Unit 6: Quality Management (PMBOK Guide, Chapter 8)

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Unit 6: Quality Management (PMBOK Guide, Chapter 8)"

Transcription

1 (PMBOK Guide, Chapter 8) Historically, quality management questions have been difficult for some exam takers for two major reasons: 1) over-reliance on their previous training and personal experience (rather than carefully reviewing PMI terminology) and 2) mathematical concepts such as process control and standard deviation have caused difficulty for some people. See course slide #6-1 for an overview of quality management. Major Processes 8.1 Plan Quality Management (identifying quality requirements and standards and how to demonstrate compliance) 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance (auditing quality requirements and quality control measurements to ensure appropriate quality standards are used) 8.3 Control Quality (monitoring results to assess performance and recommend necessary changes) The PMBOK Guide defines quality management as the processes required to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken. PMI indicates that their approach to quality management is intended to be compatible with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as well as other well-known approaches associated with Deming, Crosby, TQM, Six Sigma, Lean Six Sigma, and Continuous Improvement. PMI defines quality as the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements (PMBOK Guide, p. 228). A critical part of the process is to identify stakeholder needs and turn them into requirements. Needs may be explicitly stated or implied. Quality and grade are not the same thing. Grade is measured by features and functions and a project team can choose a lower grade because it saves money and still meets requirements (for example, a BMW would be nice but a Ford Focus may meet your needs at a lower cost). However, low quality is always a problem because it means that needs and requirements are not being met. Although not specifically mentioned in the PMBOK Guide, a related concept that often appears on the exam is that of gold-plating. Gold-plating is providing a solution that exceeds the original requirement and is bad to the extent that it may cause the project to cost more and take longer. If the requirements are accurate, there is no reason to exceed them (especially if doing so results in lost profits for the contractor). CMF Solutions and ESI July 2013 PMC:DJ4:EN:000 ver

2 PMI also distinguishes precision from accuracy. Precision is consistency or exactness, which means that process outcomes have very little scatter or variation. Unfortunately, outcomes could be consistently in the wrong place (i.e., not meeting the requirements) and so accuracy is also required. Accuracy means correctness, which means that outcomes are close to the required value. Finally, PMI contends that achieving ISO compatibility means that quality management must recognize the importance of: Customer satisfaction, which requires attention to conformance to specifications (the project produces what it said it would) and fitness for use (the product must satisfy real needs). Prevention over inspection, which holds that the cost of avoiding mistakes is less than the cost of correcting them. Continuous improvement, which uses techniques such as the Shewhart plando-check-act model, TQM, Six Sigma, Lean Six Sigma and the Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3 ). Management responsibility, which recognizes that participation of the entire organization is needed for success, but it is the responsibility of management to provide adequate resources and sound processes. Cost of quality (COQ), which refers to the total cost of conformance as well as nonconformance. Modern quality thinking emphasizes the cost of conformance so that defects are prevented rather than spending time and money correcting mistakes. PMI indicates that post-project quality costs may be incurred because of recalls, warranty work, and product returns. These post-project quality costs should be analyzed as a part of on-going program and portfolio management. 8.1 Plan Quality Management (PMBOK Guide, p. 231) Quality planning involves identifying quality requirements and standards for the project and the product and documenting how to demonstrate compliance. The resulting quality management plan provides guidance on how quality will be managed and validated. PMI emphasizes that quality should be planned in, not inspected in. Although inspection is definitely part of quality management, increased inspection is generally not considered the best path to improved quality. Quality planning should be performed in parallel with other planning efforts such as cost, schedule, procurement, and risk. Project planners must always remember that changes in quality may especially affect cost, schedule, and risk. 6-2 PMC:DJ4:EN:000 ver.2.0 CMF Solutions and ESI July 2013

3 Plan Quality Management Inputs Tools Outputs 1. Project management plan 2. Stakeholder register 3. Risk register 4. Requirements documentation 5. Enterprise environmental factors 6. Organizational process assets 1. Cost-benefit analysis 2. Cost of quality 3. Seven basic quality tools 4. Benchmarking 5. Design of experiments 6. Statistical sampling 7. Additional quality planning tools 8. Meetings 1. Quality management plan 2. Process improvement plan 3. Quality metrics 4. Quality checklists 5. Project documents updates Six Key Inputs for Plan Quality Management (PMBOK Guide, p. 233): 1. Project Management Plan: The quality management plan is a component of the project management plan and contains the following information: a) Scope baseline: Comprised of the following three documents: Scope statement: Contains project description, major deliverables, and acceptance criteria. Acceptance criteria provide a method for assessing whether quality requirements have been met and may also have an effect on overall project costs. WBS: Identifies the deliverables, work packages, and control accounts used to measure performance. WBS dictionary: Defines technical information for completing each activity. b) Schedule baseline: The approved schedule including planned start and finish times. c) Cost baseline: Documents planned costs and the time intervals for measuring and reporting actual cost performance. d) Other management plans: Various subsidiary management plans (human resource, communication, risk, procurement, and stakeholder) may highlight areas of concern for quality management. CMF Solutions and ESI July 2013 PMC:DJ4:EN:000 ver

4 2. Stakeholder Register: As described earlier, the register identifies stakeholders with an interest in the project. In this case, the focus would be on those with an interest in or impact on quality. 3. Risk Register: May contain information on threats and opportunities that may affect quality (Section ). 4. Requirements Documentation: Captures and documents key product and project requirements that must be met to satisfy stakeholders. Quality management is aimed at meeting these requirements. 5. Enterprise Environmental Factors: Factors such as government or industry regulations, rules, standards, and guidelines must be considered. For the exam, you should know the difference between a standard and a regulation. A standard is an optional guide that suggests preferred practices. A regulation is mandatory and requires compliance (building codes on a construction project). Governmental regulations (compliance is mandatory) Organizational or industry rules, standards, and guidelines (which are usually optional guides or best practices) Working/operating conditions for the project/product Cultural perceptions that may affect expectations about quality 6. Organizational Process Assets: Organizational Process Assets that might influence the Plan Quality process include: Organizational quality policies, procedures, and guidelines Historical databases and lessons learned Know the PMI definition of quality policy, which is the overall intentions and direction of an organization with regard to quality, as formally expressed by top management Eight Key Tools for Plan Quality Management (PMBOK Guide, p. 235): 1. Cost-Benefit Analysis: For quality planning purposes, benefit/cost trade-offs refer to the cost of engaging in quality management activities against the resulting benefits to the project. The potential benefits of meeting quality requirements include: Less rework Higher productivity 6-4 PMC:DJ4:EN:000 ver.2.0 CMF Solutions and ESI July 2013

5 Lower costs and increased profitability Increased stakeholder satisfaction 2. Cost of Quality (COQ): The total cost of efforts to achieve quality, which includes the costs of conformance (preventing defects and assessing quality) and non-conformance (fixing defects). Three specific categories of costs are prevention, appraisal, and failure. Preventing defects is believed to reduce overall costs and is preferred over costs of non-conformance. Prevention (Build a Quality Product) Conformance Appraisal (Assess Quality) Conformance Failure Nonconformance Planning Training Equipment (calibration and maintenance) Test and evaluation Process control Inspection Internal (found by project) Scrap Rework External (found by customer) Liabilities (recalls) Warranty work Lost business Also note: PMI advocates Deming s philosophy that approximately 80-90% of the costs of quality are the direct responsibility of management. 3. Seven Basic Quality Tools: Also known as 7QC, the seven basic quality tools include (also see course slides #6-2 through #6-8 for examples): a) Cause and effect diagrams: You must know that cause and effect diagrams are also called Ishikawa or Fishbone diagrams. They are used to illustrate the possible factors that may be causing or influencing certain problems. The problem statement is displayed at the head of the fishbone and selected stakeholders ask why until an actionable root cause has been identified. One possible use of fishbone diagrams is to investigate the special variations known as special causes in control charts (covered below in item 3f). PMI also emphasizes that they may be used to stimulate thinking and discussion. b) Flowcharts: Diagrams used to help analyze how problems occur. Most flowcharts show activities, decision points, and the sequence in which process steps occur. They are also called process maps because they are often used to show the steps in a process so that problems may be eliminated and CMF Solutions and ESI July 2013 PMC:DJ4:EN:000 ver

