Adults media use and attitudes. Report 2016

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1 Adults media use and attitudes Report Research Document Publication date: April

2 About this document This report is published as part of our media literacy duties. It provides research that looks at media use, attitudes and understanding, and how these change over time, with a particular focus on those groups that tend not to participate digitally. The report covers TV, radio, mobile, games, and the internet, with a particular focus on the latter. The report focuses on the current wave of research which was conducted in autumn 5 and any key changes compared to 4.

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4 Contents Section Page Overview 6 Executive summary 7 3 Introduction 3. Ofcom s duties 3. Research methodology and analysis 4 Digital media take-up and use 4. Section overview 4. Key findings 4.3 Internet take-up and use 3 Internet use, by location and device 3 Volume of internet use 3 Online activities undertaken regularly (at least once a week) Media device take-up, use and affinity 40 Mobile phone use 40 Activities undertaken on a mobile phone 4 Use of apps 45 Device used most often for specific online activities 47 Media platform/ device use 48 Most-missed media device 50 5 Digital media activities Section overview Key findings Overview of online and mobile activities Watching video 59 Frequency of accessing video content online 59 Device used most often for watching video content online 60 Apps versus browsers watching video content online 6 Content watched on YouTube 64 Watching video content on a mobile phone Listening to audio 69 Frequency of accessing audio content online 69 Device used most often for listening to streamed music online 70 Apps versus browsers listening to streamed music online 7 Listening to music on a mobile phone Communicating or participating (including social media) 73 Frequency of communicating through various methods online 73 Apps versus browsers 77 Communication and participation on a mobile phone 78 3

5 Social media profiles 8 Frequency of visiting social media sites or apps 85 Device used most often for social media 86 Apps versus browsers social media Gaming 88 Gaming, across devices 88 Volume of gaming per week 90 Frequency of playing games online 9 Gaming on a mobile phone Browsing, searching for content and accessing news 94 Accessing online information sources 94 Frequency of browsing and searching for content online 00 Device most often used for general surfing/ browsing the internet 04 Device mostly used for looking at news websites or apps 05 Apps versus browsers looking at news online 06 Browsing or searching for content on a mobile phone Online transactions 09 Frequency of using transactional services online 09 Device mostly used for transacting online Apps versus browsers transacting online 3 Transactional activities on a mobile phone Accessing public or civic services Frequency of using public or civic services online Device mostly used for completing government processes online Reasons for not completing government processes online 5. Other activities 4 Download software 4 Accessing files through a cloud service 4 Setting up or maintaining a website/ blog 4 Doing an online course to get a qualification 5 Apps versus browsers access files through a cloud service 6 Other activities using a mobile phone 7 6 Media attitudes and critical understanding 9 6. Section overview 9 6. Key findings Concerns about media 30 Concerns about TV content 3 Concerns with internet content 3 Concerns about mobile phones 33 Concerns about apps 34 Concerns about gaming Media funding 35 TV funding 35 4

6 Commercial television funding 36 Website funding Media regulation 39 TV regulation 39 Gaming rules and regulation 40 Internet regulation 4 Press regulation Confidence in using the internet Understanding search engine results Online privacy Online safety and security 4 7 Newer, narrow and non-users of the internet 7. Section overview 7. Key findings 7.3 Newer internet users 4 Incidence of newer users within the online population 4 Confidence as an internet user 8 Understanding search engines results 9 Security concerns about providing personal information Judgements made about websites Online security measures and safety features 3 Experience of negative online events in the past months 4 Concerns about the internet 5 Online regulation Narrow internet users 7 Incidence of narrow users within the online population 8 Internet use 9 Confidence as an internet user 90 Understanding search engine results 9 Security concerns about providing personal information 93 Judgements made about websites 94 Online security measures and safety features 95 Experience of negative online events in the past months 96 Concerns about the internet 97 Online regulation Non-users of the internet 98 Incidence of non-users within the adult population 98 Demographic profile of non-users versus internet users 99 Proxy use of the internet by non-users 0 Intention to go online 0 Perceived advantages of being online 5

