# Working with Data in Microsoft Excel 2003

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1 Working with Data in Microsoft Excel 2003 Doc 5.94 Ver 2 March 2005 John Matthews Central Computing Services Abstract This document provides some examples of handling numeric data using the Microsoft Excel 2003 spreadsheet package. It assumes that you are familiar with basic techniques covered in CCS document For more information on Microsoft Excel 2003 please refer to Software made Simple Guide to Microsoft Excel Copies of the Guide are available to students and staff of Birkbeck either in paper form from CCS Help Desk, room 151, Malet Street Main Building or from the College Intranet at Help Desk is open on weekdays 10.00am pm in term time, and in vacations it is open on weekdays 10.00am pm. Prerequisites These notes assume that you are familiar with entering data and drawing charts, as explained in CCS document 5.93 and Software made Simple Guide to Microsoft Excel You should know how to enter simple formulae and how to use Autosum and Autofill. Contents 1 Introduction Working with Formulae Creating simple formulae Absolute and Relative References Sorting Data Filtering Data Pivot Tables Manipulating and Displaying Time-Series Data More on AutoFill, and Dealing with Missing Values Preparing Time-Series Data for Graphical Display Using an absolute reference in a formula Using Statistical Functions in Excel (Data Analysis module)...15 About this Document Words that you type or choose are in bold type, e.g. Choose Programs from the Start menu. Keys that you press are shown in small capitals e.g. press ALT. Press KEY1 + KEY2 means press both keys together e.g. press CTRL + Z Press KEY1, KEY2 means press each key consecutively e.g. press A, B.

2 General guidelines on how to perform a task are indicated by bulleted lists using the symbol. Note that these are not tasks for you to perform now but are advice for you to follow later when you need to work things out for yourself. Exercises for you to practice as you work through the notes are labelled Exercise, e.g. Exercise 1 Importing Database Objects. The steps that you follow to complete the exercise are marked by round bullets ( ). Hints and tips are indicated by. If you are not very familiar with using computers then you should pay particular attention to the hints and tips. Even if you are fairly familiar with using a computer you should read them, as they can provide explanations of why you do something, or they may suggest an alternative way of doing things. 2

3 Working with Data in Excel Doc 5.94 Ver 2 1 Introduction You can create tables using either the word-processing package Microsoft Word for Windows 2003 or the spreadsheet program Microsoft Excel Word provides some simple features for sorting and performing calculations with numeric data in tables. However, Microsoft Excel 2003 provides many more powerful features for handling numeric data. An example is provided in CCS Document 5.93, which explains how to use Autofill to fill in a series and the Function Wizard to calculate a statistical function. In this document you will see how to enter formulae sort data filter data Create a pivot table Manipulate a time series Although this document provides some examples of data manipulation with Microsoft Excel 2003 it is by no means a complete guide to all the features of the programme. To cover everything would need a document many times the size of this. However, you do not need be buried under a pile of paper to find out more about Microsoft Excel 2003, as help is always available from the Help menu within the programme. If you are unfamiliar with using Help please refer to CCS Document 3.38 Getting Started on CCS workstations 2 Working with Formulae 2.1 Creating simple formulae Document 5.93 explained how to enter a formula and how to use autofill to copy formulae. In general you will have to work out for yourself what formula you need to substitute in order to obtain a particular result. In the following example the formulae have been worked out for you. In this example we have used the variables in our formulae (HeatRate, NoOfCats etc.) as the column headers for our spreadsheet. This helps us to understand how the result is calculated. When you perform the calculation you substitute cell addresses into the formulae. Microsoft Excel 2003 will then perform the calculations using the data values in the cells. If you change one of the data values in a cell the result will change. Table 1 shows the booking information for a boarding cattery. The data provided includes The number of cats to be boarded The number of runs that they will occupy (cats from the same home may share a run) Whether the cats require heating in the run. This is indicated by the value 0 if no heating is required and the value 1 if heating is required. The rate per day per run The rate per day per cat The rate per day for heating Birkbeck College Central Computing Services 1

