Energy Storage for Renewable Integration

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1 ESMAP-SAR-EAP Renewable Energy Training Program 2014 Energy Storage for Renewable Integration 24 th Apr 2014 Jerry Randall DNV GL Renewables Advisory, Bangkok 1 DNV GL 2013 SAFER, SMARTER, GREENER

2 DNV GL Personnel Jerry Randall (Speaker) DNV GL Project Development Engineer, Bangkok Experience of wind project feasibility & development across Asia Previously worked for large Chinese WTG manufacturer Graduate of the University of Cambridge 2 DNV GL May 2014

3 DNV GL Personnel Jerry Randall (Speaker) DNV GL Project Development Engineer, Bangkok Experience of wind project feasibility & development across Asia Previously worked for large Chinese WTG manufacturer Graduate of the University of Cambridge Richard Fioravanti (Global Expert) DNV GL Service Line Leader, Distributed Energy Resources On the Board of the NY-BEST organization ( Previously work in advanced aerospace and distributed generation applications Graduate of the University of Southern California 3 DNV GL May 2014

4 Contents 1) Variability of Renewable Sources 2) Effect of Variability on Grids 3) Need for Storage 4) Current Storage Activities 5) Overview 6) Case Study: California 4 DNV GL May 2014

5 Variability of Renewable Resources Solar Energy 1. Sunrise and sunset highly predictable 5 DNV GL May 2014

6 Variability of Renewable Resources Solar Energy 1. Sunrise and sunset highly predictable 2. Seasonal variations highly predictable 6 DNV GL May 2014

7 Impact of Solar on Distribution System Load Black line indicates the average load curve of the 134 households Yellow background quarter hourly solar radiation at the test site Source: G. Heilscher, H. Ruf: Ulm University of Applied Sciences,

8 Impact of Solar on Distribution System Load Black line indicates the average load curve of the 134 households Yellow background quarter hourly solar radiation at the test site The load measured at the low voltage transformer drops during daytime due to feed in of solar power Source: G. Heilscher, H. Ruf: Ulm University of Applied Sciences,

9 Impact of Solar on Distribution System Load Black line indicates the average load curve of the 134 households Yellow background quarter hourly solar radiation at the test site The load measured at the low voltage transformer drops during daytime due to feed in of solar power Time of maximum solar generation does not match typical load profile Between 9 AM and 2 PM load flow is reverse at the transformer Source: G. Heilscher, H. Ruf: Ulm University of Applied Sciences,

10 Variability of Renewable Resources Solar Energy 1. Sunrise and sunset highly predictable 2. Seasonal variations highly predictable 3. Weather variations unpredictable & volatile 10 DNV GL May 2014

11 Variability of Renewable Resources Solar Energy 1. Sunrise and sunset highly predictable 2. Seasonal variations highly predictable 3. Weather variations unpredictable & volatile A cloud covers the sun within 1 sec 80% power reduction A fast cloud crosses a 10 MW system in about 1 minute Volatility must be considered when the penetration level is high to ensure grid resiliency 11 DNV GL May 2014

12 Variability of Renewable Resources Data source: NREL, Airportdata, 2010, Evaluation BEW, DNV KEMA 12 DNV GL May 2014

13 Variability of Renewable Resources Rapid fluctuation due to cloud movement Data source: NREL, Airportdata, 2010, Evaluation BEW, DNV KEMA 13 DNV GL May 2014

14 Variability of Renewable Resources Rapid fluctuation due to cloud movement Peaks occur when direct and reflected sunlight combine Data source: NREL, Airportdata, 2010, Evaluation BEW, DNV KEMA 14 DNV GL May 2014

15 Variability of Renewable Resources Rapid fluctuation due to cloud movement Peaks occur when direct and reflected sunlight combine Radiation changes rapidly between 200 and 1300 Watt/m 2 Data source: NREL, Airportdata, 2010, Evaluation BEW, DNV KEMA 15 DNV GL May 2014

16 Variability of Renewable Resources Rapid fluctuation due to cloud movement Peaks occur when direct and reflected sunlight combine Radiation changes rapidly between 200 and 1300 Watt/m 2 Ramps of up to 1000 Watt/m 2 per second are possible Data source: NREL, Airportdata, 2010, Evaluation BEW, DNV KEMA 16 DNV GL May 2014