7 Section Overview The Adults Media Use and Attitudes Report this year highlights shifts in how people are engaging with online content and services, raising a number of important implications. There has been a sizeable increase in the proportion of internet users saying they only use websites or apps that they ve used before (4% vs 3% in 4). This change is seen across all socio-economic groups and particularly among those aged 5 and over. This may be linked to the growing tendency to use digital intermediaries such as Facebook, Google, YouTube and Amazon for much activity. This change in use patterns underlines the growing importance of critical literacy skills. Even as search engines remain the default means of accessing information, levels of understanding remain mixed as to what their results signify, and half of search engine users are unable to correctly identify ads or sponsored links at the top of many results pages. There has been a considerable rise (from 6% in 4 to % in 5) in the proportion of adults who only use smartphones or tablets to go online, and not a PC/laptop. In other words, these newer devices are not just supplementing PCs/laptops, but are starting to replace them. This pattern is seen across all ages of adults, across all socio-economic groups and for males and females, but is particularly marked among newer users, young people and those in DE households. This move away from PCs and laptops and towards smartphones and tablets has the potential to make an impact in a number of areas. There are implications for plurality: as people may use fewer sources for their content and services, and prefer to use a small subset of apps or digital intermediaries rather than search for a wider range of material, then discoverability mechanisms become more important. There are also implications for usability, as the size of the device may hamper some types of use e.g. typing longer forms/documents; and online habits, as people s use is more dependent on their data consumption and can diminish considerably as monthly allowances are used up. 3 There is an increasing preference for mobile phones above more traditional media devices. From 05-4, adults were most likely to say they would miss their TV set the most. Now mobile phones are the most-missed media device. The smartphone is also the device mostly used for social media and is the preferred device for the majority of online activities. 4 There is increasing polarity between different age groups in terms of communications activity. Whereas 5 years ago, all age groups shared just two common means of communication landlines and letters the landscape is now considerably more varied, and there is a risk that common means of communication that cut across demographics are becoming increasingly rare, with implications for social connectivity and information-sharing. 6

8 Section Executive summary The Adults Media Use and Attitudes Report provides research that highlights the roles that media fulfil in people s daily lives. The research looks at media use, attitudes and understanding, and how these change over time, with a particular focus on those groups that tend not to participate digitally. The report covers TV, radio, mobile, games, and the internet, with a particular focus on the latter. Media literacy enables people to have the skills, knowledge and understanding they need to make full use of the opportunities presented both by traditional and by new communications services. Media literacy also helps people to manage content and communications, and protect themselves and their families from the potential risks associated with using these services. The report also includes results of analysis of the following data sources, in the Annex: Adults television viewing habits: data sourced from BARB, the UK s television measurement panel (5). The frequency with which the web properties most popular among internet users are visited by adults (comscore data, 5). Summary of key themes This year s report shows that: There has been a considerable increase in the proportion of adults who only use devices other than a PC/laptop (e.g. smartphones and tablets) to go online, indicating that these devices are no longer just supplementing PCs/laptops, but are starting to replace them. This pattern is seen across all ages of adults, across all socioeconomic groups and for males and females, but is particularly marked among newer users, young people and those in DE households. There is an increasing preference for mobile devices over more traditional media devices. While in 4, adults were most likely to say they would miss their TV set the most, mobile phones are now the most-missed media device. The smartphone is the device mostly used for social media and is the preferred device for the majority of online activities. There has been a narrowing in stated use of the internet; evidenced by an eleven percentage point increase in the number of respondents agreeing that they only use websites or apps that they ve used before (4% vs 3% in 4). This change is seen across all socio-economic groups and particularly among those aged 5 and over. There continue to be considerable differences in take-up and use of the internet by age group. Almost two-thirds of over-75s, and a third of 65-74s say they do not use the internet at all, compared to % of 55-64s and 5% or less for under-55s. Newer users are categorised as those who first went online less than five years ago. 7

