Microsoft Access Basics

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1 Microsoft Access Basics

2 2006 ipic Development Group, LLC Authored by James D Ballotti Microsoft, Access, Excel, Word, and Office are registered trademarks of the Microsoft Corporation Version 1 - Revision 103 ii

3 Table of Contents Introduction... 1 Objectives... 1 Prerequisites... 1 Database Basics... 1 Tables... 2 Queries... 2 Forms... 3 Reports... 4 Other Database Components... 4 Designing Your Database... 4 Relationships... 4 Access Environment... 5 Access Database Window... 6 Creating Tables... 6 Datasheet View... 7 Design View... 7 Table Wizard... 9 Import Table Import from Other File Types Link Table Create Table Exercise Working with Data in Tables Adding and Changing Data to the Datasheet Sub-Datasheets Scrolling Through the Records Add Text Exercise Using Find and Replace Filtering and Sorting Data Sorting Data Filtering Data Sorting and Filtering Exercise Changing a Field s Data Type Change Data Type Exercise Understanding Table Relationships Relationship Types One to Many Many to Many One to One Viewing Relationships Changing Relationships Referential Integrity Join Type...35 Create New Relationships Exercise Forms iii

4 Creating Forms Create Form Exercise Modifying a Form s Design Design Basics Modify Form Exercise Adding Controls Form Properties Using Forms Main Switchboard Create Main Switchboard Edit Switchboard Finish the Switchboard Open the Switchboard Automatically Switchboard Exercise Queries Creating Queries Select Query Reports Creating Reports Create Report Exercise Modify a Report Modify Report Exercise Document Your Database Describe Your Fields Describe Your Objects Database Documenter Backup Your Database More Information Using Help Sample Files Other Sources Appendix A... 1 Table of Figures Figure 1 Access Table... 2 Figure 2 Microsoft Access Application Window... 5 Figure 3 Database Window... 6 Figure 4 New Table Window... 7 Figure 5 Table Design View... 8 Figure 6 Table Wizard Dialog Window Figure 7 Table Wizard Step Figure 8 Table Wizard Relationships Figure 9 Relationships Window Figure 10 Table Wizard Finish Figure 11 Import Browser Window Figure 12 Import Objects Dialog Window Figure 13 Import Spreadsheet Wizard iv

5 Figure 14 Spreadsheet Wizard Step Figure 15 Spreadsheet Wizard Step Figure 16 Spreadsheet Wizard Step Figure 17 Spreadsheet Wizard Step Figure 18 Import Spreadsheet Finish Figure 19 Link Tables Dialog Window Figure 20 Datasheet View Figure 21 Change Field Size Figure 22 Expanded Sub-Datasheet View Figure 23 Record Navigation Buttons Figure 24 Find and Replace Dialog Window Find Figure 25 Find and Replace Replace Figure 26 Sorted Ascending by First Name Figure 27 Filtered by Selection First Name Figure 28 Filter Menu Figure 29 Filter by Form Figure 30 Advanced Filter/Sort Window Figure 31 Lookup Wizard Step One Figure 32 Lookup Wizard Tables & Queries Figure 33 Lookup Wizard Type Your Values Figure 34 Lookup Wizard Select Fields Figure 35 Lookup Wizard Sort Figure 36 Lookup Wizard Column Widths Figure 37 Lookup Wizard Finish Figure 38 Lookup Wizard Save Warning Figure 39 Field Properties Lookup Tab Figure 40 Relationships Window Figure 41 Show Table Window Figure 42 Table Popup Menu Figure 43 Edit Relationships Window Figure 44 Join Properties Figure 45 Create New Relationship Window Figure 46 New Form Window Figure 47 Form Wizard First Step Figure 48 Form Wizard Second Step Figure 49 Form Wizard Third Step Figure 50 Form Wizard Last Step Figure 51 Customers Form Figure 52 Customers Columnar Form, Design View Figure 53 Blank Form Figure 54 Resize Indicator Figure 55 Notes Control Figure 56 Move Both Figure 57 AutoFormat Window Figure 58 Control Toolbar Figure 59 Command Button Wizard v

