays for Teacher Classroom Management Collaboration, Workshop 1 After Vignette #4 Making connection with quiet child Practice making a connection with a child who is quiet, shy, or sad. Think about

More information

Department of Special Education SDSU COURSE SYLLABUS. SPED 676: Applied Behavior Analysis Spring 2014

Department of Special Education SDSU COURSE SYLLABUS. SPED 676: Applied Behavior Analysis Spring 2014 Department of Special Education SDSU COURSE SYLLABUS SPED 676: Applied Behavior Analysis Spring 2014 Instructor: G. Roy Mayer, BCBA-D, Professor Emeritus and adjunct faculty at SDSU -- grmayer@aol.com

More information

Brandi Simonsen, Ph.D. Sarah Fairbanks, M.S. The Center for Behavioral Education and Research University of Connecticut

Brandi Simonsen, Ph.D. Sarah Fairbanks, M.S. The Center for Behavioral Education and Research University of Connecticut What Every Teacher Should Know: Evidence Based Practices in Classroom Management Brandi Simonsen, Ph.D. Sarah Fairbanks, M.S. The Center for Behavioral Education and Research University of Connecticut

More information

Okami Study Guide: Chapter 7

Okami Study Guide: Chapter 7 1 Chapter Test 1. Knowing how to do something, like drive a car or play a sport, is referred to as a. explicit knowledge b. behavioral knowledge c. procedural knowledge d. implicit knowledge 2. All of

More information

Applied Behavior Analysis: Teaching Procedures and Staff Training for Children with Autism

Applied Behavior Analysis: Teaching Procedures and Staff Training for Children with Autism 10 Applied Behavior Analysis: Teaching Procedures and Staff Training for Children with Autism Carolyn S. Ryan Institute for Children with Autism and Related Disorders and Queens College of the City University

More information

Executive Functions: Developing an Independent Learner NOVEMBER 12, 2014 KATHLEEN BRUNSWICK, MA JEFFREY A. DETESO, PH.D.

Executive Functions: Developing an Independent Learner NOVEMBER 12, 2014 KATHLEEN BRUNSWICK, MA JEFFREY A. DETESO, PH.D. Executive Functions: Developing an Independent Learner NOVEMBER 12, 2014 KATHLEEN BRUNSWICK, MA JEFFREY A. DETESO, PH.D. What do Independent Learners Look Like? Independent Learner Characteristics 1) Curious

More information

Psychology 3720. Learning. Dr. r. D

Psychology 3720. Learning. Dr. r. D Psychology 3720 Learning Dr. r. D Lecture 13 Acquisition Spontaneous recovery, resurgence Reinforcement/punishment, positive/negative Immediate vs delayed reinforcement Primary vs secondary reinforcement

More information

The Use of TAG for Children with Autism. Kerry Madden and Robert Hanson Behavior Analysts Applied Behavior Consultants Inc.

The Use of TAG for Children with Autism. Kerry Madden and Robert Hanson Behavior Analysts Applied Behavior Consultants Inc. The Use of TAG for Children with Autism Kerry Madden and Robert Hanson Behavior Analysts Applied Behavior Consultants Inc. June 2006 ABC School ABC School uses reinforcement strategies to teach children

More information

Chapter 5 OC (operant conditioning) quiz practice Name Period Date

Chapter 5 OC (operant conditioning) quiz practice Name Period Date Chapter 5 OC (operant conditioning) quiz practice Name Period Date MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Thorndike was known for his

More information

BRIEF INTERVENTIONS : BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION

BRIEF INTERVENTIONS : BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION BRIEF INTERVENTIONS : BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION BI-PED PROJECT (BRIEF INTERVENTIONS: PEDIATRICS) Emotional Health Committee Maryland Chapter American Academy of Pediatrics RATIONALE Alice Heisler M.D. Behavior

More information

Overview of Treatment Approaches for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Overview of Treatment Approaches for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Overview of Treatment Approaches for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders There are numerous instructional approaches, treatment protocols, and specialized programs specifically designed for children

More information

Module 4: Teaching Techniques in ABA

Module 4: Teaching Techniques in ABA Initial Training Modules Print a copy to keep track of your progress through the course. The electronic copy will be updated for you on the Egnyte server. Week 1 due date: Week 2 due date: Week 3 due date:

