Chapter 1 Modern Quality Management and Improvement. Statistical Quality Control (D. C. Montgomery)

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1 Chapter 1 Modern Quality Management and Improvement 許 湘 伶 Statistical Quality Control (D. C. Montgomery)

2 Quality Control I 工 業 革 命 工 廠 量 產 市 場 競 爭 提 升 : 產 品 工 作 及 服 務 之 品 質 科 技 發 展 企 業 利 潤

3 品 質 Quality (Wiki) I 品 質 ( 英 語 :Quality) 可 指 物 品 的 特 徵 品 性 本 質 也 可 指 商 品 或 服 務 的 水 準 品 質 影 響 品 質 的 要 素 包 括 : 可 靠 性 安 全 性 功 能 上 是 否 完 備 能 否 滿 足 需 求

4 品 質 Quality (Wiki) II 品 質 的 定 義 隨 著 時 代 在 改 變 : 約 瑟 夫 朱 蘭 (Juran): 品 質 就 是 適 合 使 用 (Fitness for use) 是 否 適 合 則 交 由 客 戶 來 定 義 菲 利 浦 克 勞 士 比 (Crosby): 品 質 就 是 符 合 需 求 (Conformance to requirements) 戴 明 (Deming): 現 在 與 未 來 的 顧 客 需 求, 並 以 顧 客 需 求 為 主 石 川 馨 (K. Ishikawa): 是 可 使 買 方 滿 意 的 程 度 田 口 玄 一 (Taguchi): 產 品 出 廠 後 對 社 會 造 成 損 失 的 程 度 ISO 9000( 國 際 標 準 化 組 織 設 立 的 標 準 ): 品 質 是 一 組 固 有 特 性 ( 在 產 品 或 服 務 中 本 身 具 有 的 特 性 ) 符 合 需 求 的 程 度 六 標 準 差 (6σ): 產 品 中 無 缺 陷 產 品 的 百 分 比 ( 每 一 百 萬 中 有 3.4 個 有 缺 陷 )

5 品 質 Quality (Wiki) III 狩 野 紀 昭 : 將 品 質 視 為 壹 個 二 維 的 系 統 - 當 然 的 品 質 (must-be quality) 及 有 魅 力 的 品 質 (attractive quality) 符 合 或 超 越 客 戶 期 待 的 產 品 及 服 務 羅 伯 特 梅 納 德 波 西 格 : 品 質 是 用 心 的 結 果 (The result of care) 審 美 : 用 於 評 論 藝 術 類 作 品 時, 審 美 是 用 來 判 斷 是 否 有 內 在 的 優 點 價 值 或 其 他 卓 越 性

6 品 質 Quality I Garvin (1987): 8 dimensions of quality 1. Performance 表 現 : 手 機 畫 質 2. Reliability 可 靠 性 : 維 修 頻 率 3. Durability 耐 久 性 : 筆 電 電 池 續 航 時 間 燈 泡 壽 命 4. Serviceability 服 務 性 : 售 後 服 務 5. Aesthetics 美 觀 性 : 手 機 外 觀 設 計 6. Features 特 性 : 汽 車 配 備 - 音 響 倒 車 攝 影 主 動 煞 車 系 統 7. Perceived Quality 品 質 感 受 : 品 牌 8. Conformance to Standards 符 合 性 (Industrial and many business situation)

7 品 質 Quality II 1. Responsiveness 回 應 性 2. Professionalism 專 業 性 3. Attentiveness 關 注 ; 殷 勤 (service and transactional business ( 交 易 型 業 務 ) organizations: banking, health care etc.)

8 何 謂 quality? I Traditional definition Quality: fitness for use ( 適 用 性 ) quality of design ( 設 計 品 質 ) quality of conformance ( 符 合 品 質 ): 是 否 符 合 規 範? 產 品 符 合 設 計 所 需 要 的 規 格 the choice of manufacturing processes the training( 訓 練 ) supervision of the workforce ( 勞 動 力 的 監 督 ) the types of process controls, tests inspection activities and so on

9 何 謂 quality? II Modern definition Quality: inversely proportional to variability( 變 異 性 ) Variability Quality of the product warranty claims and repair costs

10 何 謂 quality? III Quality Improvement Quality Improvement: the reduction of variability in processes and products reduction of waste wasted effort and expense can be avoided

11 Quality characteristics( 品 質 特 性 ) I Quality characteristics: 亦 稱 關 鍵 質 量 要 素 (critical-to-quality) Physical( 物 理 的 ): 長 度 重 量 電 壓 黏 性 (viscosity)... 等 Sensory( 感 覺 的 ): 味 道 外 觀 顏 色... 等 Time orientation( 時 間 導 向 ): 可 靠 度 耐 久 性 服 務... 等

12 Quality engineering I 品 質 工 程 : the set of operational( 操 作 上 的 ), managerial( 管 理 的 ) and engineering activities ensure: the quality characteristics of a product are at the nominal or required levels the variability around the desired levels is minimum Source of variability: materials manufacturing equipment operators perform