6 Figure 60 Command Button Wizard Figure 61 Command Button Wizard Figure 62 Command Button Wizard Figure 63 Command Button Wizard Figure 64 Command Button Wizard Last Figure 65 Form Properties Format Tab Figure 66 Form Properties Data Tab Figure 67 Form Properties Event Tab Figure 68 Visual Basic Editor Window Figure 69 Choose Builder Window Figure 70 Expression Builder Window Figure 71 Macro Builder Window Figure 72 Form Properties Other Tab Figure 73 Database Utilities Menu Figure 74 Switchboard Manager Warning Message Figure 75 Switchboard Manager Dialog Window Figure 76 Create New Switchboard Page Figure 77 Edit Switchboard Page Figure 78 Edit Switchboard Item Window Figure 79 Switchboard Commands Figure 80 Main Switchboard Figure 81 Startup Window Figure 82 New Query Window Figure 83 Simple Query Wizard Start Figure 84 Simple Query Wizard Step Figure 85 Simple Query Wizard Summary Options Figure 86 Simple Query Wizard Step Figure 87 Simple Query Wizard Last Step Figure 88 Query Design View Figure 89 Show Table Window Figure 90 Query Add Table Figure 91 Field Drag & Drop Figure 92 Parameter Prompt Figure 93 New Report Window Figure 94 Report Wizard First Page Figure 95 Report Wizard Second Page Figure 96 Report Wizard Tips Information Window Figure 97 Report Wizard Examples Information Window Figure 98 Grouping Example Window Figure 99 Report Wizard Third Page Figure 100 Report Wizard Fourth Page Figure 101 Report Summary Options Window Figure 102 Report Wizard Fifth Page Figure 103 Report Wizard Sixth Page Figure 104 Report Wizard Last Page Figure 105 Report Example vi

7 Figure 106 Report Design View Figure 107 Data Properties for Text Figure 108 Expression Builder Figure 109 Database Window Detail View Figure 110 Object Properties Window Figure 111 Documenter Window Figure 112 Print Definition Options Window Figure 113 Save Backup As Browser Window Figure 114 Help Task Pane Table of Procedures Procedure 1 Create Tables Procedure 2 Add Text Exercise Procedure 3 Sorting and Filtering Exercise Procedure 4 Changing Data Type Exercise Procedure 5 Relationships Exercise Procedure 6 Create Forms Procedure 7 Modify Form Design Exercise Procedure 8 Switchboard Exercise Procedure 9 Query Exercise Procedure 10 Create Report Exercise Procedure 11 Modify Report Exercise vii

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9 Introduction Objectives Prerequisites Microsoft Access is an application for building and maintaining databases. This training manual was designed and created to help students learn how to use Microsoft Access to create and maintain databases that provide useful data management solutions for their personal or business use. At the conclusion of this training course, students will be able to: Explain the basics of database design Create a database using Microsoft Access Create tables in a Microsoft Access database Explain table relationships in a database Create forms for the input of data into the database Create queries to find and sort data Create reports based on query results Before taking this course, students should be familiar with the Microsoft Windows operating system, as well as have basic computer skills. It is also helpful if students are also familiar with any of the other Microsoft Office applications such as Microsoft Word or Microsoft Excel. Database Basics To use Microsoft Access successfully for organizing the data you want to track, it is important to understand the basics of what a database is. A database is comprised of the following basic elements: Tables used to store data in records. Records are a collection of fields that store the data elements. Queries used to select specific data from the tables based on user defined criteria Forms used to enter and/or edit data in the tables and also to perform other tasks such as printing reports Reports used to display specific data based on either data in the tables or queries 1

10 Together these elements combine to create a powerful tool for managing business or personal affairs such as keeping track of contacts or keeping track of inventory. In addition, programming code can be added, making the database application even more powerful 1. Tables Table Tables are a collection of records that store a set of information about a specific subject. Records are a collection of fields where each field is a single bit of information about the subject of the record. For example, an address book contains records about the contacts you want to keep track of and the records have fields like name, address, city, state, etc. Record Field Queries Figure 1 Access Table A database usually contains multiple tables that contain related data. For example, this database contains three main tables. One table contains data about customer information, which is related to a second table containing information about the orders placed by each customer. This second table is related to a third table that contains detail information for each order. Queries are used to find subsets of the data in one or more of the tables based on user defined criteria. Queries can then sort the data, manipulate the data, perform calculations on data, and other powerful functions. The most common use of queries is for the generation of reports based on the user-defined criteria. For example, you may want to know which customers purchase certain categories of products you re selling. You can then use this information to target just those customers when you have new products that fall into those categories. Queries can also be used to find duplicate entries in a table or to delete a group of records. Queries can be designed that request the user to enter criteria before searching the tables. For example, if you wanted to know what your sales were for a specific period the query would prompt the user to enter a beginning and ending date. 1 Adding programming code to a Microsoft Access database is beyond the scope of this course. 2