More information

Presentation Summary. More Learning Opportunities. Manding and More for Young Children: Kick Starting Communication

Presentation Summary. More Learning Opportunities. Manding and More for Young Children: Kick Starting Communication Presentation Summary Why is requesting (manding) important Manding and More for Young Children: Kick Starting Communication Applied Behavior Analysis and Verbal Behavior Jamie Owen-DeSchryver, Ph.D. &

More information

Applied Behavior Analysis and Public Education

Applied Behavior Analysis and Public Education Interactive Convention 2014 Learning Labs Applied Behavior Analysis and Public Education Lauren Lanier, Abigail Fannin & Jennifer Schkade CollaborativeAutism Resources & Education (CARE) Collaborative

More information

Definition Learning is a relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience.

Definition Learning is a relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience. EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (7th Edition) David Myers Chapter 7 How Do We Learn? Classical Conditioning Pavlov s Experiments Operant Conditioning Skinner s Experiments Contrasting Classical & Operant Conditioning

More information

Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Tablet Application to Increase Eye Contact in Children Diagnosed with Autism

Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Tablet Application to Increase Eye Contact in Children Diagnosed with Autism University of South Florida Scholar Commons Graduate Theses and Dissertations Graduate School January 2013 Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Tablet Application to Increase Eye Contact in Children Diagnosed

More information

IMPORTANT BEHAVIOURISTIC THEORIES

IMPORTANT BEHAVIOURISTIC THEORIES IMPORTANT BEHAVIOURISTIC THEORIES BEHAVIOURISTIC THEORIES PAVLOV THORNDIKE SKINNER PAVLOV S CLASSICAL CONDITIONING I. Introduction: Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) was a Russian Physiologist who won Nobel Prize

More information

Instructional Applications of Applied Behavior Analysis for Individuals with Autism and PDD. Jo Webber, PhD Texas State University Jw10@txstate.

Instructional Applications of Applied Behavior Analysis for Individuals with Autism and PDD. Jo Webber, PhD Texas State University Jw10@txstate. Instructional Applications of Applied Behavior Analysis for Individuals with Autism and PDD Jo Webber, PhD Texas State University Jw10@txstate.edu Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA): Definition The process

More information

OFFICE OF MENTAL HEALTH AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE SERVICES BULLETIN

OFFICE OF MENTAL HEALTH AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE SERVICES BULLETIN OFFICE OF MENTAL HEALTH AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE SERVICES BULLETIN ISSUE DATE: EFFECTIVE DATE: NUMBER: January 9, 2009 January 1, 2009 OMHSAS-09-01 SUBJECT: Guidance for Conducting Functional Behavioral Assessments

More information

Dental Guide FAMILY SERVICES. autism Speaks COMMUNIT Y CONNECTIONS

Dental Guide FAMILY SERVICES. autism Speaks COMMUNIT Y CONNECTIONS FAMILY SERVICES autism Speaks COMMUNIT Y CONNECTIONS Dental Guide 2010 Autism Speaks Inc. Autism Speaks and Autism Speaks It s Time To Listen & Design are trademarks owned by Autism Speaks Inc. All rights

More information

Behavior & Classroom Management Good behavior enables learning to take place, while problem behavior disrupts the teaching-learning process.

Behavior & Classroom Management Good behavior enables learning to take place, while problem behavior disrupts the teaching-learning process. Behavior & Classroom Management Good behavior enables learning to take place, while problem behavior disrupts the teaching-learning process. 1 Richard A Evans, Ph.D. SPED Undergraduate Advisor CoE - Dept

More information

Tips for Teaching Young Children with Autism

Tips for Teaching Young Children with Autism Tips for Teaching Young Children with Autism Developed by Laura Maddox & Annette Wragge, 2005 The following suggestions were compiled as a resource for teachers, therapists, or family members working with

More information

Growing Up With Epilepsy

Growing Up With Epilepsy Teaching Students with Epilepsy: Children with epilepsy often experience learning issues as a result of their seizures. These may include ongoing problems with motor skills or cognitive functions, as well

More information

ALTERING THE NEAR-MISS EFFECT IN SLOT MACHINE GAMBLERS MARK R. DIXON, BECKY L. NASTALLY, JAMES E. JACKSON, AND REZA HABIB