9 Cognitive skills remain a challenge for many internet users. Half of search engine users (5%) were unable to correctly identify adverts or sponsored links in a results page of a search engine; this was more common among over-65s and those in DE households. And there is a continued lack of understanding around how search engines operate, for a sizeable minority of internet users. Although six in ten (6%) say that, on a results page, some of the websites listed will be accurate and unbiased and some won t be, % think that if a website has been listed by a search engine it must be accurate and unbiased. A further % say they have not thought about this, and 8% say they do not know. Those aged 5-34 are most likely to give an incorrect response to this question. There is a trend among some social media users to make their accounts more private, indicating an increasing level of awareness of privacy issues on social media sites. Two-thirds of Facebook users say they have changed the settings of their Facebook account to make it more private, while two-thirds of Instagram users say the same about their Instagram account. However, over the same period, there has been no change in the extent of internet users willingness to enter personal details online. Key findings Digital media take-up and use Internet take-up and use Almost nine in ten UK adults say they use the internet, on any device, in any location - unchanged since 4 Two-thirds (66%) of adults use the internet both at home and elsewhere, while one in five (%) use it just at home and 4% use it only outside the home. In total, nearly nine in ten (87%) UK adults say they use the internet, on any device, either at home or elsewhere, in 5 (vs. 86% in 4). Just over one in ten (3%) do not use the internet at all, which rises to 65% of those aged 75+, and 33% of 65-74s. Adults are more likely than in 4 to only use a device other than a computer to go online Seven in ten (7%) adults go online using a computer (PC/laptop); a decrease of ten percentage points since 4. At the same time, adults are almost three times as likely to use only a device other than a computer to go online (% in 5 vs. 6% in 4). In each demographic group, there has been a year-on-year increase in the proportion that only use devices other than a computer to go online; in particular, two in ten -4s and a quarter of DEs. This suggests that other devices (e.g. smartphones and tablets) are starting to take the place of computers for internet use. Smartphones are replacing computers for internet use Two-thirds (65%) of all adults use a smartphone to go online; up by four percentage points since 4. Of those who only use devices other than computers to go online, 78% use a smartphone, while 6% of all adults only use a smartphone, and no other device, to go online (up by three percentage points since 4). Smartphones are the only device used to go online, at home and elsewhere, by a majority of adults. 8

10 Volume of internet use There has been no change in the self-reported volume of internet use per week UK adults spend an average of.6 hours online each week, which is unchanged since 4. However, younger internet users and ABs have a higher weekly volume of use, compared to all internet users, while those aged 55+ and Cs have a lower weekly volume of use. Since 4, internet users are now more likely to say that in most weeks they only use websites or apps that they have used before One in five (%) internet users say they use lots of websites or apps that they haven t used before, a decrease of four percentage points since 4. This rises to three in ten (30%) - 4s, compared to around one in ten of those aged 65+ (0% for 65-64s and 3% for 75+). Internet users are now more likely to say that in most weeks they only use websites or apps that they have used before (4% vs. 3% in 4). Media device take-up, use and affinity Mobiles are now the most-missed media device among all adults While in 4, adults were most likely to say they would miss their TV set the most (37% vs. 30% in 5), mobile phones are now the most missed media device (38% vs. 3% in 4). However, this is not consistent among all age groups: those aged 55+ still name their TV set as the device they would miss the most. Smartphones are the preferred device for five out of nine online activities Internet users are more likely to say that they use a smartphone (rather than any other device) for social media, listening to streamed music, watching short video clips, looking at news websites or apps, and surfing or browsing online. There are three activities which are more likely to be undertaken using a laptop/netbook: buying things online, watching TV programmes or films online on broadcasters services, and completing government processes. Mobile phone use has remained relatively stable since 0 but smartphone use has increased since 4 Nine in ten adults (90%) use a mobile phone, unchanged since 0 (9%). Since 4 there has been a four percentage point increase in the proportion of adults who use a smartphone (70% vs. 66%). Communication and content creation are the types of activity undertaken at least weekly by the majority of mobile phone users Unsurprisingly, nearly all (96%) mobile users use their device for communication, while just under six in ten (59%) use it for content creation (which can include taking photos or videos). Those aged -4 and 5-34 are more likely than all mobile users to use their for all eight categories at least once a week, while those aged and 75+ are less likely to use their device for all eight activities. Seven in ten adults say they use apps, and the majority use them on smartphones While seven in ten adults (70%) use any device, the majority use them on smartphones (57%), while 7% use them on tablets, and % on laptops or netbooks. There is a clear preference among app users for accessing content through apps rather than browsers, unless they are making transactions or looking at news content, where browser use is more popular. 9