11 Forms While it is possible to add or edit data directly in the tables, this application uses forms for the primary method of accomplishing this task. Forms for adding or editing data are bound to one or more table and can contain the following controls: Text Boxes used by typing text directly in the control Dropdown Lists used to select a predefined value from a list Labels contain text but are not bound to a field in a table Option Buttons used to indicate a yes or no choice Check Boxes used to indicate a yes or no choice Option Group used to create groups of either Option Buttons or Check Boxes. When Option Buttons are used only one may be selected. Multiple Check Boxes may be selected in an Option Group. List Box used to display a list of choices to select Command Buttons used to perform predefined tasks such as selecting or finding specific records Image control used to put an image in the form (this image is not bound to a table) Bound Object Frame used to put an OLE object in a table. OLE objects are things like images, audio files, or program files Unbound Object Frame used to put an OLE object in the form but not in the table the form is bound to Page Break used to put a page break in the form or report Tab Control used to change from one page to another in a form Subform used to add a subform to a form or report. Subforms can contain any of the controls Most of these controls are bound to a specific field in the table records. Information entered in the form control is saved in the table records. Other controls are also available for controlling a host of other applications including applications written by companies other than Microsoft. 3

12 Reports Reports present selected information to the user based on user defined criteria. Reports usually use queries to get the information but may use information directly from the tables. Like forms, reports use controls to get data from the tables or queries. Controls can also be added that perform calculations on other controls used in the report. Other Database Components Designing Your Database Microsoft Access also contains the components Pages, Macros, Modules, and Favorites, all of which are beyond the scope of this training course. The first step in creating a database is to sit down with paper-andpencil and layout your design. Ask the purpose of the database. Think about the data that you need to store and create a list. Categorize the list. For example, if you re creating a database to keep track of your business selling items on the internet you re going to keep track of customer information so one of your categories would be customers. You ll also want to keep track of what each customer orders, so another category would be orders, and so on. Think about the reports you d like the database to produce. Gather any current form you re using to collect the data. Relationships The next step is to figure out how many different tables are needed to store the data and what the relationships are between those tables. This concept is extremely important for a good database design. Think about a simple address book. That example may only require one table to store the contact information of the people entered into it. On the other hand, a more complex database where you re tracking customers and their orders may require a separate table for each of your defined categories. For example, you may need to create one table to store information about your customers and another table to keep track of customer orders. The two tables can then be related to each other using a key field so that only orders placed by a specific customer are displayed for that customer. As you think about the fields you need, the tables these fields will be stored in, and the relationships between tables, keep the following rules of thumb in mind. You should not put the same field in more than one table. 4

13 You should not put a field in a table that will create duplicate entries in the table. Once you have a good understanding of the data you want to collect, and the relationships between the data, you can start creating your database. HELP Access Environment For more information on relationships press the F1 key and search for the word relationships. If you are already familiar with other Microsoft Office applications you can understand that these applications are designed for a single purpose; Word creates documents, Excel creates spreadsheets, PowerPoint creates presentations, and so on. Microsoft Access, on the other hand, is used to create applications whose purpose is defined by the user; I need to manage my company s inventory, or I want to keep track of my DVD collection. Therefore, Microsoft Access can be thought of as an application development environment. When you start Microsoft Access, it opens with a blank window with the Getting Started task pane open on the right hand side. Menu Bar Basic Toolbar Workspace Task Pane Status Bar Figure 2 Microsoft Access Application Window 5

14 Access Database Window It s in this window that you work with all the other windows used by the application. In fact, every window opened in Access is given its own button on the Windows Taskbar. From the task pane, you can open an existing database or create a new one. Note: The window on your computer may appear different from the one in this manual depending on your Windows settings and add-ins installed. When Microsoft Access opens a new or existing database, it opens the database window. All of the tasks necessary to create and maintain a database are launched from this window. Creating Tables Figure 3 Database Window Using this window the user selects the database object type from the Objects list on the left hand side of the window. Users are then presented with a list of objects or object tasks to perform, such as creating a new object or editing an existing one. Tables form the backbone of the database. Creating tables is the first step in creating your database. Microsoft Access provides a number of different ways to create a table. Clicking the New button ( ) at the top of the database window opens the New Table Window. 6

15 Figure 4 New Table Window You select the type and method of creating your table from this window. Datasheet View Selecting Datasheet View opens a new table where you can enter the data directly into the table s records (see Figure 1 Access Table). You can create field names by typing the name in the column heading. This method is useful for creating small tables like those you intend to use as a list for a dropdown control in a form. You can also create a table in datasheet view by double clicking on the Create table by entering data icon. Design View Selecting Design View opens a new table in design view where you create the fields for the table s records individually. Using the design view, users can set the data type and properties for each field. The design view is also used to modify a table s design after its initial creation. This includes adding or deleting fields from a table. 7

16 Enter Field Name Select the field s data type Provide an optional description of the field Set the field properties Figure 5 Table Design View In design view, users enter a name for each field of the table s records, select a data type for the field, provide an optional description for the field, and set the field s properties. Field properties change depending on the data type selected. Available data types are: Text Text or text and numbers. Also, numbers that don t require calculations like phone numbers. This is the default data type and is limited to a maximum of 255 characters. If you create a table using datasheet view then all the fields have a text data type. Memo Lengthy text or combinations of text and numbers. The field is limited to a maximum of 65,535 characters. Number Numeric data that will be used in calculations. The field size can be up to 8 bytes. Date/Time Date and time values. Field is set to 8 bytes. Currency Currency values and numeric data used in calculations involving data with one to four decimal places. Accurate to 15 digits on the left side of the decimal separator and to 4 digits on the right side. 8