6 improvements implemented. The PMBOK Guide provides an illustration in Figure 8-7 on page 239. c) Checksheets: permit data to be collected quickly in simple, standardized formats. They are used to make data collection fast and easy. The data most frequently collected are defect causes, number of defects, and defect locations. The checksheet may be a simple checklist format or it may also contain a graphic representation of an object (rental car companies sometimes use such a picture for checking a car before you leave the lot). The data needed to create Pareto diagrams may be collected using checksheets. Again, PMBOK Guide, Figure 8-7, p. 239 shows an illustration. d) Pareto diagrams: A histogram (vertical bar chart) rank ordered to display the most likely causes of defects in descending order. The greatest cause of defects or variances is shown as the tallest bar on the left of the chart. The causes are rank ordered from left to right, and the rank ordering is used to guide corrective action, i.e., the greatest cause of variance is worked on first. The tool was named after an Italian economist who discovered that 80% of the wealth in a particular region in Europe was held by only 20% of the population. This discovery eventually was dubbed the 80/20 rule, indicating the importance of focusing efforts toward improvement on the significant few. e) Histograms: A vertical bar chart that rank orders or prioritizes data. A Pareto diagram is a specific example of such a chart. f) Control charts: Control charts are used to determine whether a process is stable (under control) and is therefore producing predictable results. The charts track three major types of data: 1) specification limits are requirements in the contract, 2) control limits define points at which corrective action is considered, and 3) there is a planned goal (the perfect outcome). Key points about control charts (read the following details as part of your self-study): A process need not be adjusted if it is under control. However, it can be changed to provide basic improvements at any time. Upper and lower control limits (UCL/LCL) must not be confused with specification limits (USL/LSL). Control limits describe the natural variation of a process; observations (process results) that fall within the limits usually indicate normal, expected variations. Points outside the limits mean that something has occurred that needs investigation and 6-6 PMC:DJ4:EN:000 ver.2.0 CMF Solutions and ESI July 2013

7 perhaps correction. Points outside the limits are referred to as special events or assignable causes. Typical causes of such results are: Equipment problems (tolerances not adjusted properly, worn out, and so on) Materials problems (wrong quality/grade, defective, and so on) Employee problems (understaffed, poor training, and so on) The PMBOK Guide states that control limits are generally set at plus or minus three sigma from the mean. Specification limits are the tolerances agreed to in the contract. Whereas specification limits represent the contractual obligation, control limits represent the natural capability of your current process. Spec limits are sometimes referred to as the voice of the customer. Rule of Seven: When interpreting control charts, this rule of thumb (heuristic) states that if seven or more observations in a row fall on the same side of the mean (or if they trend constantly in the same direction increasing or decreasing), they should be investigated as if they have an assignable cause. This is true even if the observations are within the control limits. The reason for this rule is that it is extremely unlikely that seven observations in a row would fit the pattern described if the process is operating normally (by extremely unlikely we mean less than a 1 percent chance, calculated as.50 raised to the 7 th power, or.0078). Effect of standard deviation: Recall the concept of six sigma that was mentioned in the time management section. Six Sigma: You should know that PMI has observed that numerous modern companies have adopted Six Sigma as the standard for measuring quality. The more traditional approach was three sigma. The difference is that six sigma captures about % of outcomes whereas three sigma only captures about 99.7%. That means that defects would occur only about 3.4 times in a million under six sigma but they would occur three times in a thousand under three sigma. In other words, six sigma is a much more stringent quality control requirement. Effect of sample size on control limits: Standard deviation is one of the factors that affects whether the upper and lower control limits are wide or narrow in comparison to the mean in a control chart. For the exam, be aware that larger sample sizes will tend to result in smaller CMF Solutions and ESI July 2013 PMC:DJ4:EN:000 ver

8 standard deviations, which in turn mean more narrow control limits. The converse is also true, i.e., smaller sample sizes tend toward larger standard deviations and wider control limits. g) Scatter diagrams: Shows the relationship between two variables known as the dependent and the independent variables. In the example shown in course slide #6-8, the dependent variable (Y-axis) is the defect rate and the independent variable (X-axis) is the average hours of training. 4. Benchmarking: Comparing planned or actual project practices to those of other projects to a) generate ideas for improvement and b) provide a standard to measure performance against. 5. Design of Experiments (DOE): A statistical technique that helps determine how different variables influence project outcomes. Experiments are essentially observations conducted under controlled circumstances. For instance, experiments during development of an automobile may control various combinations of tires and suspension and reveal which produces the best ride for the target customers. PMI suggests that DOE is especially useful for determining how much testing is needed and for optimizing the performance of processes and/or products. 6. Statistical Sampling: Choosing part of a population for inspection. For example, one might examine 150 of the 1,000 welds on a bridge construction project to determine whether the welds conform to requirements. Sampling is done to reduce the cost of quality. A sampling plan is often developed during quality planning so that the total cost of quality is known. 7. Additional Quality Planning Tools: There are other techniques that can assist in defining quality requirements, including: Brainstorming Force field analysis Nominal group technique Quality management and control tools (defined in Section ) 8. Meetings: Meetings involving the project manager, sponsor, selected team members, and other selected stakeholders for the purpose of developing the quality management plan. 6-8 PMC:DJ4:EN:000 ver.2.0 CMF Solutions and ESI July 2013

9 Five Key Outputs for Plan Quality Management (PMBOK Guide, p. 241): 1. Quality Management Plan: Describes how the project team will implement its quality policy. The quality plan is an input to the overall project management plan and describes the approaches for quality assurance, continuous process improvement, and quality control. The plan should focus on efforts early in the project that will reduce cost and schedule problems caused by rework. 2. Process Improvement Plan: A plan that details the steps for improving existing processes. May include activities such as: Process boundaries: Describes the start, purpose, and end of each process. The following processes are normally part of quality management: audits, metrics, benchmarking, experiments, quality planning, and status reports. Process configuration: A flowchart that shows all steps and interfaces in a process. Targets for Improved Performance: Self-explanatory. Process metrics: Measuring performance and improvements. 3. Quality Metrics: Also known as operational definitions, metrics describe how something will be measured. Quality metrics might include failure rates and reliability. A related project performance metric might measure whether an activity is on time (A decision would have to be made as to whether on time means starting on time, finishing on time, or both). Other typical quality metrics include defect frequency, failure rate, reliability (such as MTBF, mean time between failure), and test results (technical performance). 4. Quality Checklists: A structured tool to verify that all steps in a process have been performed. Checklists are often used in the quality management process, especially for complex tasks or for tasks performed frequently. 5. Project Documents Updates: Documents that may be updated as a result of quality planning include: Stakeholder register (Section ) Responsibility assignment matrix (Section ) WBS and WBS dictionary CMF Solutions and ESI July 2013 PMC:DJ4:EN:000 ver

10 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance (PMBOK Guide, p. 242) Quality assurance involves auditing quality requirements and results from quality control measurements to ensure the project will use appropriate quality standards and processes. Quality assurance creates a management system for auditing quality requirements, reviewing organizational processes (audits), and capturing the results from quality control in the form of QC measurements. The QC feedback is used to determine whether adjustments are needed in the quality assurance system. Quality assurance activities fall under the costs of conformance. Quality assurance is also the umbrella for continuous process improvement. Continuous improvement is aimed at identifying and reviewing all organizational processes so that increased efficiency and effectiveness can be achieved. Perform Quality Assurance Inputs Tools Outputs 1. Quality management plan 2. Process improvement plan 3. Quality metrics 4. Quality control measurements 5. Project documents 1. Quality management and control tools 2. Quality audits 3. Process analysis 1. Change requests 2. Project management plan updates 3. Project documents updates 4. OPA updates Five Key Inputs for Perform Quality Assurance (PMBOK Guide, p. 244): 1. Quality Management Plan: Describes the approaches for quality assurance and continuous process improvement. 2. Process Improvement Plan: Details the steps for analyzing processes to improve project management and product development processes (Section ). 3. Quality Metrics: Identifies attributes that should be measured (Section ). 4. Quality Control Measurements: The results of quality control that are in turn fed back to Quality Assurance to consider any potential changes in the organization s quality standards and processes. These measurements provide 6-10 PMC:DJ4:EN:000 ver.2.0 CMF Solutions and ESI July 2013