11 Digital media activities Watching video Just under half of internet users watch video clips online at least weekly Four in five internet users (78%) have ever watched a short video clip online, with around half (48%) doing so weekly, an increase of nine percentage points since 4. Watching video clips is most commonly undertaken on a smartphone, particularly among younger adults. Two-thirds (67%) of internet users have ever watched TV programmes or films online through broadcaster services, and just over a third (34%) say they do so at least weekly. Laptops/netbooks are the devices used most often for watching TV or films online. Listening to audio Internet users are more likely than in 4 to listen to radio stations online Just under half (47%) of internet users ever listen to radio stations online, while % do so at least weekly. Year on year, there has been a ten percentage point increase in those who say they ever listen to radio stations online (37% vs. 47%) and a nine percentage point increase in weekly use (% vs. 3%). In comparison, half (50%) of internet users ever listen to streamed music online and three in ten (9%) do so at least weekly, with over half (56%) of those who ever stream music online using a smartphone to do so. Over half of mobile phone users have ever listened to music stored on their phone In 5, 56% of mobile phone users have ever listened to music stored on their mobile phone, and four in ten (40%) mobile phone users do this at least weekly, both unchanged since 4. The younger age groups are much more likely to say that they listen to music on their mobile at least weekly (78% of -4s and 6% of 5-34s compared to 5% of 55-64s, % of 65-74s and % of 75+). Cs are more likely than all internet users to listen to music on their phones, while men are more likely than women. Communicating or participating (including social media) The majority of internet users send or receive , use instant messaging and look at social media sites or apps at least weekly The most popular activities online are sending and receiving (93%), using instant messaging (78%), looking at social media sites or apps (76%) and uploading or sharing videos or photos (70%). A majority of users do three of the activities at least weekly (sending or receiving , using instant messaging and looking at social media sites or apps). Year on year, there has been a seven percentage point increase in the proportion of internet users who say they ever upload or share videos or photos (70% vs. 63%), while the proportion who say they do any of the other activities remains unchanged. Younger age groups are more likely to undertake most of the communication activities -4s are more likely than all internet users to undertake six of the seven communication activities (the only exception is sending or receiving ), while over-55s tend to be less likely to undertake all of the activities. ABs and Cs are more likely than all internet users to send or receive , while Cs and DEs are less likely. Men are more likely than women to send or receive , but women are more likely to look at social media sites or apps, and to use instant messaging. More than seven in ten internet users have a social media profile, which are more likely to be on Facebook than any other social media site More than seven in ten (73%) internet users have a social media profile, unchanged since 4. More than nine in ten (95%) social media users say they use Facebook, with 43% 0

