RESEARCH IN MARINE ENERGY IN CHILE Fondef Tidal Energy

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1 RESEARCH IN MARINE ENERGY IN CHILE Fondef Tidal Energy Dr. Rodrigo Cienfuegos Director Fondef 09I1052 Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile

2 ROAD MAP FOR MARINE ENERGY EXTRACTION Open Hydro

3 TIDAL ENERGY EXTRACTION Horizontal Axis Hydrofoil La Rance, France. 240 MW tidal barrage Vertical Axis

4 PRE-COMMERCIAL TECHNOLOGIES MCT: SeaGen OpenHydro: Open-centre Turbine Hammerfest Strom: HS MW pre-comercial device. Installed in Strangford Lough, Ireland. Grid connected from 2008, where it has generated more than 3 GWh. Two future demonstration projects in the UK: - 8 MW in Kyle Rhea - 10 MW in the Skerries 0.25 MW pre-comercial devide installed in 2006 at EMEC, grid connected on MW pre-comercial device installed in FORCE in New 16m diameter turbine to be installed in France this year 1 MW device installed at EMEC on Future 10 MW demonstration project in Isley, Scotland.

5 PRE-COMMERCIAL TECHNOLOGIES Alstom Hydro: Clean Current TISEC MeyGen: Atlantis Ak-1000 Voith Hydro: VoithHyTide Clean current prototype was installed in Race Rocks, Canada in MW pre-comercial device will be installed in FORCE in MW pre-comercial device installed and grid-connected in EMEC in MW pre-comercial device is planned to be installed in FORCE in MW device will be installed at EMEC in 2012, piles and support were installed in 2011

6 CENTERS FOR MARINE ENERGY R&D EMEC: European Marine Energy Centre Orkney, Scotland, United Kingdom Test and monitoring of marine turbines (wave and tidal). 7 tidal and 5 wave grid conected berths Installed Tidal Turbines: OpenHydro, Tidal Generation, Atlantis, Hammerfest Strom, Voith Hydro, Scotrenewables Tidal Site, EMEC Fundy Bay, Canada FORCE: Fundy Ocean Research Centre for Energy Test and Monitoring of tidal turbines 3 grid conected tidal berths Partners: Nova Scottia Power with OpenHydro, Minas Basin Pulp Power with MCT and Alstom Hydro. Tidal Generation, EMEC OpenHydro, EMEC Other Centres: NNMREC (USA), PRIMaRE (UK), NAREC (UK), CORE (USA), DanWEC (Denmark) NS Power - OpenHydro, FORCE

7 MARINE ENERGY: INSTALLED CAPACITY IN 2010 Fuente: International Energy Agency (IEA). Annual Report 2010: Implementing Agreement on Ocean Energy Systems, 2010.

8 COST PROJECTIONS Range in levelized COE Fuente: IPCC Report 2012

9 TIDAL ENERGY POTENTIAL IN CHILE Chile has one of the best tidal energy sites around the world The Chacao Channel is one of the most interesting sites according to different variables (high tidal currents, bathymetry, electric network, infrastructure, etc.) Available energy: ~2.5TWh/year (using 20% of the available mean power) Chacao Channel TWh/year Corcovado Gulf 0.3TWh/year Source : Garrard Hassan (2009) 2nd Angostura 1.3TWh/year

10 WAVE ENERGY POTENTIAL CHILE Chile: Annual mean wave power density kw/m Estimated gross available wave power: 200 GW Challenges: Scarse and short term data Complex and highly energetic wave climates (multi modal wave spectrums) Insufficient bathymetric information and marine biosphere knowledge Source : Gunn and Stock-Williams (2012)

11 GENERAL OBJECTIVES To perform detailed bathymetric and oceanographic studies to characterize tidal energy resources in the Chacao Channel. To investigate environmental issues, technical, economical and regulatory aspects and market barriers for marine energy extraction in Chile. To define suitable areas for device deployment and testing. To support the NCRE implementation process that Chile has defined.