4 Doc 5.94 Ver 2 Working with Data in Excel The rate per day for insurance The total cost for boarding a cat is calculated using the formula BoardingCost = KennelCost+HeatingCost+InsuranceCost where Kennel Cost = (RunRate * NoOfRuns + CatRate * NoOfCats) * NoOfDays Heating Cost = Heating * HeatRate * NoOfDays Insurance Cost = InsuranceRate * NoOfCats * NoOfDays Note the use of brackets to enforce an order of precedence for the arithmetic operators in the expression for KennelCost If no heating is required, i.e. Heating = 0 then the formula for HeatingCost returns a zero value. So we can use the same formula to calculate the BoardingCost whether or not heating is provided. Exercise 1 Calculate Boarding Costs Log in and start Microsoft Excel 2003 (click on Start at the bottom left, then Programs and Microsoft Office) Enter the data shown in Table 1 into cells A1:K9 and save the file as N:\My Documents\cats.xls Enter the column heading Kennel Cost in cell L1, then enter the formula =(H2*F2+I2*E2)*D2 in cell L2. By referring to the column headings you will see that this corresponds to the formula Kennel Cost = (RunRate * NoOfRuns + CatRate * NoOfCats) * NoOfDays Enter appropriate headings in cells M1 and N1, then enter the formulae for Heating Cost and Insurance Cost in cells M2 and N2 (hint use the column headings to work out which cells contain the relevant values to substitute in the formulae) Enter an appropriate heading in cell O1 Select cells L2:O2 and click on the Autosum button on the tool bar to calculate the BoardingCost Use the Autofill handle to copy your formulae into cells L3:O9 2 Birkbeck College Central Computing Services

5 Working with Data in Excel Doc 5.94 Ver 1 Table 1 Cats Data Booking No OwnerId Cats In Date No Of Days No Of Cats No Of Runs Heating Run Rate Cat Rate Heat Rate Insurance Rate 4 31/01/ /04/ /06/ /02/ /03/ /03/ /03/ /08/ Booking No Owner Id Cats In Date No Of Days No Of No Of Cats Runs Heating Table 2 Calculated Results Run Rate Cat Rate Heat Rate Insurance Rate Kennel Cost Heating Cost Insurance Cost Boarding Cost VAT Total Cost /01/ /04/ /06/ /02/ /03/ /03/ /03/ /08/ Birkbeck College Central Computing Services 3

7 Working with Data in Excel Doc Ver 2 For the sorting exercise you will make a copy of some existing Microsoft Excel 2003 data. Note that you can copy data from one spreadsheet to another using the same Copy/Paste technique that you will have used in other situations; for example, copying text in a Word for Windows document or cells in a Microsoft Excel 2003 spreadsheet. When you choose Open from the Microsoft Excel 2003 File menu Excel will look first for a file in the My Documents on your personal networked drive, N:\My Documents. You can use the drop down menu on the box labelled Look In to select files on other drives. If you find double clicking difficult when you are working in Open or Save dialogue boxes then you can single click on the object to select it and then click on the Open button. Exercise 3 Open a file on a shared drive. Click on the File on the menu bar Click on Open on the file menu. The open dialogue box appears Click on the downward pointing arrow on the right of the box labelled Look In. (Figure 3-1) Figure 3-1 'Look In' box Click on the drive labelled Q: (Figure 3-2). The contents of Q: will be displayed Figure 3-2 Networked Drive Q: Double click on the folder labelled Samples. Again, the contents of the folder will be displayed Double click on the folder labelled excel. This time you will see some spreadsheet documents Double click on the spreadsheet called bears. The document will now open The shorthand way of describing the document that you have opened is Q:\Samples\excel\bears.xls To select a large data range click in the first cell, hold down the shift key, and click on the last cell. Birkbeck College Central Computing Services 5