12 saying they only use Facebook and 84% saying their main profile in on Facebook. However, there has been a two percentage point decrease since 4 in the incidence of social media users who have a Facebook profile, while the proportion of social media users who say they have a profile on YouTube, Instagram or Snapchat has increased year on year. Two-thirds of adults with a profile use social media more than once a day, and they are most likely to do so on a smartphone Two-thirds (65%) of adults with a social media profile visit any social media site or app more than once a day, unchanged since 4. This rises to 85% of -4s. Just under six in ten (57%) of those who ever go online to look at social media sites or apps say they mostly use a smartphone to do so; an increase of percentage points since 4. In comparison, two in ten (%) say they use a laptop for this purpose (9% in 4) and % say they use a tablet (% in 4). Gaming There has been little change since 4 in our measures relating to gaming Four in ten (4%) UK adults play games on any device, unchanged since 4. Those aged -4 are more likely than all adults to play games on five of the six devices, with the only exception being tablets. Those aged and 75+ are less likely than all adults to play games on all six devices. While there are no differences by socio-economic group, men are more likely than women to play games on games consoles connected to a TV, and handheld games consoles. And -4s and DEs record the highest volumes of weekly game playing (7.4 hours for -4s and 7.6 hours for DEs, vs. 5.5 hours for all adults). Browsing, searching for content and accessing news Search engines are by far the most popular source when looking for information online, and are the only source used by a majority of internet users More than nine in ten (9%) internet users said they used search engines when looking for information online, a decrease of three percentage points since 4. Just under half (48%) said they used websites with user reviews such as Amazon; an increase of nine percentage points since 4. And fewer internet users said they used Wikipedia when looking for information online (44% vs. 54% in 4). Where there are variations by demographic from the average internet user, -4s, 5-34s and ABs tend to be more likely to use any of the sources when looking for information online, whereas 55-64s, 65-74s, over-75s, Cs and DEs tend to be less likely. Men are more likely than women to use Wikipedia or YouTube, and to read reviews by critics/journalists in articles in the wider media. Search engines are the only online source that a majority of internet users consider to be very important for finding information. Reading online reviews is more popular than posting online comments While more than three-quarters of internet users (78%) ever read reviews, only four in ten (39%) have ever written them. For each age and socio-economic group, reading online reviews is more likely than writing them. The incidence of reading and writing online reviews is unchanged since 4. Transacting The majority of internet users say they have ever bought things, banked or paid bills online Just over eight in ten (8%) internet users say they have ever bought something online, while almost seven in ten (67%) say they have ever banked or paid bills online. Four in ten (40%) say they bank and pay bills online at least weekly, compared to 30% who buy online at least weekly. There has been no change since 4 in the incidence of ever having

13 conducted a transaction online. Laptops are the device mostly used for buying things online; 37% adults who have ever bought something online say they have used this device. But smartphones are as likely as laptops to be used for online banking (both 3%). Among all adults who go online and who ever bank or pay bills online, -4s, 5-34s and DEs are all more likely than to use a smartphone for this purpose. Accessing public or civic services Internet users are more likely than in 4 to say they go online to find out about news/ events in their local area, or to sign online petitions Nearly three-quarters (73%) of internet users ever go online to find out about news/events in their local area; an increase of four percentage points since 4. The percentage of internet users who say they have signed an online petition has also increased: from 35% in 4 to 39% in 5. Looking at political or campaigning websites has decreased by seven percentage points year on year. -4s, 65-74s, over-75s and DEs are less likely to access public or civic services online Where there are demographic differences compared to the average, -4s, over-55s, Cs and DEs tend to be less likely to go online to access various public or civic services, while 5-54s and ABs are more likely to do so. For example, just over half of -4s (54%) and 65-74s (55%) and less than four in ten over-75s (37%) go online to look for public service information, compared to more than three-quarters of 5-34s (77%), 35-44s (79%) and 45-54s (76%). A third of internet users have never completed any government processes online The reasons for not carrying out government processes online are varied: a quarter (6%) say they don t complete government processes online because they prefer to fill in a form or use post. A similar proportion (%) say they prefer to make a phone call, while 9% say they don t need to complete these government processes, and % prefer to talk to someone in person. Media attitudes and critical understanding Media concerns Concerns about media are mostly unchanged since 4, although concerns about mobile phones have increased Mobile phone users are more likely than in 4 to be concerned about mobile phones (8% vs. 4%). Half (49%) of internet users say they are concerned about what is on the internet, while 49% of those with a TV in the household have concerns about what is on television. Three in ten (30%) app users have concerns about apps, while 5% of adults who play games are concerned about gaming. Media funding Adults are more likely than in 4 to be aware of how the BBC website is mainly funded Eight in ten (79%) adults are aware of the main source of funding for BBC television programmes, unchanged since 4. Similarly, 74% of adults gave the correct response when asked how commercial TV programmes are funded, on a par with 4. Just over six in ten (63%) gave the correct response when asked how the BBC website was mainly funded, up by seven percentage points since 4. There has been no change in the proportion of people who gave the correct response when asked how search engines are funded (46% in 5 vs. 45% in 4).