13 Brief history

14 Brief history

15 Brief history

16 Brief history

17 Statistical Methods I Quality improvement: 1. statistical process control 2. design of experiments 3. acceptance sampling

18 Statistical Methods II Control chart ( 管 制 圖 ): one of the primary techniques of SPC useful process monitoring technique

19 Statistical Methods III Designed experiments( 實 驗 設 計 ): factorial design a major off-line quality-control tool development activities reducing variability

20 Statistical Methods IV Acceptance sampling( 允 收 抽 樣 ): inspection( 檢 驗 ) and testing( 測 試 ) of product inspection: may occur at many points in a process outgoing inspection and incoming inspection

21 Statistical Methods V Systematic reduction of variability

22 Management aspects I Three activities: 1. Quality planning: identifying customers, both external and those that operate internal to the business, and identifying their needs 2. Quality assurance 3. Quality control and improvement

23 Management aspects II Deming s 14 points for management 1. 建 立 持 之 以 恆 地 改 進 產 品 和 服 務 目 標 2. 採 用 新 的 觀 念 3. 停 止 依 靠 大 規 模 檢 查 去 控 制 質 量 4. 不 再 僅 以 價 格 為 採 購 之 考 量 標 準 5. 持 續 不 斷 的 改 善 : 生 產 與 服 務 6. 實 施 教 育 訓 練 7. 建 立 領 導 力 8. 消 除 恐 懼 9. 打 破 部 門 之 間 的 障 礙 10. 取 消 對 員 工 的 標 語 訓 詞 和 告 誡 11. 用 領 導 力 來 代 替 定 額 管 理 和 目 標 管 理 12. 消 除 影 響 員 工 工 作 自 豪 感 的 一 切 障 礙 13. 鼓 勵 學 習 和 自 我 提 高

24 Management aspects III Deming: the Shewhart cycle-pdca 1. Plan: 決 定 目 標 與 達 成 方 法 2. Do: 執 行 3. Check: 檢 核 - 分 析, 判 定 4. Act: 改 善

25 Management aspects IV Juran ( ): Juran quality management philosophy: 1. planning 2. control 3. improvement Feigenbaum: Total quality control (1951) Three-step approach to improving quality 1. quality leadership 2. quality technology: statistical and engineering methods 3. organizational commitment

26 Six sigma I Six sigma program: developed by Motorola (in late 1980s) reducing variability

27 Six sigma II Occur probability A product: 100 independent components The probability of nondefective: about 23.6% of the products produced will be defective How about 100,000 components?? Motorola: ± 6σ

28 Six sigma III P(Product with nondefective) = (0.2ppm) How about the mean shifted by ±1.5σ?

29 Six sigma IV Six Sigma uses a specific five-step problem-solving approach: utilizes many basic statistical tools an extremely effective framework for improving processes

30 Quality and Productivity I Quality costs financial controls: actual and budgeted costs Why the cost of quality should be explicitly considered in an organization: Technology: the complexity of manufactured products cost of quality

31 Quality and Productivity II maintenance, spare( 備 用 的 ) parts, cost of field failures: life-cycle cost quality engineers and managers: most effectively communicate quality issues Quality costs: 與 底 下 項 目 相 關 之 成 本 producing identifying avoiding repairing products

32 Quality and Productivity III

33 Quality and Productivity IV A copier machine 100 parts per day; each cost $20 conforms: 75% nonconforms: 25%; about 60% can be reworked; rework cost $4 The manufacturing cost per good part: Cost/good part = = $20(100) + $4( ) $20(100) + $4(15) = $

34 Quality and Productivity V A new statistical process control procedure nonconforms: 25% 5%; The manufacturing cost per good part: $20(100) + $4( ) Cost/good part = $20(100) + $4(3) = = $ Reduction cost: ( )/22.89 = 10.3% Increasing productivity: (8)/90 = 8.9%

35 The analysis and use of costs I 各 家 公 司 的 品 質 成 本 各 不 相 同 The usefulness of quality costs stems from the leverage effect( 槓 桿 作 用 ). Ex: investing $10 or $100 (or more) in prevention cost reducing internal and external failures Quality-cost analysis( 品 質 成 本 分 析 ): identification of improvement opportunities cost reduction( 降 低 成 本 )

36 The analysis and use of costs II Pareto analysis( 柏 拉 圖 分 析 ): identifying quality costs by category, or by product, or by type of defect

37 The analysis and use of costs III library(qcc) defect <- c(37500,12000,8000,5100,5000,4600) names(defect) <- c("insufficient solder","misaligned components", "Defective components","missing components", "Cold solder joints","all other causes") pareto.chart(defect, ylab = "Defects",main=" 印 刷 電 路 板 裝 配 - 廢 品 及 再 製 成 本 分 析 ")

38 Part I Chapter 2 The DMAIC Problem Solving Process

39 DMAIC I

40 DMAIC II

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