17 AutoNumber A unique sequential number or random number assigned by Microsoft Access whenever a new record is added to the table. The field is four bytes in length and cannot be updated. This is usually the data type used for the table s primary key. Yes/No A field that contains only one of two possible values (yes/no, true/false, on/off). The field is 1 bit in length. OLE Object An object such as a spreadsheet, picture, sound file, etc. that can be linked to or embedded in the table. The field can be up to 1 gigabyte (limited by available disk space). Hyperlink Links to an internet address or file on your computer or network. The field can be up to 2048 characters. Lookup Wizard Clicking this option starts the Lookup Wizard, which creates a Lookup field that selects data from another table or list box or combo box. After you complete the wizard, Microsoft Access sets the data type based on the values selected in the wizard. Users also use design view to make changes to fields in existing tables as required. Changing the data type in a table where data has already been entered can potentially cause lengthy data conversion times when the file is saved, especially if you have a lot of data in the table. Therefore, it is important to try to specify the right data type from the beginning. Table Wizard The fastest way to create a new table is to use the table wizard. The wizard gathers information from the user about the table the user wants to create and then creates the initial table automatically. Users can then make changes to the table in design view. When you select this option, Microsoft Access provides the user with a number of sample tables from which to choose. Each table has a number of sample fields users can select to include in the table s records. 9

18 Figure 6 Table Wizard Dialog Window Following the directions on the wizard, users first select one of the sample tables from either the business list or the personal list. Then select and the fields they want included in the table they are creating. Rename any of the fields you want to and click the Next button. Figure 7 Table Wizard Step 2 Give the table a new name if desired and click one of the primary key option buttons, then click the Next button. The final Table Window dialog window opens. If you already have other tables in your database, the wizard asks you to define the relationships between the new table and existing tables. 10

19 Figure 8 Table Wizard Relationships The wizard analyzes the new table s possible relationship to other tables in the database and makes a recommendation. Clicking the Relationships button opens the Relationships window. Figure 9 Relationships Window This window displays the three possible relationships that are possible between the tables. You can change the recommendation made by the wizard, but it is recommended that they not be changed 2. 2 Relationships are fully discussed in the Understanding Table Relationships lesson of this course. 11

20 Figure 10 Table Wizard Finish From this screen, users decide what to do with the table after the wizard completes creating the table. Users can open the table in design mode to make changes to the fields, open it in datasheet mode to add data directly into the table, or have the wizard automatically create a form 3 for entering data into the table. Import Table Import table is a wizard that imports tables and other objects from another file into this database. This feature makes in simple to copy tables or other objects from another database into the new database you re creating. When you select this wizard, the first thing to do is select the database file from which you want to import objects. 3 Forms are covered fully in the Forms lesson of this course. 12

21 Figure 11 Import Browser Window When you select the file you want and click the Import button, the Import Objects window opens. Figure 12 Import Objects Dialog Window This dialog window has tabs that list the entire list of objects for an object type in the database selected. Select the objects you want to import and click the OK button. Click the Options>> button to expand the window to view the import options. Import from Other File Types Tables can also be created from files other than database files. For example, many businesses and users store data in Microsoft Excel worksheets; these are often perfect candidates for conversion to a Microsoft Access database. 13

22 In the Import browser window (see Figure 11) change type of file to Microsoft Excel, select the Excel file you want to import, and click the Import button. Microsoft Access opens the Import Spreadsheet wizard. Figure 13 Import Spreadsheet Wizard Find the spreadsheet you want to import and click the next button. The Import wizard goes to the next step. Figure 14 Spreadsheet Wizard Step 2 If the first row of your Microsoft Excel spreadsheet contains column headings then Microsoft Access will create field names from the column headings when the table is created. If not, then Microsoft Access adds default field names which you can then edit 14

23 in design view. When you click the next button, the wizard asks you where you want to store the data. Figure 15 Spreadsheet Wizard Step 3 You can store the data from the spreadsheet in a new table or in an existing table. When you click the next button, Microsoft Access gives you the opportunity to change information about each field, including deciding to skip importing a field. Figure 16 Spreadsheet Wizard Step 4 You can change the field name, whether the field is indexed or not, and in some cases the data type. 15

