Wind resources and wind turbine wakes in large wind farms. Professor R.J. Barthelmie Atmospheric Science and Sustainability

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1 Wind resources and wind turbine wakes in large wind farms Professor R.J. Barthelmie Atmospheric Science and Sustainability

2 Overview Wind resource of Egypt Based on Wind Atlas for Egypt Wind turbine wakes Large wind farm issues Future directions

3 Wind Atlas for Egypt: Measurements Collaboration between: New and Renewable Energy Authority Egyptian Meteorological Authority Risø National Laboratory Combined measurement and modeling program Other components included wind turbine calibration facility and training Measurement program purpose built meteorological masts 25 m height 8 meteorological masts

4 Modeling used: Vertical extrapolation Wind Atlas for Egypt: Modeling To correct for climatological variations To spatially estimate wind resources Model types: 1. Risø s WAsP model Standard approach in wind energy Linearized model 2. Application of a mesoscale model: KAMM Better physics More computing/time intensive

5 WAsP & KAMM indicate: Wind Atlas for Egypt: Results Excellent mean wind resources, spatially variable 50 m Wind speeds ms -1 Power densities Wm -2 At height ht 50 m for roughness class 1 (z 0 =0.03 m) Mean wind speeds (ms -1 ) height of 50 m over model land surface by mesoscale modeling (From the Wind Atlas for Egypt).

6 Wind farms in Egypt 430 MW installed Special circumstances 12% from wind by 2020 (~7200 MW) High mean wind speeds Zafarana wind farm (Danish, Low roughness/wind shear? Spanish & German) 360 MW Sand storms and salty air Recent 240 MW Danish & Japanese Stability extremes? government aid Large wind farms

7 Main issues: 1. Large turbines hub-height height above traditional measurements Wind shear and veer Loading 2. Multiple wake effects Deep array losses 3. Grid integration Grid planning Short-term forecasting Large wind farm research Lidar wind speed/turbulence measurements to heights of ~200 m

8 Standard 2-3 MW turbine hub-height m New methods to measure wind speed/turbulence/veer Remote sensing more mobile, more accurate, extends to ~200 m Better estimate of hub-height wind speed/shear across the blades Vertical profiles State-of-the-art remote sensing of wind and turbulence. IU s lidar being evaluated with Example BP s lidars of lidar at the wind Fowler speed Ridge and wind turbulence farm measurements in Indiana on a sample day during May 2008

9 Deep array effects Wake losses in array centers larger than predicted using standard models Particularly noted (so far) in large offshore arrays (low turbulence/impacts of atmospheric stability)

10 Wind-turbine interactions: wakes Wakes: area of high turbulence, lower wind speed behind turbines Wake recovery depends on many factors: Environment - Wind speed, turbulence, atm. stratification tifi ti Turbine type Pitch, stall, thrust coefficient, hub-height Multiple wakes Continue to interact with each other and the environment Lower wind speed High turbulence Barthelmie and Jensen 2010 Wind Energy (in review)

11 Wake models Name Company Type Commercial/ Research WAsP Risø DTU Engineering C FLaP Oldenburg Ainslie R Windfarmer GH Ainslie C Canopy Risø DTU Under development R Wakefarm ECN Parabolised CFD C/R CENER Fluent CENER CFD R NS FLow CRES CFD R NTUA NTUA CFD R

12 Wind farm data Wind farm data processing - complex task necessary for evaluating power output

13 Problems Summary and future perspectives 1. In large wind farms, average wake power losses estimated 5-20% Preliminary analysis of wake power losses in large offshore wind farms much larger 2. More data needed for analysis and model parameterization Solutions 1. Improved data analysis of existing large wind farms 2. Measurement campaigns to provide inflow/outflow conditions 3. New parameters and/or next generation of wake models able to account for deep array effect R.Jris-r-1387.pdf Barthelmie

14 Risø National Laboratory Denmark (Niels Gylling Mortensen, Jens Carsten Hansen, Pierre Elouan Réthore) New and Renewable Energy Authority and Egyptian Meteorological Authority National Science Foundation USA Additional sources gyp _ s.htm Wind Farm Planning at the Gulf of Suez N.E. Clausen (editor) Risø-R-1387(EN) Acknowledgments Wind Atlas for Egypt 2005 New and Renewable Energy Authority Niels G. Mortensen (editor) ISBN

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