14 Media regulation Nine in ten adults are aware of TV regulation, the same as in 4 In 5, 89% of adults were aware that TV programmes are regulated, unchanged since 4. This compares to 60% of adults who are aware that the content of computer games and online games is regulated. One in ten adults (%) say that all of what can be seen and read online is regulated, while % say most of it is regulated and 44% say some of it is. Less than one in ten (6%) say that none of what can be seen or read online is regulated. Younger age groups and DEs are more likely to agree strongly that they should be free to say and do what they want online While the majority of internet users agree (5% strongly, 6% slightly) that the internet needs to be regulated in terms of what can be shown and written online, % of internet users agree strongly that they should be free to say and do what they want online, and this rises to 3% for -4s, 5-34s and DEs. Confidence in using the internet More internet users now say they are confident in doing creative activities online, finding information they want online and staying safe online Six in ten internet users (59%) say they are very confident as an internet user, the same as in 4. However, when internet users were asked to say how confident they were in using the internet to do creative things (like making blogs, sharing photos online or uploading short videos), 4% said they were very confident, an increase of seven percentage points year on year. Users were also more likely to say they were very confident that they could find the information they wanted online (66% vs. 6%) and that they could stay safe online (48% vs. 4%). Understanding search engine results One in five users think that if a website is listed on a search engine results page, it must contain accurate and unbiased information When asked about the links to websites that appear on a search engine s results pages, one in five search engine users (%) say that if a website is listed by the search engine, it must be accurate/unbiased. The proportion of search engine users saying this has decreased since 4 (% vs. 3%), and this response is more likely to be given by 5-34s (5% vs. %). A majority (6%) of search engine users said that some of the websites returned will be accurate or unbiased while others will not be. Just over one in ten (%) say that they don t really think about whether to trust a site, and just use those they like the look of. Half of search engine users could not identify sponsored links in search engine results When shown sponsored links on a search engine s results page, one in five (3%) said they were the best results/ the most relevant results ; % said they were the most popular results used by other people, and % said they were unsure. Compared to all adults, over- 65s are more likely to say they are unsure. Over-65s and those in DE households are less likely to recognise the results as advertising, while ABs are more likely than all adults. Men are more likely than women to correctly identify the links as advertising (64% vs. 57%). Online privacy There has been no change since 4 in the extent of internet users willingness to enter personal details online Two-thirds of adults, or more, say they are happy to provide various types of personal information online, or would do so despite having security concerns about it. Of the five 3

15 types of information we asked about, internet users are least relaxed about entering their credit or debit card payment details online. Since 4, more users say they would never provide their home address details because of security concerns (% vs. %). Facebook and Instagram users are more likely than in 4 to say they have made their profiles more private Two-thirds (67%) of Facebook users said they had changed the settings of their Facebook account to make it more private; an increase of seven percentage points since 4. The proportion of Instagram users who say they have made their account more private has risen by percentage points (from 55% in 4 to 66% in 5). One in four internet users give inaccurate or false details online to protect their personal identity, and the majority give as little personal information as possible A quarter (5%) of internet users agree (either strongly or slightly) that they have ever given inaccurate or false details on some websites to protect their personal identity online. This is more likely among 5-34s (34%) and less likely among 65-74s (9%), over-75s (9%) and Cs (%). More than eight in ten (8%) say they agree (either strongly or slightly) that they tend to give the minimum amount of personal information required online, with 60% agreeing strongly. Online safety and security Nearly half of all internet users say they are very confident in staying safe online, and the majority of home internet users have some security measures in place Just under half (48%) of internet users were very confident in staying safe online, while a further 35% said they were fairly confident. Anti-virus software (74%) and firewalls (56%) are the most likely measures to be in place, unchanged since 4. Two in three internet users say they have experienced a negative online event in the past months Across all of the negative online events asked about, two in three (65%) internet users had had any experience of them in the past months. A negative experience is more likely among users aged 5-34 (73%) and ABs (73%), and less likely among over-65s (50% for 65-74s and 33% for 75+) and DEs (54%). One in eight internet users say they have seen something online that they considered nasty or offensive; this is more likely than in 4 (3% vs. 0%). Newer, narrow and non-users of the internet Newer internet users Just over one in ten who go online are newer internet users Across all UK adult internet users, just over one in ten (%) are newer users, unchanged since 4. Newer users have a lower estimated weekly volume of use than established users (.4 hours vs. 3.5 hours) and are less likely to use a computer to go online. However, newer users are more likely to only use devices other than a computer to go online (39% vs. 5% for more established users). Newer users are categorised as those who first went online less than five years ago. 4