24 When you click the next button, Microsoft Access lets you add a primary key or not. Figure 17 Spreadsheet Wizard Step 5 A primary key is not required but is highly recommended. If you choose to select your own primary key, Microsoft Access lets you choose one of the existing fields. Remember that the primary key uniquely identifies the table s records so the field chosen must not contain duplicate information. When you click the next button, the wizard goes to the last page of the wizard and allows you to enter a name for the table. Figure 18 Import Spreadsheet Finish 16

25 You can have the wizard analyze the table after importing the data and/or display help after the wizard is finished. Link Table Link Table is a wizard that creates a table that is linked to one or more tables in another file. These can even be database files of types other than Microsoft Access as long as they support ODBC 4. When you select Link Table, Microsoft Access opens the Link browser window, which is similar to all file browser windows used in Microsoft Windows (see Figure 11). After you select the type of file and select the file you want to link to, the Link Tables window opens. Create Table Exercise Figure 19 Link Tables Dialog Window A list of tables in the selected file is displayed. Select the tables you want to link to and click the OK button. Microsoft Access creates a link to the tables in the external file. When you add or modify data the changes are made to the external file. Note: Data cannot be changed in a linked Microsoft Excel worksheet. The steps in the following exercise will lead you through the process of creating tables you can use in your everyday life. Procedure 1 Create Tables Step Instructions 1 Start Microsoft Access and click Create a new file at the bottom of the Getting Started task pane 2 Select Blank database 4 Open DataBase Connection is a technical specification that allows the interchange of data between databases of different types. 17

26 Step Instructions 3 Give your database a name and click the Create button 4 Click the New button in the database window 5 Double click on Table Wizard in the New Table window 6 Select Customers from the Sample Tables list 7 Select the fields you want in your table and move them to Fields in my new table 8 Click the Next button. 9 Leave Customers as the name and Yes, set primary key for me and click the Next button 10 Click the Finish button 11 Close the Customer table that opened 12 Repeat steps 4 & 5 13 Select Orders from the Sample Tables list 14 Repeat steps 7 &8 15 Leave Orders as the name and Yes, set primary key for me and click the Next button 16 Click the Next button when the wizard asks about relationships, leave the recommended relationship setting 17 Click Finish 18 Close Microsoft Access, the file is automatically saved. We will return to this database later in the course. HELP For more information on tables press the F1 key and search for the word tables. Working with Data in Tables Now that there are a couple of tables for us to work, with we can talk about adding data to and changing data in the tables. After data has been loaded into a table, there are ways to filter and sort the data. 18

27 You can also use queries 5 to select subsets of data from one or more tables based on user-defined criteria. Adding and Changing Data to the Datasheet The simplest way to add data to a table is to type directly into the record fields in datasheet view. While there are good reasons not to do it this way in large tables or complex databases, for a simple database or a new table this method is perfectly acceptable. Figure 20 Datasheet View When the table is first created and opened to datasheet view the first record is blank and the insertion point is set to the first field of the first record. Typically, the first field is set as the primary key and the data type is set to AutoNumber. When you move to the next field by pressing the tab or enter key, Microsoft Access automatically inputs a number into this field. The number entered depends on whether the New Values property is set to Increment or Random. Note: It is not required that the primary key s data type be set to AutoNumber. You can, for example, set the data type to Text and enter your own values, as long as those values remain unique. Add data to the next field and move to the next field by again pressing the tab or enter key. Continue adding data until you get to the last field defined in the record. When you get to the last field and press the tab or enter key the insertion point returns to the first field of the next record. Using this method, you can add record after record to the table. You can change any data in any field (accept fields where the data type is set to AutoNumber and the Indexed property is set to Yes (No Duplicates)) by going to the field and overtyping the existing data. If you need to change the size of field, rest the cursor between two fields until it changes shape to a vertical line with arrows pointing left and right. 5 Queries are discussed more fully in the Queries lesson of this course. 19

28 Change size cursor Figure 21 Change Field Size Once the cursor changes shape click and hold the mouse s left button and drag the mouse to the left or right. You can also double click to automatically expand or contract the field to fit the text. Sub-Datasheets If the table you are working with is related to another table then the left-most column will show a small plus sign. This indicates that there is a sub-datasheet linked to the related table that can be expanded for data entry. Scrolling Through the Records Figure 22 Expanded Sub-Datasheet View Data entered in the sub-datasheet is entered into the related child table rather than the parent table. The sub-datasheet is used just like the datasheet. After adding a number of records, you may need to scroll through the records to find the one you want. Microsoft Access provides tool for you to scroll through the records in a table. Figure 23 Record Navigation Buttons Located at the bottom left-hand corner of the table datasheet view, the record navigation button are, from left to right: First Record Clicking this button takes you to the first record in the table Previous Record Clicking this button takes you to the previous record (not active at the first record) Record Number Displays the current record number 20