8 Doc Ver 2 Working with Data in Excel Exercise 4 Copy shared data. If the sheet labelled BEARS is not selected then click on the BEARS tab to select it Select cells A1: L144 Click on the copy button on the tool bar From the File menu choose New, select the workbook icon in the general section of the dialogue box, and click on OK Click in Cell A1, then click on the paste button From the File menu choose Save As. In the Save As dialogue box use the downward pointing arrow on the right of the box labelled Look In to locate the N: drive Double click on the folder labelled My Documents Type the name mybears.xls in the box labelled File Name. You have now saved your workbook as N:\My Documents\mybears.xls Close Q:\Samples\excel\bears.xls (Use the window menu to switch between files) Exercise 5 Sort data Click in the column labelled Weight (not on the column header) Click on the Sort Ascending button Save mybears.xls You will see that the rows are now sorted in ascending order of weight. 4 Filtering Data To filter out some of the data - i.e. view only those rows that have specified values in one or more columns: On the Data menu, choose Filter, and then AutoFilter A downward pointing arrow will appear at the top of each column. If you click on one of these, a drop-down list of unique values in the column will be displayed. Click on one of the values, and only those rows that have this value in this column will be displayed. Notice that you are displaying the filtered data. You have not removed the rest of the data, only hidden it To view all data, again choose Data Filter AutoFilter If you want Excel to sort or filter dates, you will need to specify that a column has dates in it - i.e. has a date format. Otherwise it will be sorted as ordinary text. To specify a format: On the Format menu, choose Cells, and then the Number tab Choose the type of date format that you want, and then click on OK 6 Birkbeck College Central Computing Services

9 Working with Data in Excel Doc Ver 2 If you want to perform calculations or produce charts from the filtered sub set of the data then you will need to copy it to another range of cells, either on the same worksheet, a new worksheet or a new workbook. For the next exercise you will display the data about the 10 heaviest bears. Exercise 6 Filtering Data From the Data menu choose Filter, then choose Autofilter Click on the downward pointing arrow on the right of the column headed Weight. A list of filters drops down ( Figure 4-1) Figure 4-1 AutoFilter Menu Click on Top 10. A Top 10 Autofilter dialogue box appears. (Figure 4-2). Figure 4-2 Autofilter Dialogue Box Click on OK Notice that the Autofilter Dialogue Box offers various options for customising the filter. You can select the Bottom instead of Top from a drop down menu You can increase or decrease the number of items using the scroll arrows on the number box You can choose whether to show Items or Percentage Birkbeck College Central Computing Services 7

10 Doc Ver 2 Working with Data in Excel 5 Pivot Tables A PivotTable is an interactive table that quickly summarises, or crosstabulates, large amounts of data. You may rotate its rows and columns to see different summaries of the source data, filter the data by displaying different pages, or display the details for areas of interest. The online-help provides a clear graphical description of the parts of a pivot table and the terminology that is used. If you unfamiliar with the terminology used in the following example look at the Help Contents, analysing data with pivot tables. If you use pivot tables a lot, then choose Toolbars from the View menu and make sure that Pivot Table is checked. As an example we will summarise the average weights for bears of different ages. If you have done the filtering exercise, make sure that you are displaying all the data. Exercise 7 Create a Pivot Table Choose Filter on the Data Menu, then choose Show All to redisplay all the data Select the range A1:L144 From the Data menu choose PivotTable and PivotChart Report. As with many Microsoft Office tasks a Wizard appears to help you In the Pivot Table Wizard Step 1 of 3 box make sure that Microsoft Office Excel List or Database is checked in the section headed Where is the data that you want to analyse? Make sure that PivotTable is selected in the section headed What Kind of Report do you want to create? Click on Next > In the Pivot Table Wizard Step 2 of 3 box check that the selected range is displayed as \$A\$1:\$L\$144. (If you need to select a different range then you can do so at this point by clicking outside the box & dragging to select the required range.). Click on Next > In the Pivot Table Wizard Step 3 of 3 box click on the button labelled Layout Drag the field button labelled Age into the Row section of the diagram on the left Drag the field button labelled Weight into the Data section of the diagram (Figure 5-1) 8 Birkbeck College Central Computing Services