17 Investigating Renewable Scenarios Renewable Inputs into Californian Grid Legend: 2020HI Renewables 2020LO Renewables 2012 Renewables 2009 Renewables 17

18 Variability: Two Different Problems 1) Renewable Variability Diurnal and Seasonal At night mostly wind production Mid-day mostly solar (Concentrated & PV) Variation can be addressed with regulation or slow storage 18

19 Variability: Two Different Problems 1) Renewable Variability Diurnal and Seasonal At night mostly wind production Mid-day mostly solar (Concentrated & PV) Variation can be addressed with regulation or slow storage 2) Ramping Diurnal and Short-term Wind down in morning and up in evening Solar up in morning and down late afternoon Ramping severity varies seasonally Ramping is much more of a problem than the calmer period variability Ramping requires coordination of fast storage with less fast conventional generation 19

20 Effect of Variability on Grid Common metrics have been defined for assessing grid performance Area Control Error (ACE) Measures difference between scheduled and actual load and supply. MW Signal that fluctuates around zero. Performance criteria stipulates allowable magnitude and variability MW Example of ACE Performance healthy ACE problematic ACE Hours 20 20

21 Effect of Variability on Grid Common metrics have been defined for assessing grid performance Area Control Error (ACE) Measures difference between scheduled and actual load and supply. MW Signal that fluctuates around zero. Performance criteria stipulates allowable magnitude and variability MW Example of ACE Performance healthy ACE problematic ACE Frequency Deviation Difference in load and supply results in frequency above or below nominal frequency (60Hz). Hours 21 21

22 ACE Affected by Increasing Renewables ACE 22

23 ACE Affected by Increasing Renewables Costs for regulation and balancing go up Increase in spinning reserves needed Conventional units operated inefficiently ACE High flexibility of the system needed 23

24 ACE Affected by Increasing Renewables Costs for regulation and balancing go up A Increase in spinning reserves needed Need ACE For Conventional units operated inefficiently Storage High flexibility of the system needed 24 DNV GL May 2014

25 ACE with Storage WITH STORAGE WITHOUT STORAGE Fast storage keeps ACE low 25

26 Sizing and Control of Storage Infinite Storage Never saturates WITH UNLIMITED STORAGE WITH LIMITED STORAGE WITHOUT STORAGE Limited Storage saturates 26 DNV GL May 2014

27 The Need for Storage Ramping problems are severe 27

28 The Need for Storage Ramping problems are severe Scheduling adjustments mitigate but will not cure the problem 15 min instead of 1h Day-Ahead schedules 28

29 The Need for Storage Ramping problems are severe Scheduling adjustments mitigate but will not cure the problem 15 min instead of 1h Day-Ahead schedules Fast storage must be correctly sized to mitigate large ramps 29

30 The Need for Storage Ramping problems are severe Scheduling adjustments mitigate but will not cure the problem 15 min instead of 1h Day-Ahead schedules Fast storage must be correctly sized to mitigate large ramps Optimize storage control logic to improve use of storage capacity 30

31 The Need for Storage Ramping problems are severe Scheduling adjustments mitigate but will not cure the problem 15 min instead of 1h Day-Ahead schedules Fast storage must be correctly sized to mitigate large ramps Optimize storage control logic to improve use of storage capacity Storage requires ramping capability of 0 100% in 5 min May indicate limited effectiveness of Pumped Hydro and Compressed Air 31

32 The Need for Storage Ramping problems are severe Scheduling adjustments mitigate but will not cure the problem 15 min instead of 1h Day-Ahead schedules Fast storage must be correctly sized to mitigate large ramps Optimize storage control logic to improve use of storage capacity Storage requires ramping capability of 0 100% in 5 min May indicate limited effectiveness of Pumped Hydro and Compressed Air Penetration levels > 20% are where issues become problematic > ~33% storage is essential 32

33 Recent Storage Activities Technologies are already being tested and demonstrated with renewable systems Hawaii has set ramp rate requirements that are being met with electricity storage Onus on plant owner Lithium and Advanced Storage systems are commissioned and operating in the field today Next Generation storage devices are now in labs offering even greater potential 33 DNV GL May 2014