29 Add Text Exercise Next Record Clicking this button takes you to the next record Last Record Clicking this button takes you to the last record New Record Clicking this button take you to a new record in the table Use the steps in the following procedure to practice adding text to a table in datasheet view. Procedure 2 Add Text Exercise Step Instructions 1 Start Microsoft Access and open the database created in Procedure 1 2 Double click the Customers table to open it in datasheet view 3 Press the enter key to move to the Company Name field and enter a company name 4 Click on the New Record button at the bottom of the table window and press the enter key to move to the Company name field of record number 2 5 Enter another company name 6 Repeat steps 4 & 5 until you have at least 5 records 7 Close the table 8 Click the First Record button to go to the first record you just added 9 Click the Next button to go to the next record 10 Click the Last button to go to the last record 11 Close the table Using Find and Replace Microsoft Access also provides a tool to find any text in the table. You can also use this tool to replace one text string with another. To use this feature, first open the table and click in the field you want to search. Then select Find from the Edit menu. The Find and Replace dialog window opens. 21

30 Figure 24 Find and Replace Dialog Window Find Type the text string in the Find What: text box. The Look In: dropdown lets you specify to search only in the selected field or search the whole table. The Match: dropdown lets you specify to match what you typed in the Find What: box with the whole field, any part of the field, or from the beginning of the field. The Match Case check box forces the search to match the case of what you typed. When you have completed the settings, press the Find Next button to begin the search. If you need to change one string of text with another, click on the replace tab. Figure 25 Find and Replace Replace The Replace dialog window works just like the find window with the addition of a text box to enter text to replace the text in the find box with. Plus the addition of Replace and Replace All buttons. Filtering and Sorting Data Microsoft Access provides several methods of sorting and filtering data in a table. Sorting Data Sorting data arranges the records in a table in the order specified by the user. Sorting can be either in ascending or descending order. For example, suppose you wanted to sort a mailing list table alphabetically by the last name of all the entries in the list; to do 22

31 this, click in the last name field of the table and then click the Sort Ascending button ( ) on the table toolbar. You can also sort in the reverse order by clicking on the Sort Descending button ( ). Figure 26 Sorted Ascending by First Name Filtering Data Filter by Selection Filtering data filters and then displays only the records that contain the data specified by the user. Microsoft Access provides several methods of filtering data in a table. Filter by Selection Filter Excluding Selection Filter by Form Advanced Filter/Sort To Filter by Selection, select a field that contains the information you want to filter on and click the Filter by Selection button ( ). Microsoft Access will then display only those records where the fields match. Figure 27 Filtered by Selection First Name Click the Apply Filter button ( ) to remove the filter. Filter Excluding Selection Filter Excluding Selection works the same way except that only those records where the fields do not match the selection are displayed. To access this feature, select Filter Excluding Selection from the Filter menu in the Records menu. 23

32 Figure 28 Filter Menu Filter by Form When you select Filter by Form, Microsoft Access opens a form similar in appearance to the table. The form has all the same fields as the table to be filtered. The difference is the tabs at the bottom right-hand corner of the form. Criteria Tabs Figure 29 Filter by Form Enter the criteria you want to filter on in the appropriate field. You can enter multiple filter criteria in multiple fields which is then logically AND ed together. By clicking on the Or tab at the bottom left hand side of the form you can specify multiple criteria that is then logically OR ed together to create your filter. To start the filter, click the Apply Filter button on the toolbar. Advanced Filter/Sort Advanced Filter/Sort lets users create even more complex filters, and sorts the filter results at the same time. Select Advanced Filter/Sort from the Filter menu. 24

33 Figure 30 Advanced Filter/Sort Window Using the window users determine the fields they want to filter on by clicking in the field cell and selecting the field from the dropdown list. Users then decide whether and how to sort the filtered results. Finally, users enter the criteria for the fields they are filtering. Criteria entered on the same line are logically AND ed together while criteria entered on different lines are logically OR ed together. Sorting and Filtering Exercise The steps in the following procedure will give you practice on using the filtering and sorting capabilities built into Microsoft Access. Procedure 3 Sorting and Filtering Exercise Step Instructions 1 Open the Customers table created in Procedure 2. 2 Click in the Company Name field and then click the Sort Ascending and the Sort Descending buttons. Observe how you re table changes. 3 Return to the original order by clicking in the Customer ID field and then clicking the Sort Ascending button. 4 Click in the Company name field and then click the Filter by Selection button. 5 Click the Apply Filter button to remove the filter. 25