16 Newer users are more likely to use only those sites they ve used before, and tend to be less confident in their use of the internet The majority of newer users (65%) say they only use websites or apps that they ve used before, compared to 39% of established users. Perhaps related to this, newer users are less likely than established users to say they are very confident in all aspects of internet use. Newer users are less likely than established users to make a judgement about whether a site is secure Six in ten (6%) newer users would make a judgement about the security of a site before entering personal details, which is less than among established users (8%). However, newer users are more likely than established users not to trust any site to be secure (0% vs. 4%). In addition, awareness and use of online security measures/safety features are lower among newer internet users, perhaps linked to their tendency to stay with familiar websites or apps. Newer users are less likely to have concerns about what is on the internet Four in ten (4%) newer users have any concerns about what is on the internet, compared to half (5%) of more established users. This may be because a higher proportion of newer users believe that everything that can be seen or read online is regulated (% vs. % of established users). Narrow internet users Older adults, DEs and newer users are more likely to be narrow users Narrow users 3 account for % of all internet users, unchanged since 4. The incidence of narrow internet use is higher among 55-64s (3%), over-65s (36%), DEs (%) and newer users (3%). Compared to all internet users, narrow users are less confident internet users, less likely to use search engines and to understand how they operate, and less likely to be able to correctly identify paid-for content/ advertising that appears in search results. Narrow users are more likely to say they would never share personal information online Narrow users are more likely not to trust websites to be secure (% vs. 5% of all internet users) and less likely to say they would make a judgement about a website (5% vs. 78%). They are more likely to say they would never share personal information online. Awareness and use of online security measures/ safety features is lower among narrow internet users, although narrow users are as likely as all internet users to have concerns about what is on the internet. Non-internet users Thirteen per cent of adults are non-users of the internet Thirteen per cent of adults in the UK do not use the internet. Just under six in ten (58%) of all non-users are aged 65 and over, and more than two in five (4%) are in DE households. However, a third (33%) of non-users have asked someone else to use the internet on their behalf in the past months, unchanged since 4. Non-users aged -64 are more likely than those aged 65+ to say they have made a proxy use of the internet in this way. 3 In order to assess breadth of use of the internet, 33 of the 35 individual internet activities referenced in 5 have been grouped into types of online use. Internet users have been categorised as narrow, medium or broad users of the internet, depending on how many of these types of activity they ever do. Narrow users are those who carry out one to six of the types of activity, medium users ever carry out seven to ten types, and broad users carry out - types. 5

17 One in ten non-users say they will start to go online in the next months Nine per cent of non-users say they will go online in the next year, while 80% say they will not become an internet user and 0% are unsure. When asked what they considered the main advantages of being online, 4% of non-users stated at least one advantage. The most popular response was finding information quickly (5%). However, 49% of non-users say that for them, there are no advantages in being online.