11 evidence as to whether processes are performing to the required standards of the organization and/or customer. 5. Project Documents: May affect quality assurance and should be monitored, especially with respect to configuration management. Three Key Tools for Perform Quality Assurance (PMBOK Guide, p. 245): 1. Quality Management and Control Tools: The tools for quality planning (Section 8.1.2) and quality control (Section 8.3.2) may also be used for quality assurance. Other relevant tools include (see PMBOK Guide, Figure 8-10, p. 246): Affinity diagrams (a kind of brainstorming tool used by a team to organize large amounts of detailed data into logical categories) Process decision program charts (identifies the steps envisioned for reaching a stated goal and highlights possible risks) Interrelationship digraphs (a special form of cause-and-effect diagram aimed at examining factors in complex situations) Tree diagrams (conceptually similar to the decomposition of a WBS, this tool breaks broad categories of information into finer and finer levels of detail) Prioritization matrices (much like a scoring model and pairwise comparisons, this tool applies weighted criteria to rank order and prioritize any list of options) Activity network diagrams (used to plan the appropriate sequence for a set of activities or tasks; examples include arrow and precedence diagrams covered previously in the time management chapter) Matrix diagrams (a chart with rows, columns, and cells [problems, factors, objectives respectively; the diagram attempts to show the strength of relationships among these factors) 2. Quality Audits: Structured, independent reviews to identify inefficient processes, reduce the cost of quality, and increase the percentage of accepted products (prevent defects from occurring). The specific objectives of a quality audit may include: Identify and share best practices currently being implemented Identify shortcomings and nonconformities Document the lessons learned from each audit Share good practices used on similar projects in the organization and within the relevant industry CMF Solutions and ESI July 2013 PMC:DJ4:EN:000 ver

12 Audits may be scheduled or random, and they may be conducted by internal or external auditors. 3. Process Analysis: Identifies and implements needed improvements by using the process improvement plans mentioned earlier (Section ). Four Key Outputs for Perform Quality Assurance (PMBOK Guide, p. 247): 1. Change Requests: Change requests may be used to take corrective action, preventive action, or perform defect repair. In this case, the requested changes may be aimed at quality improvement. As always, change requests are processed using integrated change control (Section 4.5). 2. Project Management Plan Updates: Portions of the project management plan that may be updated as a result of quality assurance include: Quality management plan Scope management plan Schedule management plan Cost management plan 3. Project Documents Updates: May include the following: Quality audit reports Training plans Process documentation 4. Organizational Process Assets Updates: Any updates to established quality standards and the quality management system. Additional Information about Quality Assurance: The quality assurance system should provide three things: Auditing Feedback Correction 6-12 PMC:DJ4:EN:000 ver.2.0 CMF Solutions and ESI July 2013

13 Quality evaluation: There are two kinds of evaluation you should know for the exam. They are similar to the mid-project and post-project evaluations in the integration management chapter, and they come from the literature on education: Formative (also called a quality audit): Done during the project for the purpose of making corrections. Summative (also called quality improvement): Done after the project for the purpose of documenting lessons learned. Quality responsibility: Responsibility for quality can be viewed two ways (be careful of the exact wording on this topic): 1. Responsibility for a task: Belongs to the individual employee performing the task. 2. Responsibility for the project: Belongs to the project manager. 8.3 Control Quality (PMBOK Guide, p. 248) Quality control involves monitoring and recording specific project results to assess performance and recommend necessary changes. Project results include both product deliverables and project performance measures such as cost and schedule. The primary differences between quality assurance and quality control are as follows: Quality assurance is used during planning and executing to provide confidence that stakeholders requirements will be met. Quality control is used during executing and closing to provide formal documentation that acceptance criteria have been met. Project teams should know the differences between: Prevention (keeping errors out of the process) and inspection (keeping errors away from the customer). Attribute sampling (the result conforms or it does not; an item is dented or not dented) and variables sampling (results are measured to determine the degree of conformity). Tolerances (the result is acceptable if it s within the range specified by the tolerance) and control limits (the process is under control if the result falls within the control limits). CMF Solutions and ESI July 2013 PMC:DJ4:EN:000 ver

14 Control Quality Inputs Tools Outputs 1. Project management plan 2. Quality metrics 3. Quality checklists 4. Work performance data 5. Approved change requests 6. Deliverables 7. Project documents 8. Organizational process assets 1. Seven basic quality tools 2. Statistical sampling 3. Inspection 4. Approved change requests review 1. Quality control measurements 2. Validated changes 3. Verified deliverables 4. Work performance information 5. Change requests 6. Project management plan updates 7. Project documents updates 8. OPA updates Eight Key Inputs for Control Quality (PMBOK Guide, p. 250): 1. Project Management Plan: Contains the quality management plan which documents how quality control is to be handled. 2. Quality Metrics: Described in Section , provides information such as MTTR (Mean Time To Repair) and MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure). 3. Quality Checklists: Described in Section Work Performance Data: Contains measures of actual progress which are compared to planned progress. These metrics include: Planned vs. actual technical performance Planned vs. actual schedule performance Planned vs. actual cost performance 5. Approved Change Requests: Approved changes may affect work methods, schedules, and defect repairs. The correct and timely implementation of approved changes must be verified. 6. Deliverables: Described in Section (any verifiable product or result) PMC:DJ4:EN:000 ver.2.0 CMF Solutions and ESI July 2013

15 7. Project Documents: Relevant documents include: Agreements (contracts, MOUs, and so on) Quality audit reports and change logs with corrective action plans Training plans Process documentation associated with use of the seven basic quality tools 8. Organizational Process Assets: Organizational Process Assets that may affect quality control include: Quality standards and policies Standard work guidelines Procedures and policies for issue reporting, defect reporting, and communication Four Key Tools for Control Quality (PMBOK Guide, p. 252): 1. Seven Basic Quality Tools: Described in Section , the 7QC also apply to quality control. As shown previously, see course slides #6-2 through #6-8 for examples. 2. Statistical Sampling: Described in Section , appropriate samples are selected and tested in accordance with the quality management plan. Remember that sampling is done to reduce the cost of quality control. For the exam, you should know the conditions under which sampling is most appropriate: When the population is large When the cost of inspection is high When destructive testing is required When you believe there are not many defects Attribute sampling looks for the presence or absence of particular defects. Variable sampling provides the basis for control charts by numerically measuring the degree of conformity for particular factors. 3. Inspection: The examination of a work product to determine whether it conforms to standards. Inspections generally include measurements and may be conducted at any level (the final product, a sub-system, or a single activity). CMF Solutions and ESI July 2013 PMC:DJ4:EN:000 ver

16 Inspections may also be used to validate defect repairs on previously rejected work. As before, other names include reviews, audits, and walkthroughs. 4. Approved Change Requests Review: These reviews are designed to ensure that approved change requests were implemented correctly. Eight Key Outputs for Control Quality (PMBOK Guide, p. 252): 1. Quality Control Measurements: As described in quality assurance, these measurements are used as feedback to QA to reevaluate any quality standards currently in use. 2. Validated Changes: Repaired or changed items are inspected and either accepted or rejected. Rejected items may require rework. 3. Verified Deliverables: A major goal of quality control is to ensure that deliverables are correct. Verified deliverables are inputs to Validate Scope (Section 5.5) for formal acceptance. 4. Work Performance Information: Performance data that have been analyzed and integrated. Relevant data for quality control purposes include: Causes for rejected work Rework associated with those rejects Process adjustments that have become necessary 5. Change Requests: If recommended corrective actions, preventive actions, or defect repairs lead to change requests, the requests must be processed using integrated change control. 6. Project Management Plan Updates: Portions of the project management plan that may be updated include: Quality management plan Process improvement plan 7. Project Documents Updates: Documents that may be updated include: Quality standards and agreements Quality audit reports and change logs (for corrective actions) Training plans Process documentation associated with the use of any quality tools 6-16 PMC:DJ4:EN:000 ver.2.0 CMF Solutions and ESI July 2013

17 8. Organizational Process Assets Updates: Recording the use of checklists and incorporating those records into the historical database of the organization. Other Topics: Graphs: Serve as powerful communication tools. They allow project teams to present data in a simple pictorial format that is easily understood. Types of graphs include: Pie charts (relative or comparative effect) Line graphs (excellent way to show whether trends exist) Histograms, also called bar charts (grouping data and rank ordering, e.g., Pareto diagram) Kaizen and continuous improvement: The Japanese word for continuous improvement is kaizen. The key idea is that improving quality is not a one-time, discrete event. Rather, it is an ongoing process involving managers and workers alike. The purpose of continuous improvement is to reduce variances and thereby reduce the cost of nonconformance. A related Japanese term is warusa kagen, which identifies things that are not currently wrong, but are not exactly correct either. In other words, these are potential emerging problems that should be monitored. Priority of Quality, Cost, and Schedule: Historically, quality received lip service in many companies but was actually subservient to cost and schedule goals. Modern thinking emphasizes that quality should share equal priority with cost and schedule goals. Design and quality: Careful design of a product or service is expected to increase reliability and maintainability (two important measures of quality). You should also know two related precepts: Quality should be designed in; not inspected in!!! The primary responsibility for developing design specifications rests with the project engineers. Just-in-Time (JIT): An inventory control approach that attempts to reduce work-inprocess inventory to zero stock. Thus, there is no buffer or reserve stock to fall CMF Solutions and ESI July 2013 PMC:DJ4:EN:000 ver