34 Step Instructions 6 Click the Filter by Form button. The form should have the company name of the field where the insertion point is currently located. 7 Click the OR tab at the bottom of the form and enter the name of a second company in your table. 8 Click the Apply Filter button to apply the filter. 9 Click the Apply Filter button again to remove the filter. 10 Close the table. HELP For more information, press the F1 key and search for the word filter or on the word sort. Changing a Field s Data Type After creating a table, especially with a wizard, it may be necessary to change the data type of one or more fields. Changing a field s data type is done in the table design view. (For more information on data types, see Creating Tables-Design View). Suppose, for example, you created a Customers table using the Table Wizard and you want to be able to pick the customer s state from a list. The wizard sets the state field to a data type of Text by default. To change this so the field picks from a list you need to run the lookup wizard on the state field. Open the table in design mode and click in the data type column for the state field, then select Lookup Wizard from the dropdown list. The Lookup wizard opens. 26

35 Figure 31 Lookup Wizard Step One The first step is to tell Microsoft Access how the lookup column will get its data. You can have the lookup column get the data from another table or query, or manually type in the values for the column. The next step depends on the choice made in the first step. If you chose to look up values in a table or query, the wizard opens the following window. Figure 32 Lookup Wizard Tables & Queries Select the table or query you want and click the Next button. For our example, we would choose Table: tbl_states. If you selected to type in your own values, the wizard opens the following window. 27

36 Figure 33 Lookup Wizard Type Your Values Enter the number of columns you want then enter the values in the column cells. Clicking the Next button takes you to the final window. If you selected a table or query to look up the values in, then the wizard goes to the following window. Figure 34 Lookup Wizard Select Fields Select the field or fields you want and click the Next button. The wizard opens the following window that lets you define how to sort the list. 28

37 Figure 35 Lookup Wizard Sort If you want to sort the records, select the field from the dropdown and then select either Ascending or Descending. When you click the Next button, the wizard opens the following window where you can define the width of the column. Figure 36 Lookup Wizard Column Widths Define the width of the column and click the Next button. The wizard opens the final window where you define a label for the column. 29

38 Figure 37 Lookup Wizard Finish Type in a label name and click the Finish button to complete the wizard. You can also choose to have the wizard automatically open Microsoft Access help on customizing the lookup column. When you click the Finish button, Microsoft Access needs to save the table to make the change complete and displays a warning message to give you the opportunity not to make the change. Figure 38 Lookup Wizard Save Warning When you click the Yes button, Microsoft Access returns you to the table s design mode window setting the data type to the type of the underlying lookup column (in this case, Text). Click the Lookup tab of the Field Properties to view the changes made to the field. Figure 39 Field Properties Lookup Tab 30

39 To understand what s been done, compare this to the Lookup tab of another field where the data type is Text but the data is not looked up from another source. Note: When you use the Lookup Wizard to create a lookup column the wizard creates a relationship between the lookup table and the primary table. Once this relationship is created, you cannot change the data type without first deleting the relationship in the relationship window 6. Change Data Type Exercise The steps in the following procedure will lead you through the process of changing a data type and creating a lookup column. Procedure 4 Changing Data Type Exercise Step Instructions 1 Open the database created in Procedure 1 2 Click the New button the database window and import the tbl_states table in the Training database on the CD included with this manual 3 Open the Customers table and click on the StateOrProvence data type column 4 Select Lookup Wizard from the dropdown list 5 Click the Next button leaving the default option of looking up the values in a table or query 6 Select the tbl_states table from the list and click the Next button 7 Move the States field to the Selected Fields pane and click the Next button 8 Select States in the first sort field and click the Next button 9 Resize the column width and click the Next button 10 Click the Finish button 11 Click the OK button the Save warning message box 12 Click the Lookup tab of the field properties for the StateOrProvence field 13 Close the Customer table 6 See the lesson Understanding Table Relationships for more information. 31

40 Understanding Table Relationships Relationship Types We have touched on table relationships in the Designing Your Database lesson earlier in this course. Relationships coordinate related data between different tables. This lesson expands the discussion and shows users how to view and change the relationships between tables. Relationships between tables are created by defining a relationship between the primary key of one table with a foreign key in the related table. There are three types of relationships between tables. One-to-Many Many-to-Many One-to-One One to Many Many to Many One to One A one-to-many relationship would mean that a record in table A could have many related records in table B but records in table B have only one related record in table A. For example, the tables created in Procedure 1 have a one-to-many relationship. Each customer in the Customers table can be related to multiple entries in the Orders table, but each order in the Orders table can only be related to one customer. This is the most common type of relationship. A many-to-many means that an entry in table A can be related to multiple entries in table B and an entry in table B can be related to multiple entries in table A. Creating a third table called a junction table makes this type of relationship possible. The junction table has two primary keys consisting of the foreign keys of the two tables to be joined in a many-to-many relationship. A many-tomany relationship is really two one to many relationships with the third table. In a one-to-one relationship a record in table A would have only one matching record in table B and a record in table B would have only one matching record in table A. Because data related in this manner would typically be included in a single table, this type of relationship is not common. You might create this type of 32