34 Recent Storage Activities Technologies are already being tested and demonstrated with renewable systems Hawaii has set ramp rate requirements that are being met with electricity storage Onus on plant owner Lithium and Advanced Storage systems are commissioned and operating in the field today Next Generation storage devices are now in labs offering even greater potential Not all solutions need to be Utility-Scale Distributed Bulk storage Use of Electric Vehicle Storage Capacity? Smart Grids? 34 DNV GL May 2014

35 Island Applications Isolated grids magnify problems Islands rapidly exceed 20% renewable penetration (1 project) Cost of electricity is relatively high helps economics 35 DNV GL May 2014

36 Island Applications 3.5 MW peak ~4 MW generation 1 MV PV Example: Lanai (Hawaii) The transmission system 36 DNV GL May 2014

37 Benefits for Plant Owners - Leveling the daily output of the solar system essentially locking in demand savings that can be created by solar and lost by its intermittency - Energy time shifting from off-peak to peak periods - Emergency Back-up 37

38 Overview Increased renewables penetration will demand storage Short-term ramping volatility, especially solar, is a big issue demands fast acting storage solutions Eases variability and shift supply to peak demand Storage applications already in existence, especially in isolated grids How to implement? Centrally vs. Distributed. How to mandate without killing renewable projects? 38

39 CASE STUDY: CALIFORNIA Courtesy: MegaWattsSF 39 DNV GL May 2014

40 Flexible Capacity is Decreasing The mix of generation resources will evolve Solar The share of renewables will grow Wind OTC Retiring of flexible capacity from oncethrough cooling (OTC) Load growth expected and approximately 1,000 MW of combined heat and power 40 DNV GL May 2014

41 Operational Challenges Over the next 10 years in California Greater supply volatility Over 20,000 MW of wind and solar capacity will be added Uncertainty surrounding thermal generation resources ~12,000 MW of OTC thermal generation will be repowered or retired Less predictable load patterns Changes in load patterns due to distributed energy resources and electric vehicles Changing revenue patterns Decreasing marginal prices * OTC Once Through Cooling 41 41

42 Meeting Operational Challenges 42

43 ACE Affected by Increasing Renewables ACE 43

44 California Grid Study Undertaken using KERMIT tool, simulate grid now and for future scenarios. Energy Ramps <1 hour are going to be major issues Increased renewable capacity will increase regulation needs significantly Large amounts of regulation alone will not solve the problem Fast energy storage with 2 hours of capacity or more is an (expensive) solution 44

45 Required Storage Capacity and Control Storage capacity needed 2012 scenario, 1500MW 2h storage enough in most cases In 2020HI scenario, 3000MW 2h storage enough in most cases Even so performance will not be acceptable by today s standards Requires further investigation of renewable scheduling for certainty Performance will be sensitive to minute errors in renewable forecasting MW storage equivalent to 110 MW Conventional Thermal Varies with other system conditions, especially how much regulation is present System regulation requirements for non-ramping periods More than 800 MW in 2012 Approximately 1600 MW in

46 Concentrated Solar Storage Solution Thousands of suntracking mirrors Central tower over 200m tall Molten salt energy storage and steam power plant generate electricity on demand Solar Reserve s Crescent Dunes 110MW Project with Storage Courtesy: Solar Reserve 46

47 Concentrated Solar Storage Solution Sunlight heats the molten salts directly Molten salt reserve used to power conventional steam turbine Storage with greater flexibility at lower cost 47 DNV GL May 2014

48 Benefits of Concentrated Solar Storage Renewable resource that can function as a load-following plant Dispatchable renewable generation not tied to fuel prices Management of large ramps Energy can be stored, not dumped Zero emissions ancillary services Lower exposure to fluctuating gas prices Will provide additional value streams for the plant owner The storage component enables participation in ancillary and real-time markets Power can be sold when prices are most favorable Potential new market rules or products may favour flexible generation Cost of Storage: ~ 15-20% of project capital costs 48

49 Thank-you Please Send any Questions to: & SAFER, SMARTER, GREENER 49 DNV GL May 2014

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