18 back on. Zero work-in-process inventory forces a company to find and fix quality problems or they will constantly miss their schedule commitments. Kanban: JIT is usually implemented through a pull inventory system. Workers at a station do not automatically receive more input materials from preceding workstations. Instead, the workers communicate to the preceding station when they are ready for more work-in-process inputs. The communication mechanism is known as kanban, and may include anything from bar coding, computerized methods, ping pong balls routed through vacuum tubes, runners, people traveling on bicycles, and so on. Motivation and quality: PMI advocates the belief that increased quality is the likely result when team members display pride, commitment, and an interest in workmanship. One way to harm such a culture is by allowing frequent turnover of the people assigned to the project. Marginal analysis: Optimal quality is reached at the point where the incremental revenue from improvement equals the incremental cost to secure it. Taguchi method: A statistical approach that calculates a loss function to determine the cost of producing products or outcomes that do not achieve a specified target value. Other key quality terminology: Attribute: A quality characteristic that may be classified as conforming or not conforming. Note also that attributes can be objective or subjective in nature. Variable: A quality characteristic that is numerically measurable in increments. Examples include diameter measured in inches, weight measured in pounds, speed measured in miles per hour, battery life measured in hours, and so on. Probability: The likelihood that something will happen. Probability for attributes is essentially like a coin toss, a chance that something will occur or not. Probability for variables is more complicated and involves the concept of probability distributions, or a range of possible outcomes. Two familiar probability distributions are: Normal distribution or bell curve Histogram (bar chart), for example, a Pareto chart Population: The entire group of items that we wish to measure PMC:DJ4:EN:000 ver.2.0 CMF Solutions and ESI July 2013

19 Sample: Because populations can be quite large, we often examine only some of the items hoping to get an accurate picture of the entire group at a lower cost. Standard deviation: A measure of the potential variations around a projected outcome. You should memorize the following four numbers: +/- 1 sigma 68.3% of the total population +/- 2 sigma 95.5% of the total population +/- 3 sigma 99.7% of the total population +/- 6 sigma % of the total population Know that +/- 3 sigma is the traditional approach to setting quality standards and also means that 99.7% of the outcomes will meet requirements. Conversely, 3 items in a thousand will have a defect of some kind. By comparison, +/- 6 sigma is the more modern, and also more stringent, approach to setting quality standards. If processes are designed to a standard of six sigma, you will only experience defects of approximately three per million. TQM (Total Quality Management): Know the following statement about TQM (p. 229, PMBOK Guide): TQM is an approach for implementing a quality improvement program and for achieving continuous improvement ISO 9000: This entry is provided to clarify the references on pp. 6-1 and 6-2 at the beginning of the chapter. ISO 9000 is one aspect of the overall International Organization for Standardization (ISO) program. Specifically, ISO 9000 describes a recommended quality system that complies with international standards. Run Chart: Trend analysis is performed using a run chart, which is a line graph that plots data points in the order in which they occur (i.e., on a time scale). The data may show: Variation Declines or improvements over time Trends CMF Solutions and ESI July 2013 PMC:DJ4:EN:000 ver

20 This page intentionally blank 6-20 PMC:DJ4:EN:000 ver.2.0 CMF Solutions and ESI July 2013

21 Self-Study Drill Practice: Quality Management Question 1. Who is responsible for project quality? Note: All page numbers in this drill practice refer to the study guide unless otherwise indicated. 2. An assignable cause or variance indicates that. 3. Who has the primary responsibility for developing design specifications? 4. In setting control limits, distinguish six sigma from three sigma. Answer 1. The PM (the word project is the key) (p. 6-13). 2. there is a problem that is probably not just the result of random events and therefore needs to be corrected (pp. 6-6/7). 3. Engineering (p. 6-17). 4. Three sigma is the traditional approach which means that 99.7% of possible outcomes will be within the tolerances of your process. Six sigma is a more rigorous quality standard advocated by numerous modern companies. Six sigma captures % of possible outcomes. In comparison, three sigma allows errors approximately three times per thousand whereas six sigma allows errors only about three times in a million. (pp. 6-7/19) 5. Name the 4 major quality control tools. 5. Seven basic quality tools: cause/effect diagrams, flowcharts, checksheets, Pareto diagrams, histograms, control charts, scatter diagrams Statistical sampling Inspection Approved change requests review (pp. 6-15/16) CMF Solutions and ESI July 2013 PMC:DJ4:EN:000 ver

22 6. Define plan quality management. 6. Identifying quality requirements and standards and documenting how to demonstrate compliance (p. 6-2). 7. Define control quality. 7. Monitoring specific project results to assess performance and recommend necessary changes (p. 6-13). 8. Define quality. 8. Several definitions or concepts are mentioned in the PMBOK Guide (pp ): The degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill project requirements. Conformance to requirements/specs. Fitness for use. Prevention over inspection. Meeting mutually agreed needs and expectations (pp. 6-1/2). 9. What is the best way to improve the reliability and maintainability of a product? 9. Good design practices (designing in reliability and maintainability), i.e., quality should be designed in, not inspected in (p. 6-17). 10. What is benchmarking? 10. Comparing actual or planned practices to those of other projects or organizations in a search for improvements (p. 6-8). 11. What are the eight tools used in quality planning? 12. What quality control tool provides a bar chart that shows the greatest source of defects or variances on the left and the fewest defects on the right? 11. Cost-benefit analysis Cost of quality Seven basic quality tools Benchmarking Design of experiments Statistical sampling Additional quality planning tools Meetings (pp. 6-4 to 6-8). 12. Pareto chart (or diagram) (p. 6-6) 6-22 PMC:DJ4:EN:000 ver.2.0 CMF Solutions and ESI July 2013

23 13. What is kaizen? 13. A Japanese concept meaning incremental, continuous improvement (p. 6-17). 14. What are the two major components of quality costs? 15. Who has responsibility for quality on a task? 16. Under what conditions is sampling most useful? 17. When compared to cost and schedule, what priority should quality have? 14. Cost of conformance Cost of non-conformance (p. 6-5) 15. The employee performing the task (p. 6-13). 16. a. When the population is large b. When the cost of inspection is high c. When destructive testing is required d. When you believe there are not many defects (p. 6-15). 17. Quality should be of equal importance (p. 6-17). 18. What is the Rule of Seven? 18. When using control charts, if 7 consecutive observations fall above the midpoint, below the midpoint, or trend in the same direction they should be investigated as if they had a special or assignable cause. It is extremely unlikely that 7 outcomes in a row would be on the same side of the mean if the process is operating normally (p. 6-7). 19. JIT (Just in Time) attempts to reduce work-in-process inventory to. 20. What does the process Perform Quality Assurance involve? 19. zero stock (pp. 6-17/18). 20. Auditing quality requirements and results from QC measurements to ensure appropriate quality standards are used (p. 6-10). CMF Solutions and ESI July 2013 PMC:DJ4:EN:000 ver

24 21. What is the difference between prevention and inspection? 22. What is the difference between attribute and variable sampling? 23. What is the difference between special causes and random causes? 24. Which quality control tool would help you count the number of defects and determine their location? 25. Name four possible benefits of high quality. 26. What is the difference between control limits and specification limits? 27. What does the term inspection mean and what are other names for the same thing? 21. Prevention is keeping errors out of the process. Inspection is keeping errors out of the hands of the customer (p. 6-13). 22. Attribute sampling checks whether a result conforms or not. Attributes can be objective or subjective. Variable sampling measures the result on a continuous scale (measures the degree of conformity) (p. 6-13). 23. Special causes are unusual events that may signal a problem that needs correction. Random causes are simply normal process variations, i.e., nothing is wrong (pp. 6-6/7). 24. Checksheets (p. 6-6) 25. Less rework Increased productivity Lower costs and increased profitability Increased stakeholder satisfaction (pp. 6-4/5) 26. Specification limits are the contractual tolerances agreed to by the project participants. Control limits describe the capability of a particular process (pp. 6-6/7). 27. Examination of a work product to determine whether it conforms to requirements. Inspection often involves measurements. Also called audits, walkthroughs, and reviews (pp. 6-15/16) PMC:DJ4:EN:000 ver.2.0 CMF Solutions and ESI July 2013