11 Working with Data in Excel Doc Ver 2 Figure 5-1 Choose the parameters The default function is Sum of Weight. To use another function double click on the button labelled Sum of Weight. In the Pivot Table Field dialogue box (Figure 5-2) select Average from the list of functions and click on OK Figure 5-2 Selecting a pivot table function Your pivot table diagram should now appear as shown in Figure 5-3. Click on OK Birkbeck College Central Computing Services 9

12 Doc Ver 2 Working with Data in Excel Figure 5-3 Pivot Table for Age and Average Weights In the Pivot Table Wizard Step 3 of 3 box check that New Worksheet is selected and click on Finish. A new sheet is inserted in your workbook and a table of age and average weight is calculated, as shown in Figure 5-4. Save and Close mybears.xls 10 Birkbeck College Central Computing Services

13 Working with Data in Excel Doc Ver 2 Figure 5-4 Pivot Table 6 Manipulating and Displaying Time-Series Data In Exercise 4 we saw how to copy a subset of the data from a shared file into our own file in order to work with it. In the next example we will be working with all the data, not just a subset, so we will need to copy the whole file to our own networked drive. Exercise 8 Make a copy of the sample data Minimise the Microsoft Excel 2003 window by clicking on the minimise button (see left) in the top right hand corner of the window Double click on the Windows Explorer icon on the desktop. Be careful to choose Windows Explorer, not Internet Explorer. Windows Explorer is the Windows file management utility that allows you to explore the files on your own computer. Internet Explorer is a web browser that allows you to explore the whole Internet. In the left hand pane of Windows Explorer click on the My Computer icon In the left hand pane locate the drive labelled Q: 1 and click on the + symbol 2 next to the drive Scroll down the left pane until you see a folder Samples beneath the Q: drive Click on the + symbol next to Samples Click on the excel folder. The contents of Q:\samples\excel will appear in the right hand pane. Click on ryeprice.xls in the right-hand pane to select it. It will be highlighted. Select Copy from the Edit menu. In the left pane click on the drive where you normally save your files. On CCS student workstations this will be the N: drive. If the + symbol is shown click on it to view the folders on your N: drive. You will see that there is a folder labelled My Documents. Click My Documents to display the contents in the right hand pane Click in the right hand pane. Select Paste from the Edit menu, to paste the file from the clipboard into the My Documents folder Go back to the Microsoft Excel 2003 by clicking on the Microsoft Excel 2003 button on the task bar, and open N:\My Documents\ryeprice.doc Save your file as N:\My Documents\myryeprice.doc This gives the price of bread and the wage rate for labourers in Rye, Sussex in the second half of the 16th century. We will try graphing the figures, to see if wages kept up with the increase in bread prices at the end of the 16th 1 If you cannot see the Q: drive then scroll down the left-hand pane until it appears. The drives are sorted in alphabetic order. 2 If there is a minus sign (-) next to the Q: drive then Windows NT has already displayed the contents of Q: and you can proceed to the next step. Birkbeck College Central Computing Services 11