ALTERING THE NEAR-MISS EFFECT IN SLOT MACHINE GAMBLERS MARK R. DIXON, BECKY L. NASTALLY, JAMES E. JACKSON, AND REZA HABIB JOURNAL OF APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS 2009, 42, 913 918 NUMBER 4(WINTER 2009) ALTERING THE NEAR-MISS EFFECT IN SLOT MACHINE GAMBLERS MARK R. DIXON, BECKY L. NASTALLY, JAMES E. JACKSON, AND REZA HABIB SOUTHERN

More information

Chapter 7. Behavioral Learning Theory: Operant Conditioning

Chapter 7. Behavioral Learning Theory: Operant Conditioning Chapter 7 Behavioral Learning Theory: Operant Conditioning Overview Operant Conditioning Educational Applications of Operant Conditioning Principles Using Computer-Based Instruction in Your Classroom Copyright

More information

Chapter 2 Applied Behavior Analysis and Its Application to Autism and Autism Related Disorders

Chapter 2 Applied Behavior Analysis and Its Application to Autism and Autism Related Disorders Chapter 2 Applied Behavior Analysis and Its Application to Autism and Autism Related Disorders Joel E. Ringdahl, Todd Kopelman, and Terry S. Falcomata This chapter will be basic foundations. The theory

More information

Creating Stimulus Control. In a Classroom for Children with Autism. Emily Levy. California State University, Fresno

Creating Stimulus Control. In a Classroom for Children with Autism. Emily Levy. California State University, Fresno Running head: CREATING STIMULUS CONTROL 1 Creating Stimulus Control In a Classroom for Children with Autism Emily Levy California State University, Fresno Emily This is wonderful, best in the class, doesn

More information

Practical Principles Using Applied Behavior Analysis

Practical Principles Using Applied Behavior Analysis Practical Principles Using Applied Behavior Analysis Annie Baghdayan, PhD, BCBA-D, LBA annie-baghdayan@ouhsc.edu May 28 th, 2014 The Oklahoma Autism Network The Oklahoma Autism Network Established in October

More information

A proactive intervention for the classroom -Kareen Smith

A proactive intervention for the classroom -Kareen Smith POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT FOR CHALLENGING BEHAVIOR The mission of KIT is to provide learning opportunities that support recreation, child development and youth enrichment programs to include children with

More information

Final Exam Review for EDP304 Prague

Final Exam Review for EDP304 Prague Final Exam Review for EDP304 Prague Types of Instruction 1. The term used to describe lessons in which the teacher provides information directly to students, structuring class time to reach a clearly defined

More information

STEPS TO TAKE WHEN FACING A CHALLENGING BEHAVIOUR

STEPS TO TAKE WHEN FACING A CHALLENGING BEHAVIOUR STEPS TO TAKE WHEN FACING A CHALLENGING BEHAVIOUR 1) Definition 2) Measurement 3) Preference assessment 4) Functional assessment 5) Appropriate intervention 6) Monitoring 7) Change/Maintainance 8) Fading

More information

Addressing Student Behavior: A Positive Approach. Conducting Functional Behavioral Assessments and Developing Positive Behavior Intervention Plans

Addressing Student Behavior: A Positive Approach. Conducting Functional Behavioral Assessments and Developing Positive Behavior Intervention Plans Addressing Student Behavior: A Positive Approach Conducting Functional Behavioral Assessments and Developing Positive Behavior Intervention Plans The purpose of the following information is to provide

More information

Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) from Pre-K through Transition

Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) from Pre-K through Transition Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) from Pre-K through Transition Robert E. Daniels, Ph.D. Licensed Clinical Psychologist Executive Director RDaniels@chicagochildrensclinic.com www.chicagochildrensclinic.com

More information

Section 4 - Self-Directed Behavior Now that we have taken a look back at the roots of behaviorism and how it all started, let s take a look at how we

Section 4 - Self-Directed Behavior Now that we have taken a look back at the roots of behaviorism and how it all started, let s take a look at how we Section 4 - Self-Directed Behavior Now that we have taken a look back at the roots of behaviorism and how it all started, let s take a look at how we can use behavior modification to develop desirable

More information

Best Practice Guidelines for Behavioral Interventions

Best Practice Guidelines for Behavioral Interventions Best Practice Guidelines for Behavioral Interventions Developed by PATRICIA BACH, PHD STANLEY G. MCCRACKEN, PHD, LCSW Developed for Behavioral Health Recovery Management Project An Initiative of Fayette