25 28. What is kanban? 28. A communication technique used to signal that a work station is ready for more input from the previous station in the process. Applicable when using the JIT approach (p. 6-18). 29. What is ISO 9000? 29. An international standard that describes a recommended quality system (pp. 6-1/2, 6-19). 30. What are the three major types of costs associated with conformance and nonconformance? 31. Distinguish cost of conformance from cost of nonconformance. 32. Three standard deviations either side of the mean of a normal distribution contains what percent of the population? 30. Prevention, appraisal, and failure (p. 6-5, Cost of Quality). 31. Cost of conformance is the cost of preventing defects, e.g., planning, training, product design reviews, test and evaluation, process control, calibration, and quality audits. Cost of nonconformance is the cost of correcting defects and failures, e.g., scrap, rework, repairs, handling complaints, recalls, lost business (pp. 6-4/5) % (p. 6-19) 33. What are control charts? 33. A graphic display of process results taken over a period of time. They help determine if a process is under control (pp. 6-6/7). 34. What is trend analysis? 34. A quality management technique that uses mathematical techniques to forecast future outcomes based on historical results. Scatter diagrams are one way to do trend analysis (pp. 6-8, 17). CMF Solutions and ESI July 2013 PMC:DJ4:EN:000 ver

26 35. What is the difference between grade and quality? 36. What tool would help stimulate thinking and generate discussion about potential causes of a problem? 35. Grade is a category or rank given to entities having the same functional use but different features and functions (a highend luxury item or a simpler, cheaper version). Quality is conformance to requirements. Low quality is always a problem but low grade may not be (i.e., customer chose a cheaper solution) (p. 6-1). 36. Cause and effect diagram. Note: you MUST know the alternate names (Ishikawa Diagram and Fishbone Diagram) (p. 6-5) 6-26 PMC:DJ4:EN:000 ver.2.0 CMF Solutions and ESI July 2013

PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT

PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT 8 PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT Project Quality Management includes the processes required to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken. It includes all activities of the

More information

The Importance of Project Quality Management. What Is Project Quality? The International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

The Importance of Project Quality Management. What Is Project Quality? The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Chapter 8 Project Quality Management November 17, 2008 2 The Importance of Project Quality Management Many people joke about the poor quality of IT products People seem to accept systems being down occasionally

More information

THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESS FROM A QUALITY MANAGEMENT PROFESSIONAL S PERSPECTIVE:

THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESS FROM A QUALITY MANAGEMENT PROFESSIONAL S PERSPECTIVE: THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESS FROM A QUALITY MANAGEMENT PROFESSIONAL S PERSPECTIVE: More Than Just the Project Quality Management Knowledge Area for Successful Project Management ASQ BLUE RIDGE SECTION

More information

Certified Quality Process Analyst

Certified Quality Process Analyst Certified Quality Process Analyst Quality excellence to enhance your career and boost your organization s bottom line asq.org/certification The Global Voice of Quality TM Certification from ASQ is considered

More information

Managing Project Quality

Managing Project Quality Managing Project Quality Project Skills Paul Newton www.free-management-ebooks.com ISBN 978-1-62620-983-5 Copyright Notice www.free-management-ebooks.com 2015. All Rights Reserved ISBN 978-1-62620-983-5

More information

Project Quality Management

Project Quality Management Project Quality Management Study Notes PMI, PMP, CAPM, PMBOK, PM Network and the PMI Registered Education Provider logo are registered marks of the Project Management Institute, Inc. Points to Note Please

More information

Develop Project Charter. Develop Project Management Plan

Develop Project Charter. Develop Project Management Plan Develop Charter Develop Charter is the process of developing documentation that formally authorizes a project or a phase. The documentation includes initial requirements that satisfy stakeholder needs

More information

CDC UNIFIED PROCESS PRACTICES GUIDE

CDC UNIFIED PROCESS PRACTICES GUIDE Document Purpose The purpose of this document is to provide guidance on the practice of Quality Management and to describe the practice overview, requirements, best practices, activities, and key terms

More information

Making project management indispensable for business results. Project Management 101

Making project management indispensable for business results. Project Management 101 Making project management indispensable for business results. Project Management 101 Donald E. Moore, MBA, PMP, President of PMI NB Kelly Barter, Chapter Manager of PMI NB AGM April 28, 2011 Topics of

More information

Body of Knowledge for Six Sigma Green Belt

Body of Knowledge for Six Sigma Green Belt Body of Knowledge for Six Sigma Green Belt What to Prepare For: The following is the Six Sigma Green Belt Certification Body of Knowledge that the exam will cover. We strongly encourage you to study and

More information

Project Quality Management. Project Management for IT

Project Quality Management. Project Management for IT Project Quality Management 1 Learning Objectives Understand the importance of project quality management for information technology products and services Define project quality management and understand

More information

Total Quality Management and Cost of Quality

Total Quality Management and Cost of Quality Total Quality Management and Cost of Quality Evsevios Hadjicostas The International Quality movement Operator Quality Control Foreman (Supervisor) Quality Control Full-time Inspectors Statistical Quality

More information

Certified Quality Improvement Associate

Certified Quality Improvement Associate Certified Quality Improvement Associate Quality excellence to enhance your career and boost your organization s bottom line asq.org/certification The Global Voice of Quality TM Certification from ASQ is

More information

Input, Output and Tools of all Processes

Input, Output and Tools of all Processes 1 CIS12-3 IT Project Management Input, Output and Tools of all Processes Marc Conrad D104 (Park Square Building) Marc.Conrad@luton.ac.uk 26/02/2013 18:22:06 Marc Conrad - University of Luton 1 2 Mgmt /

More information

pm4dev, 2008 management for development series Project Quality Management PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS

pm4dev, 2008 management for development series Project Quality Management PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS pm4dev, 2008 management for development series Project Quality Management PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS A methodology to manage development

More information

Quality Tools, The Basic Seven

Quality Tools, The Basic Seven Quality Tools, The Basic Seven This topic actually contains an assortment of tools, some developed by quality engineers, and some adapted from other applications. They provide the means for making quality

More information

Chapter 8: Project Quality Management

Chapter 8: Project Quality Management CIS 486 Managing Information Systems Projects Fall 2003 (Chapter 8), PhD jwoo5@calstatela.edu California State University, LA Computer and Information System Department Chapter 8: Project Quality Management

More information

A Comparison of PMI s PMBOK Guide Versions 4 & 3

A Comparison of PMI s PMBOK Guide Versions 4 & 3 PM WORLD TODAY FEATURED PAPER MAY 2009 A Comparison of PMI s PMBOK Guide Versions 4 & 3 By Germán Bernate The Project Management Institute PMI announced on December 31, 2008 the availability of PMBOK Version

More information

Unit 4: Time Management (PMBOK Guide, Chapter 6)

Unit 4: Time Management (PMBOK Guide, Chapter 6) (PMBOK Guide, Chapter 6) The questions on this topic focus heavily on scheduling techniques, network diagrams, Gantt charts, the critical path, compressing the schedule, PERT, and float. You may or may

More information

An Introduction to. Metrics. used during. Software Development

An Introduction to. Metrics. used during. Software Development An Introduction to Metrics used during Software Development Life Cycle www.softwaretestinggenius.com Page 1 of 10 Define the Metric Objectives You can t control what you can t measure. This is a quote

More information

APPENDIX X1 - FIFTH EDITION CHANGES

APPENDIX X1 - FIFTH EDITION CHANGES APPENDIX X1 FIFTH EDITION CHANGES The purpose of this appendix is to give a detailed explanation of the changes made to A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) Fourth Edition

More information

American Society for Quality (ASQ) CERTIFIED SIX SIGMA GREEN BELT (CSSGB) BODY OF KNOWLEDGE 2014

American Society for Quality (ASQ) CERTIFIED SIX SIGMA GREEN BELT (CSSGB) BODY OF KNOWLEDGE 2014 American Society for Quality (ASQ) CERTIFIED SIX SIGMA GREEN BELT (CSSGB) BODY OF KNOWLEDGE 2014 Included in this body of knowledge (BOK) are explanations (subtext) and cognitive levels for each topic