41 Viewing Relationships relationship between two tables to keep track of customers participating in a promotion as an example. Select Relationships from the tools menu or click the Relationships button ( ) on the database window toolbar to open the Relationships window. One to Many relationship Figure 40 Relationships Window The relationships window displays the relationships between all the tables. If there are tables that you know exist but don t show up in the relationships window click the Show Table button ( ). This opens the Show Table window. Figure 41 Show Table Window Select the table you want to display and click the Add button. You can also hide a table by right clicking on the table you want to hide and select Hide Table from the popup menu. 33

42 Figure 42 Table Popup Menu Click the Clear Layout button ( ) to remove all the tables from the relationships window. Note: This does not delete the tables or the relationships; it simply removes them from the window. Changing Relationships You can edit the relationship by double clicking on the join line. The Edit Relationships window opens. Tables Related Fields Figure 43 Edit Relationships Window Using this window, you can change what tables are related, what fields in the tables are related, and turn on or off referential integrity. Referential Integrity Setting referential integrity on enforces rules ensuring that relationships of the related fields are valid, and that related fields are not accidentally changed or deleted. You cannot delete a record from a primary table if there are related records in the related table. For example, you cannot delete a customer s record from the Customers table if there are related order records in the Orders table. You also cannot change the value of the primary key in the primary table if that record has related records. You can change these rules by selecting either Cascade Update Related Fields or Cascade Delete Related Records. If the user sets either of these, the changes that would have been prevented are allowed. When you change the primary key in the primary 34

43 table or delete records from the primary table Microsoft Access makes all the necessary changes to the related tables. Note: If the primary key of the primary number has a data type of AutoNumber, then selecting Cascade Update Related Fields has no effect because you cannot update an AutoNumber field. Join Type When you click the Join button, you can change the join properties of the relationship. Figure 44 Join Properties Select the property choice that suits your requirements and click the OK button. Create New When you click the Create New button, you can create a new relationship between two tables. Figure 45 Create New Relationship Window Select the primary table from the Left Table Name dropdown and the related table in the Right Table Name dropdown. In the Left Column Name dropdown, select the primary key of the table. In the Right Column Name dropdown, select the foreign key. Relationships Exercise Follow the steps in the following procedure to learn how to view and change table relationships. 35

44 Procedure 5 Relationships Exercise Step Instructions 1 Open the database created in Procedure 1 2 Click on the Relationships button 3 If you don t see any tables in the window, click the Show All Relationships button 4 Double click the line joining the two tables 5 In the Edit Relationships window click the Enforce Referential Integrity check box 6 Click the Cascade Deleted Related Records check box 7 Click the Join Type button 8 In the Join Properties window select option number 2 and click the OK button 9 Click the OK button in the Edit Relationship window 10 Close the Relationships window 11 Close the database HELP For more information press the F1 key and search for the word relationships. Forms Microsoft Access provides a method to enter data into and display data from tables without having to open the table itself. You accomplish this by creating forms that are bound to the underlying tables. Data entered in the form is automatically entered into the table or tables. There are many advantages to using forms. Forms make entering data easier than entering data directly into a table s datasheet view. Using forms lets you enter data into more than one table at a time. You can also use forms to limit the data that other users can view or edit. Forms can also include information not included in the table, such as calculations on numerical data in the form. This can be things like totals of amounts or counts of entries. Forms can also be created that are not bound to a table. An example would be a form that opens other forms or prints reports. 36

45 Creating Forms As with tables, Microsoft Access provides several ways to create a form. To create a form first click on the Forms button under the Objects column of the database window. Clicking the New button on the database window opens the New Form window. Figure 46 New Form Window This window lists all of the different choices for creating forms. For the rest of this section we will be discussing the Form Wizard, which is the easiest way of creating a form. You can also start the form wizard by double clicking on Create form by using wizard in the database window. Either method opens the Form Wizard. Select Tables or Queries Select the Fields to include in the form Figure 47 Form Wizard First Step Select the table you want to bind the form to and then select to the fields from that table. You can then select another table and fields from that table. When you have selected all the fields you want included in the form and click the Next button. 37

46 Note: If the primary key has a data type of AutoNumber there is usually no reason to include it in the form since it can t be changed. Figure 48 Form Wizard Second Step The second step is to choose a layout for your form. Columnar arranges the fields in columns (top to bottom) in the form and typically displays only one record at a time. Tabular arranges the fields in rows (left to right) in the form and displays multiple records in the form. Datasheet creates a form that looks like the datasheet view of a table. Justified creates a form where the controls are justified within the boundaries of the form and typically only shows one record at a time. PivotTable and PivotChart are beyond the scope of this training course. The choice of layout is purely a matter of personal preference. We will experiment with the different layouts later in this lesson. After clicking the Next button, the wizard goes to the third step. 38

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