More information

Behavior Impedes Learning

Behavior Impedes Learning Behavior Impedes Learning ARSD 24:05:27:01.02. (1) In the case of a student whose behavior impedes his or her learning or that of others, consider the use of positive behavioral interventions and supports

More information

Psychological Theory and theory-based intervention. Marie Johnston University of Aberdeen

Psychological Theory and theory-based intervention. Marie Johnston University of Aberdeen Psychological Theory and theory-based intervention Marie Johnston University of Aberdeen Behavioural Approaches to knowledge Transfer Symposium Ottawa: 16th October 2007 Using Theory in Intervention Theory

More information

Pivotal Response Training: Parent Professional Collaboration

Pivotal Response Training: Parent Professional Collaboration Minutes: North Tidewater Community of Practice in Autism (NT CoPA) Topic: Pivotal Response Training Date: October 13, 2009 Location: Healthy Families Partnership Building, Hampton Participants: 6 Pivotal

More information

Test Review Chapter 7

Test Review Chapter 7 Name: Test Review Chapter 7 Period: 1. An unconditioned stimulus: A) becomes a response to the conditioned stimulus. B) causes the conditioning to happen. C) is a previously neutral response that becomes

More information

Shaping New Behaviors. Wendy Zeballos, Ed.D., BCBA-D

Shaping New Behaviors. Wendy Zeballos, Ed.D., BCBA-D Shaping New Behaviors Wendy Zeballos, Ed.D., BCBA-D Common Problems Parents Face My child does not have the skills to perform a specific task. My child has the skill, but he does not perform the task.

More information

Overview of the Basic Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis

Overview of the Basic Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis Overview of the Basic Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis Key Principles of ABA (Kerr & Nelson, 2010) In managing classroom behavior and designing interven3ons, it is cri3cal that teachers understand

More information

Evidence-Based Practice in Autism Spectrum Disorders: What Does it Mean? CIGNA Autism Education Series

Evidence-Based Practice in Autism Spectrum Disorders: What Does it Mean? CIGNA Autism Education Series Evidence-Based Practice in Autism Spectrum Disorders: What Does it Mean? CIGNA Autism Education Series Jill Krata, Ph.D. Manager of Clinical Services, YAI Autism Center & Associate Chief, Premier HealthCare

More information

Self Modeling: How to Conduct an Intervention for. Selective Mutism Using Self Modeling. Mary Beth Pummel. University of Utah

Self Modeling: How to Conduct an Intervention for. Selective Mutism Using Self Modeling. Mary Beth Pummel. University of Utah Self Modeling 1 Running head: SELF MODELING INTERVENTION Self Modeling: How to Conduct an Intervention for Selective Mutism Using Self Modeling Mary Beth Pummel University of Utah Training School Psychologists

More information

Fieldwork. What is ADHD. Functional Assessment of Behavior EDS 240 Behavior Intervention for ADHD Increasing On-task Behavior

Fieldwork. What is ADHD. Functional Assessment of Behavior EDS 240 Behavior Intervention for ADHD Increasing On-task Behavior Functional Assessment of Behavior EDS 240 Behavior Intervention for ADHD Increasing On-task Behavior California State University, Sacramento Fieldwork BIP should be close to being done. We will begin staffing

More information

Steps for Implementation: Discrete Trial Training

Steps for Implementation: Discrete Trial Training STEP-BY-STEP INSTRUCTIONS Steps for Implementation: Discrete Trial Training Bogin, J., Sullivan, L., Rogers, S., & Stabel. A. (2010). Steps for implementation: Discrete trial training. Sacramento, CA:

More information

Possible examples of how the Framework For Teaching could apply to. Autistic Support, MDS and Life Skills

Possible examples of how the Framework For Teaching could apply to. Autistic Support, MDS and Life Skills Possible examples of how the Framework For Teaching could apply to Autistic Support, MDS and Life Skills 1a Knowledge of Content and Pedagogy 1a Specific Teacher does not have knowledge of assessment tools

More information

Driscoll Part Two Radical Behaviorism

Driscoll Part Two Radical Behaviorism Driscoll Part Two Radical Behaviorism 1. Introduction There has been no more dominant theory of learning throughout the twentieth century than behaviorism. It is the foundation of most dominant educational

More information