More information

Performance Management

Performance Management Performance Management www.eiilmuniversity.ac.in Subject: PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Credits: 4 SYLLABUS Concept of project quality Definitions of Quality and Grade, Features, Development of Quality as a Competitive

More information

A COMPARISON OF PRINCE2 AGAINST PMBOK

A COMPARISON OF PRINCE2 AGAINST PMBOK Introduction This comparison takes each part of the PMBOK and gives an opinion on what match there is with elements of the PRINCE2 method. It can be used in any discussion of the respective merits of the

More information

Lean Six Sigma Training The DMAIC Story. Unit 6: Glossary Page 6-1

Lean Six Sigma Training The DMAIC Story. Unit 6: Glossary Page 6-1 Unit 6: Glossary Page 6-1 Glossary of Terms Unit 6: Glossary Page 6-2 Action Plan A technique that documents everything that must be done to ensure effective implementation of a countermeasure or improvement

More information

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT VALLIAMAMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES BA7104 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT UNIT I PART-A 1. Define Total Quality Management. Define manufacturing based view of quality. 2. What are

More information

PROJECT RISK MANAGEMENT

PROJECT RISK MANAGEMENT PROJECT RISK MANAGEMENT DEFINITION OF A RISK OR RISK EVENT: A discrete occurrence that may affect the project for good or bad. DEFINITION OF A PROBLEM OR UNCERTAINTY: An uncommon state of nature, characterized

More information

Quality Perspective: Managing Software Development Projects

Quality Perspective: Managing Software Development Projects Economy Informatics, vol. 11, no. 1/2011 99 Quality Perspective: Managing Software Development Projects Felician ALECU Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania alecu@ase.ro In order to better achieve

More information

Why is Quality Important? Definition

Why is Quality Important? Definition QUALITY SYSTEMS By Daryle Niedermayer, I.S.P., PMP Why is Quality Important? Clients & users expect quality What if jetliners crashed as often as Microsoft Windows? Poor quality results in rework at additional

More information

The Philosophy of TQM An Overview

The Philosophy of TQM An Overview The Philosophy of TQM An Overview TQM = Customer-Driven Quality Management References for Lecture: Background Reference Material on Web: The Philosophy of TQM by Pat Customer Quality Measures Customers

More information

Topic 12 Total Quality Management. From Control to Management. Deming s Fourteen Points for TQM

Topic 12 Total Quality Management. From Control to Management. Deming s Fourteen Points for TQM Topic 12 Total Quality Management From Control to Management 1 Inspection Error detection of finished goods Rectification Reading guide: Chapter 20 (Slack et al, 2004) and MGT326 Slides/Handout 1 2 Quality

More information

Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) (An Overview of the Knowledge Areas)

Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) (An Overview of the Knowledge Areas) Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) (An Overview of the Knowledge Areas) Nutek, Inc. 3829 Quarton Road, Suite 102 Bloomfield Hills, Michigan 48302, USA. Phone: 248-540-4827, Email: Support@Nutek-us.com

More information

Process Quality. BIZ2121-04 Production & Operations Management. Sung Joo Bae, Assistant Professor. Yonsei University School of Business

Process Quality. BIZ2121-04 Production & Operations Management. Sung Joo Bae, Assistant Professor. Yonsei University School of Business BIZ2121-04 Production & Operations Management Process Quality Sung Joo Bae, Assistant Professor Yonsei University School of Business Disclaimer: Many slides in this presentation file are from the copyrighted

More information

Project Management Standards: A Review of Certifications/Certificates

Project Management Standards: A Review of Certifications/Certificates Project Standards: A Review of Certifications/Certificates Standards for Project Supporting Certification and Certificates Certificate Certification The Project Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide Projects in

More information

BODY OF KNOWLEDGE CERTIFIED SIX SIGMA YELLOW BELT

BODY OF KNOWLEDGE CERTIFIED SIX SIGMA YELLOW BELT BODY OF KNOWLEDGE CERTIFIED SIX SIGMA YELLOW BELT The topics in this Body of Knowledge include additional detail in the form of subtext explanations and the cognitive level at which test questions will

More information

PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT

PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT 5 PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT Project Scope Management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully

More information

PMP Examination Tasks Puzzle game

PMP Examination Tasks Puzzle game PMP Examination Tasks Puzzle game Here is a great game to play to test your knowledge of the tasks you will be tested on in the actual examination. What we have done is take each of the domain tasks in

More information

Chapter 8 Project Quality Management (1) Dr. Feng-Jen Yang

Chapter 8 Project Quality Management (1) Dr. Feng-Jen Yang Chapter 8 Project Quality Management (1) Dr. Feng-Jen Yang Objectives Understand the importance of project quality management for information technology products and services Define project quality management

More information

MNLARS Project Audit Checklist

MNLARS Project Audit Checklist Audit Checklist The following provides a detailed checklist to assist the audit team in reviewing the health of a project. Relevance (at this time) How relevant is this attribute to this project or audit?

More information

Certificate In Project Management (CIPM)

Certificate In Project Management (CIPM) Conceptualize Plan Plan & Deliver Organize Implement Control Change if Required Integrate Deliver & Closeout Knowledge Leverage Certificate In Project Management (CIPM) Course Overview The Certificate

More information

Partnering for Project Success: Project Manager and Business Analyst Collaboration

Partnering for Project Success: Project Manager and Business Analyst Collaboration Partnering for Project Success: Project Manager and Business Analyst Collaboration By Barbara Carkenord, CBAP, Chris Cartwright, PMP, Robin Grace, CBAP, Larry Goldsmith, PMP, Elizabeth Larson, PMP, CBAP,

More information

Knowledge Area Inputs, Tools, and Outputs. Knowledge area Process group/process Inputs Tools Outputs

Knowledge Area Inputs, Tools, and Outputs. Knowledge area Process group/process Inputs Tools Outputs HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Organizational planning Staff Acquisition Project interfaces such as organizational interfaces, technical interfaces and interpersonal interfaces. Staffing requirements Staffing

More information

Quick Reference Guide Interactive PDF Project Management Processes for a Project

Quick Reference Guide Interactive PDF Project Management Processes for a Project Project Processes for a Project Click the Knowledge Area title (below and left in blue underline) to view the details of each Process Group. Project Process Groups and Knowledge Areas Mapping Project Process

More information

Certification Preparation Course LATVIKON (R.E.P.)Centre

Certification Preparation Course LATVIKON (R.E.P.)Centre PMP Certification Preparation Course LATVIKON (R.E.P.)Centre ABOUT THIS COURSE Your ability as a project manager to demonstrate best practices in Project Management both on the job and through professional

More information

Certified Software Quality Engineer (CSQE) Body of Knowledge

Certified Software Quality Engineer (CSQE) Body of Knowledge Certified Software Quality Engineer (CSQE) Body of Knowledge The topics in this Body of Knowledge include additional detail in the form of subtext explanations and the cognitive level at which the questions

More information

Best Practices Statement Project Management. Best Practices for Managing State Information Technology Projects

Best Practices Statement Project Management. Best Practices for Managing State Information Technology Projects State of Arkansas Office of Information Technology 124 W. Capitol Ave. Suite 990 Little Rock, AR 72201 501.682.4300 Voice 501.682.4020 Fax http://www.cio.arkansas.gov/techarch Best Practices Statement

More information

PERFORMANCE AND QUALITY IN PROJECTS Project Management and Leadership 2016D, PhD, PMP

PERFORMANCE AND QUALITY IN PROJECTS Project Management and Leadership 2016D, PhD, PMP PERFORMANCE AND QUALITY IN PROJECTS Project Management and Leadership 2016D, PhD, PMP PROJECTS PROGRESS WELL UNTIL 70% Quick progress until 60-70% complete. Then we discover the project is in distress.