15 Working with Data in Excel Doc Ver 2 Choose Number from the category box and select the number of decimal places that you want. Click on OK Secondly, when you try to chart the data, it will interpret #DIV/0! as zero, which is not what you want. Before charting the data you will need to manually delete the #DIV/0! To fit "Price of Bread" into the column without increasing the column width use the format painter button to copy the formatting C1 to cell D1. Cell C1 has been formatted to wrap text by choosing Cells (alignment tab) from the format menu. Exercise 10 Calculating Missing Values In column D, type the heading Price of Bread In D2, enter the formula =32/b2, and press ENTER. Excel will not be able to perform the calculation in this cell, because one of the figures is missing. You can still use AutoFill to fill in the rest of the column Select the range D2:D51 Choose cells from the Format menu, click on the Number tab Choose Number from the category box and select the number of decimal places that you want Click on OK Remove each instance of #DIV/0! and leave the cell blank When the data is graphed, Excel should leave gaps where there are missing values. 6.2 Preparing Time-Series Data for Graphical Display Now let us graph the data in column D, using the labels in column A. Exercise 11 Charting Non Adjacent columns Select cells A1:A51.by dragging Hold down the control key and select cells D1:D51 (See right) Start the Chart Wizard When selecting a chart type (Step 1 of 4 in the ChartWizard dialog box), choose XY (Scatter) In chart subtype section choose format 2 (data points connected by smoothed lines) for the scatter plot Birkbeck College Central Computing Services 13

16 Doc Ver 2 Working with Data in Excel In Step 4 of 4 choose As New Sheet. Your chart will appear on a new worksheet labelled chart 1 If you wish, you can add another graph for the wages data. It would be useful to put the prices and wages data on the same graph, but they are at present in different units. We can do this if we produce an index for each series - i.e. calculate each value as a percentage of the first value in the series. So both series would start with 100 in Let us put the index for wages in column E, and for prices in column F: We will use a formula that illustrates the difference between a relative reference and an absolute reference. 6.3 Using an absolute reference in a formula When you created the formula for the price of bread you divided the cost by the weight to give the price per lb. When you used autofill to copy the formula Microsoft Excel 2003 automatically updated the row reference of the cell, so you calculated 32/b2, 32/b3, 32/b4 etc. (You can check this by clicking in the cells in column D and viewing the formula in the formula bar.) The cell reference b2 is a relative reference; if you copy it, the references change relative to the original cell. When you are calculating an index you need to divide by constant value. You could just type the value that is in the first cell, i.e. 9. However, if the value in the first cell changed you would have to update all the cells that use that value. It is easier to use an absolute reference that always refers to the same cell. To switch between sheets in a workbook click on the sheet (or chart) tab at the bottom of the page. Exercise 12 Calculate Indexes Make sure that sheet 1 is selected In cell E1 type Index of Wages In E2, enter the formula: =C2/\$C\$2 (cell C2 contains the first value in the series, so all values are expressed as a percentage of this value) Use AutoFill to fill the rest of the column In cell F1 type Index of Prices In column F, we will have to start with F3, because the value in D2 is missing. Enter the formula: =D3/\$D\$3, and then use AutoFill as before Select the numeric data in cells E2:F51, and use the % button on the tool bar to format the data in columns E & F as a percentage Excel will unfortunately have replaced the missing values with zeroes, so remove the zeroes, leaving the cells blank Do another scatter chart for columns A, E and F. Give your chart the title Index of Prices and Wages and put it on a separate sheet Note that the shape of the graph will be to some extent influenced by the value that you took as a starting point (for the year 1553 in this instance). If 14 Birkbeck College Central Computing Services

18 Doc Ver 2 Working with Data in Excel Your dialogue box should now appear as in Figure 6-1. Click on OK Figure 6-1 Trendline Dialogue box. Your chart should now be similar to Figure 6-2 Figure 6-2 Chart with trend line 16 Birkbeck College Central Computing Services

19 Working with Data in Excel Doc Ver 2 Do labourers wages keep up with the increase in bread prices? To see how different intervals change the chart, you could try 3-year and 5-year moving averages. You need to be careful in choosing the right interval - (1) to balance getting a clearer view of the trend against any resulting loss of information and (2) not to obscure any regular fluctuations that may exist in the data. To experiment with different intervals for the moving average Click on the trend line to select it Right click the mouse From the menu that appears choose Format Trendline. (If this option is not available, make sure that you have selected the trend line.) In the dialogue box that appears select the Type tab Change the period value to the one you want Click on OK Birkbeck College Central Computing Services 17

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