12 R&D METHODOLOGY State of the Art Field Studies Numerical Modeling Recommendations for ME Development in Chile Bibliographic surveys Technological trips International collaboration Capacity building Attendance to international workshops and congresses Bathymetric surveys Tidal and current measurements Ocean wave measurements Environmental and marine biology field studies 2D and 3D tidal current modeling Deep water to shallow water wave propagation Tidal farm numerical modeling Energy resource maps Policies and regulations Infrastructure Technical and economical evaluations Market barriers and systems failures

13 TIDAL ENERGY RESOURCE ASSESSMENT Field studies (Bentos) Current measurements (ADCPs) Tidal measurements Multi beam bathymetric survey Atmospheric variables Preliminary biofouling estimations

14 HYDRODYNAMIC MODELING Regional and Detailed Hydrodynamic Modeling (FVCom) Refined grid in the Chacao Channel (20 m, 10 V layers) Model calibration and validation using ADCPs and tidal gauges Potential Energy Resource Assessment Selection of sites and prediction of curves of production

15 HYDRODYNAMIC MODELING Software Development (Energy Resource Map) Preliminary analysis of power generation and economic assessment

16 3D MODELING OF FLOW HYDRODYNAMICS IN THE CHACAO CHANNEL CFD modeling (URANS) in the real setting, considering detailed bathymetric information (1-10 m resolution) Characterization of turbulence and macro-vortices Collaboration with the Saint Anthony Fall Laboratory, University of Minnesota

17 TURBULENCE AND SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF TIDAL CURRENTS Collaboration with APL-U. Washington (Jim Thomson et al.) Complementary study funded by ONRG ADVs, ADCPs, and hydrophone measurements Comparative study with Admiralty Inlet, Pudget Sound, Wa., USA.

18 LES MODELING OF FLOW-ACTUATOR DISCS INTERACTIONS CFD modeling: Navier-Stokes equations URANS/LES solver Actuator discs approach for wake modeling Multiple devices interaction to advance tidal farm studies New experimental work to validate the model Meyers y Bahaj, 2010 Coherent turbulent structures in a single actuator disc wake. Sciolla y Escauriaza, 2012 Coherent turbulent structures for two actuator discs. Sciolla y Escauriaza, 2012

19 EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF FLOW- ACTUATOR DISCS INTERACTIONS Escala geométrica de 1:150. Igualdad en el Número de Froude. Número de Reynolds para régimen turbulento.

20 ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND INTERFERENCES IN THE CHACAO CHANNEL Commercial fisheries and fish farmers Species and rate of extraction Protected areas and maritime concessions Benthic fauna and mammals Mamíferos observados desde la orilla y Liquen. JC Castilla (2012) Algunos invertebrados presentes en el Canal de Chacao. JC Castilla (2012) Areas utilizadas para acuicultura en el Canal de Chacao, JC Castilla (2012)

21 ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND INTERFERENCES IN THE CHACAO CHANNEL Technical report that summarizes the different studies and findings

22 WAVE RESOURCE STUDIES INNOVA CORFO 09CN INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE HIDRAULICA

23 WAVE RESOURCE STUDIES INNOVA CORFO 09CN INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE HIDRAULICA Field work : End date. Jan 2014 Tri-axis buoys and ADCP s deployment Field surveys (in progress) Synchronous Tri-axis and ADCPs measurements Bathymetric surveys Data analysis and post processing (in progress) Numerical modeling and wave energy resource estimation. End date: March 2014 Spectral wave propagation methodologies and model intercomparison Training on the use of wave models Development of wave analysis tools for post processing Selection of best models and practices for the central-south coast of Chile (V to X region) (in progress) Wave energy resource mapping for the central-south coast of Chile (in progress) Complementary studies. End date: March Environmental studies State of the art technology report and challenges for Chile (in progress) Guideline for the wave energy device implementation process (in progress)

24 WAVE RESOURCE STUDIES INNOVA CORFO 09CN INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE HIDRAULICA Instrument deployment Synchronous Triaxys and ADCP measurements in deep and shallow waters

25 WAVE RESOURCE STUDIES INNOVA CORFO 09CN INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE HIDRAULICA

26 CHALLENGES FOR THE NEXT STAGE OF MARINE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN CHILE Chile has one of the highest marine energy resources in the world and could play an important role in the current precommercial marine energy extraction phase There are good scientific and technical capacities available that can contribute to make marine energy extraction real (leapfrogging strategy) If devices work in Chile, they can do so almost everywhere (highly energetic climates, earthquakes and tsunamis, extremely rich marine biosphere, etc.) Chile is a natural laboratory for coastal sciences and technology advancement and testing Innovative regulatory policies and market strategies should be designed and implemented

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