More information

QUIZ MODULE 1: BASIC CONCEPTS IN QUALITY AND TQM

QUIZ MODULE 1: BASIC CONCEPTS IN QUALITY AND TQM QUIZ MODULE 1: BASIC CONCEPTS IN QUALITY AND TQM These questions cover Sessions 1, 2, 5, 6, 7. The correct answer is shown in bold A fundamental attribute of TQM is Drawing control charts Having team meetings

More information

QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE IN PROJECTS. Project Management and Leadership 2015D, PhD, PMP

QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE IN PROJECTS. Project Management and Leadership 2015D, PhD, PMP QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE IN PROJECTS Project Management and Leadership 2015D, PhD, PMP Our PROGRAMME: 1. INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT MANAGEMENT 2. STARTING A PROJECT 3. WORK MOTIVATION 4. COMMUNICATION 5: TEAMS

More information

PMBOK 5 th Edition Crash Course

PMBOK 5 th Edition Crash Course PMP Certification Exam Preparation PMBOK 5 th Edition Crash Course with Bill Doescher, PMP, MBA, CSM Pi Principal i lconsultant tand Product tdevelopment tdirector Bill Doescher, PMP Product Development

More information

Common Tools for Displaying and Communicating Data for Process Improvement

Common Tools for Displaying and Communicating Data for Process Improvement Common Tools for Displaying and Communicating Data for Process Improvement Packet includes: Tool Use Page # Box and Whisker Plot Check Sheet Control Chart Histogram Pareto Diagram Run Chart Scatter Plot

More information

The 10 Knowledge Areas & ITTOs

The 10 Knowledge Areas & ITTOs This document is part of a series that explain the newly released PMBOK 5th edition. These documents provide simple explanation and summary of the book. However they do not replace the necessity of reading

More information

Appendix O MANUFACTURING YOUTH APPRENTICESHIP PRODUCTION OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PATHWAY PRODUCTION OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT (UNIT 8)

Appendix O MANUFACTURING YOUTH APPRENTICESHIP PRODUCTION OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PATHWAY PRODUCTION OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT (UNIT 8) Appendix O MANUFACTURING YOUTH APPRENTICESHIP PRODUCTION OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PATHWAY PRODUCTION OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT (UNIT 8) Pathway: (Unit 8) PAGE 1 OF 17 Unit 8: Pathway 1. Assist to purchase materials

More information

Managing IT Projects. Chapter 2 The PMI Framework

Managing IT Projects. Chapter 2 The PMI Framework Managing IT Projects Chapter 2 The PMI Framework The PMI Framework The Project Management Institute,USA is an internationally acclaimed organization Devoted to Creation & sharing of knowledge in the area

More information

Introduction to the ITS Project Management Methodology

Introduction to the ITS Project Management Methodology Introduction to the ITS Project Management Methodology In September 1999 the Joint Legislative Committee on Performance Evaluation and Expenditure Review (PEER) produced a report entitled Major Computer

More information

CERTIFIED QUALITY ENGINEER (CQE) BODY OF KNOWLEDGE

CERTIFIED QUALITY ENGINEER (CQE) BODY OF KNOWLEDGE CERTIFIED QUALITY ENGINEER (CQE) BODY OF KNOWLEDGE The topics in this Body of Knowledge include subtext explanations and the cognitive level at which the questions will be written. This information will

More information

PROJECT AUDIT METHODOLOGY

PROJECT AUDIT METHODOLOGY PROJECT AUDIT METHODOLOGY 1 "Your career as a project manager begins here!" Content Introduction... 3 1. Definition of the project audit... 3 2. Objectives of the project audit... 3 3. Benefit of the audit

More information

*Quality. Management. Module 5

*Quality. Management. Module 5 *Quality Management Module 5 * After WW2 Mid-1960 s USA: Huge domestic market, high capacity Price for competitive advantage Oversupply. Europe, Japan: Can t match US productivity & economies of scale

More information

Project Management Institute (PMBOK 2000) PMP Preparation Worksheet

Project Management Institute (PMBOK 2000) PMP Preparation Worksheet Project Integration Management Processes required to ensure that the various elements of the project are properly coordinated to meet / exceed stakeholder expectations. Project Plan Development Other ning

More information

Project Risk Management

Project Risk Management Project Risk Management Study Notes PMI, PMP, CAPM, PMBOK, PM Network and the PMI Registered Education Provider logo are registered marks of the Project Management Institute, Inc. Points to Note Risk Management

More information

Lean Silver Certification Blueprint

Lean Silver Certification Blueprint The Lean Certification Blueprint provides additional useful information beyond the Body of Knowledge. The Body of Knowledge specifies the competencies, topics, and subtopics required by different types

More information

PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROFESSIONAL CERTIFIED ASSOCIATE IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT (PMP & CAPM) EXAM PREPARATION WORKSHOP

PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROFESSIONAL CERTIFIED ASSOCIATE IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT (PMP & CAPM) EXAM PREPARATION WORKSHOP TSE015 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROFESSIONAL CERTIFIED ASSOCIATE IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT (PMP & CAPM) EXAM PREPARATION WORKSHOP Course Outline I. Introduction and Course Objectives A. About PMI B. PMP and CAPM

More information

PMP SAMPLE QUESTIONS BASED ON PMBOK 5TH EDITION

PMP SAMPLE QUESTIONS BASED ON PMBOK 5TH EDITION PMP SAMPLE QUESTIONS http://www.tutorialspoint.com/pmp-exams/pmp_sample_questions.htm Copyright tutorialspoint.com BASED ON PMBOK 5TH EDITION Here are 200 more objective type sample questions and their

More information

CERTIFIED QUALITY ENGINEER (CQE) BODY OF KNOWLEDGE

CERTIFIED QUALITY ENGINEER (CQE) BODY OF KNOWLEDGE CERTIFIED QUALITY ENGINEER (CQE) BODY OF KNOWLEDGE The topics in this Body of Knowledge include subtext explanations and the cognitive level at which the questions will be written. This information will

More information

Certified Six Sigma Yellow Belt

Certified Six Sigma Yellow Belt Certified Six Sigma Yellow Belt Quality excellence to enhance your career and boost your organization s bottom line asq.org/cert The Global Voice of Quality TM Certification from ASQ is considered a mark

More information

Impact of PMBOK 5 th Edition

Impact of PMBOK 5 th Edition PMP Exam Changes Impact of PMBOK 5 th Edition When the PMI exam will change Major Updates X1.1 Scope of Update Comments and feedbacks for prior version Overall review for accuracy Appropriate alignment

More information

Project Management Process. Prepared by Jay Knape

Project Management Process. Prepared by Jay Knape Project Management Process Prepared by Jay Knape PMI Project Project is... temporary endeavor undertaken to produce a unique products, service or result. UITS Project Definition For Columbus State University

More information

PMP Project Management Professional Study Guide, Third Edition

PMP Project Management Professional Study Guide, Third Edition PMP Project Management Professional Study Guide, Third Edition Joseph Phillips McGraw-Hill is an independent entity from the Project Management Institute, Inc. and is not affiliated with the Project Management

More information

Project Management Professional (PMP) Examination Content Outline

Project Management Professional (PMP) Examination Content Outline Project Management Professional (PMP) Examination Content Outline Project Management Institute Project Management Professional (PMP) Examination Content Outline June 2015 Published by: Project Management

More information

CHAPTER 1 THE CERTIFIED QUALITY ENGINEER EXAM. 1.0 The Exam. 2.0 Suggestions for Study. 3.0 CQE Examination Content. Where shall I begin your majesty?

CHAPTER 1 THE CERTIFIED QUALITY ENGINEER EXAM. 1.0 The Exam. 2.0 Suggestions for Study. 3.0 CQE Examination Content. Where shall I begin your majesty? QReview 1 CHAPTER 1 THE CERTIFIED QUALITY ENGINEER EXAM 1.0 The Exam 2.0 Suggestions for Study 3.0 CQE Examination Content Where shall I begin your majesty? The White Rabbit Begin at the beginning, and

More information

Quality Process in Engineering ISO 9000 and Beyond. Presented by: Roxanne L. Pillar, P.E. October 2014

Quality Process in Engineering ISO 9000 and Beyond. Presented by: Roxanne L. Pillar, P.E. October 2014 Quality Process in Engineering ISO 9000 and Beyond Presented by: Roxanne L. Pillar, P.E. October 2014 Good morning Introductions: Quality Management Systems (QMS) What are they? Where do they come from?

More information

output: communications management plan

output: communications management plan Q1. (50 MARKS) A. List the nine PMBOK knowledge areas and give a one sentence description of the purpose of each knowledge area along with at least one output (document etc.) and its purpose. 1.Project

More information

MG1352 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGENMENT UNIT I INTRODUCTION PART-A

MG1352 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGENMENT UNIT I INTRODUCTION PART-A MG1352 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGENMENT UNIT I INTRODUCTION 1. Define Quality. 2. What are the dimensions of quality? 3. Why quality planning is needed? 4. What are the essential steps of quality planning? 5.

More information

CABM. Certified Associate Business Manager Exam. http://www.examskey.com/cabm.html

CABM. Certified Associate Business Manager Exam. http://www.examskey.com/cabm.html APBM CABM Certified Associate Business Manager Exam TYPE: DEMO http://www.examskey.com/cabm.html Examskey APBM CABM exam demo product is here for you to test the quality of the product. This APBM CABM

More information

www.aryanengineering.com Email: info@aryanengineering.com

www.aryanengineering.com Email: info@aryanengineering.com What is PMP Certification exam? www.aryanengineering.com PMP stands for Project Management Professional certification exam. PMP, is one of the most respected and globally recognized certification is offered

More information

PMI Risk Management Professional (PMI-RMP ) - Practice Standard and Certification Overview

PMI Risk Management Professional (PMI-RMP ) - Practice Standard and Certification Overview PMI Risk Management Professional (PMI-RMP ) - Practice Standard and Certification Overview Sante Torino PMI-RMP, IPMA Level B Head of Risk Management Major Programmes, Selex ES / Land&Naval Systems Division

More information

Introduction to STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL TECHNIQUES

Introduction to STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL TECHNIQUES Introduction to STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL TECHNIQUES Preface 1 Quality Control Today 1 New Demands On Systems Require Action 1 Socratic SPC -- Overview Q&A 2 Steps Involved In Using Statistical Process

More information

PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN TEMPLATE < PROJECT NAME >

PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN TEMPLATE < PROJECT NAME > PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN TEMPLATE < PROJECT NAME > Date of Issue: < date > Document Revision #: < version # > Project Manager: < name > Project Management Plan < Insert Project Name > Revision History Name

More information

Hoshin Training. Supplier Workshop Presented by Mark Underwood 5/1/2014

Hoshin Training. Supplier Workshop Presented by Mark Underwood 5/1/2014 Hoshin Training Supplier Workshop Presented by Mark Underwood 5/1/2014 What is Hoshin? Hoshin is a form of Strategic Planning. Some of the key benefits of Hoshin activity are: 1. Creates an established

More information

Total Quality. 1) Quality

Total Quality. 1) Quality Total Quality 1) Quality 1.1 Quality assurance (QA) refers to the engineering activities implemented in a quality system so that requirements for a product or service will be fulfilled. It is the systematic

More information

Learning Objectives Lean Six Sigma Black Belt Course

Learning Objectives Lean Six Sigma Black Belt Course Learning Objectives Lean Six Sigma Black Belt Course The overarching learning objective of this course is to develop a comprehensive set of skills that will allow you to function effectively as a Six Sigma

More information

Business Process Optimization w/ Innovative Results

Business Process Optimization w/ Innovative Results Business Process Optimization w/ Innovative Results Sam DiSalvatore Introduction The principle of continuous process improvement is based on the belief that even excellent products and services can be

More information

Description of Program Management Processes (Initiating, Planning) 2011 PROGstudy.com. All rights reserved

Description of Program Management Processes (Initiating, Planning) 2011 PROGstudy.com. All rights reserved Description of Program Management Processes (Initiating, Planning) Topics Covered Program Management Process Groups salient features Description of all processes in Initiating Process Group: Initiate Program

More information

THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT KNOWLEDGE AREAS

THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT KNOWLEDGE AREAS THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT KNOWLEDGE AREAS 4. Project Integration Management 5. Project Scope Management 6. Project Time Management 7. Project Cost Management 8. Project Quality Management 9. Project Human

More information

Integration Mgmt / Initiating Process Group 4.1 Develop Project Charter

Integration Mgmt / Initiating Process Group 4.1 Develop Project Charter 1 Mgmt / Initiating Process Group 4.1 Develop Project Charter Project statement of work Business case Agreements Facilitation techniques Project charter 26/02/2013 18:23:36 1 2 Mgmt / Planning Process

More information

Course Overview Lean Six Sigma Green Belt

Course Overview Lean Six Sigma Green Belt Course Overview Lean Six Sigma Green Belt Summary and Objectives This Six Sigma Green Belt course is comprised of 11 separate sessions. Each session is a collection of related lessons and includes an interactive

More information

PMP Handouts Dr Pratul Sharma Project Management Framework

PMP Handouts Dr Pratul Sharma Project Management Framework Project Management Framework Project: a temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product, service or result A project is: Temporary definite start & definite end project is temporary not the result

More information

Lean Six Sigma Black Belt-EngineRoom

Lean Six Sigma Black Belt-EngineRoom Lean Six Sigma Black Belt-EngineRoom Course Content and Outline Total Estimated Hours: 140.65 *Course includes choice of software: EngineRoom (included for free), Minitab (must purchase separately) or

More information

Comparing the Differences and Complementary features of PRINCE2 and the PMI PMBOK Guide

Comparing the Differences and Complementary features of PRINCE2 and the PMI PMBOK Guide Comparing the Differences and Complementary features of PRINCE2 and the Guide PRINCE2 is the UK Government s structured project management method. PMI stands for the Project Management Institute producing

More information

5.1 Project Control Overview

5.1 Project Control Overview 5.1 Project Control Overview Project Control is a formal process in project management. In most respects, there is not a lot of room for creativity in the Control Phase of project management. The PMBOK

More information

<name of project> Software Project Management Plan

<name of project> Software Project Management Plan The document in this file is adapted from the IEEE standards for Software Project Management Plans, 1058-1998, which conforms to the requirements of ISO standard 12207 Software Life Cycle Processes. Tailor

More information

Comparing PMBOK Guide 4 th Edition, PMBOK Guide 5 th Edition and ISO 21500

Comparing PMBOK Guide 4 th Edition, PMBOK Guide 5 th Edition and ISO 21500 Project Training Company Comparing PMBOK Guide 4 th Edition, Edition and STS Sauter Training & Simulation S.A. Avenue de la Gare 10 1003 Lausanne Switzerland Web: www.sts.ch E-mail: office@sts.ch Phone:

More information

MULTIMEDIA COLLEGE JALAN GURNEY KIRI 54100 KUALA LUMPUR

MULTIMEDIA COLLEGE JALAN GURNEY KIRI 54100 KUALA LUMPUR STUDENT IDENTIFICATION NO MULTIMEDIA COLLEGE JALAN GURNEY KIRI 54100 KUALA LUMPUR FIFTH SEMESTER FINAL EXAMINATION, 2014/2015 SESSION MGT2063 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT DMGA-E-F-3/12, DMGW-E-F-3/12, DMGQ-E-F-3/12

More information

Continuous Improvement Philosophies

Continuous Improvement Philosophies Inputs Transformation Process Throughput Managing Operations: A Focus on Excellence Cox, Blackstone, and Schleier, 2003 Chapter 3 The Total Quality Management Philosophy: Managing Operations For Quality

More information

(Refer Slide Time: 01:52)

(Refer Slide Time: 01:52) Software Engineering Prof. N. L. Sarda Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture - 2 Introduction to Software Engineering Challenges, Process Models etc (Part 2) This

More information

Measurement Information Model

Measurement Information Model mcgarry02.qxd 9/7/01 1:27 PM Page 13 2 Information Model This chapter describes one of the fundamental measurement concepts of Practical Software, the Information Model. The Information Model provides

More information

Errata 1 st Printing. Errata 2 nd Printing

Errata 1 st Printing. Errata 2 nd Printing Errata 1 st Printing NOTE: The following errata only pertain to the first printing of the PMBOK Guide Fifth Edition. In order to verify the print run of your book (or PDF), refer to the bottom of the copyright

More information

Unit 1: Introduction to Quality Management

Unit 1: Introduction to Quality Management Unit 1: Introduction to Quality Management Definition & Dimensions of Quality Quality Control vs Quality Assurance Small-Q vs Big-Q & Evolution of Quality Movement Total Quality Management (TQM) & its

More information

Quality Management and International Standards

Quality Management and International Standards Quality Management and International Standards Content Quality and Strategy Defining Quality Total Quality Management Tools of TQM The Role of Inspection TQM in Services 2 Quality and Strategy Managing

More information

Project Scope Management in PMBOK made easy

Project Scope Management in PMBOK made easy By Dr. TD Jainendrakumar The main objective of any project is to fulfill the scope of the project on time and within the budget. What is Project Scope? Scope refers to all the work involved in creating

More information