18 Table of figures Figure : Where the internet is used by UK adults: Figure : Where the internet is used by UK adults, by demographic group 4 Figure 3: Devices used to go online: Figure 4: Use of alternative devices to go online: Figure 5: Devices used to go online at home or elsewhere, by age of user 7 Figure 6: Devices used to go online, by socio-economic group and gender 9 Figure 7: Device use, among those who only access the internet through devices other than a computer 30 Figure 8: Devices used to go online: at home and elsewhere 3 Figure 9: Key measures of internet access and use 3 Figure 0: Volume of internet use per week: Figure : Use of websites or apps not used before: Figure : Use of websites or apps not used before, by demographic group 35 Figure 3: Categories of internet activity 36 Figure 4: Categories of weekly internet activity, by age 38 Figure 5: Categories of weekly internet activity, by socio-economic group and gender 39 Figure : Mobile phone take-up, by age: Figure : Mobile phone take-up, by socio-economic group and gender: Figure : Smartphone take-up, by demographic group: Figure 9: Categories of mobile phone activity 43 Figure : Categories of weekly mobile phone activity, by age 44 Figure : Categories of weekly mobile phone activity, by socio-economic group and gender 45 Figure : Devices that apps are used on 46 Figure 3: Apps versus browsers 47 Figure 4: Device used most often for specific online activities 48 Figure 5: Media use, by age 49 Figure 6: Media use, by socio-economic group and gender 50 Figure 7: Most-missed media device: 4 vs. 5 5 Figure 8: Most-missed media device, by age 5 Figure 9: : Most-missed media device, by socio-economic group and gender 53 Figure 30: Online activities ever done by internet users: section groups 56 Figure 3: Mobile activities ever done by mobile phone users: section groups 58 Figure 3: Watching online video, by activity type: 3, 4 and 5 59 Figure 33: Watching online video at least weekly, by demographic group 60 Figure 34: Device mostly used for watching short video clips online 6 Figure 35: Device mostly used to watch TV programmes or films online 6 Figure 36: Using an app versus using a browser for watching short video clips online 63 Figure 37: Using an app versus using a browser for watching TV programmes or films online 64 Figure 38:Type of content watched on YouTube 65 Figure 39: Type of content watched on YouTube, by demographic group 66 Figure 40: Watching video content on a mobile phone: 3, 4 and 5 67 Figure 4: Use of a mobile phone at least weekly for watching video content, by demographic group 68 Figure 4: Listening to audio content online: 3, 4 and 5 69 Figure 43: Listening to audio content online at least weekly, by demographic group 70 Figure 44: Device mostly used for listening to streamed music online 7 Figure 45: Using an app versus a browser for listening to streamed music 7 Figure 46: Use of a mobile for listening to music: 3, 4 and 5 7 Figure 47: Use of a mobile to listen to music at least weekly, by demographic group 73 Figure 48: Online communication and participation: 3, 4 and 5 74 Figure 49: Weekly online communication activities, by demographic group 75 Figure 50: Using an app versus using a browser for 77 Figure 5: Use of a mobile phone for communication and participation: 3, 4 and 5 79 Figure 5: Weekly use of a mobile phone for communication, by age 80 Figure 53: Weekly use of a mobile phone for communication, by socio-economic group and gender 8 Figure 54: Incidence of having a social media profile, by age: Figure 55: Incidence of having a social media profile, by socio-economic group and gender: Figure 56: Social media sites used: 3, 4 and 5 84 Figure 57: Service considered as main social media profile, by year and demographic group 85 Figure 58: Frequency of visiting any social media sites or apps, by year and demographic group 86 Figure 59: Device mostly used for social media, by demographic group 87 Figure 60: Using an app versus using a browser for social media, by demographic group 88 Figure 6: Devices used for gaming at home or elsewhere: Figure 6: Devices used for gaming at home or elsewhere, by demographic group 90 Figure 63: Volume of gaming per week, by year and demographic group 9 Figure 64: Playing games online: 3, 4 and 5 9

19 Figure 65: Playing games online at least weekly, by demographic group 9 Figure 66: Use of a mobile phone for gaming: 3, 4 and 5 93 Figure 67: Use of a mobile phone at least weekly for gaming, by demographic group 93 Figure 68: Sources ever used when looking for information online: 3, 4 and 5 94 Figure 69: Sources ever used when looking for information online, by age 95 Figure 70: Sources used when looking for information online, by socio-economic group and gender 96 Figure 7: Importance of each information source used: 3, 4 and 5 97 Figure 7: Reading and writing online reviews, by demographic group 98 Figure 73: Extent to which savings have been made by internet users in the past six months: 09, 0 and 5 00 Figure 74: Browsing/ searching for information: 3, 4 and 5 0 Figure 75: Browsing/ searching for information at least weekly, by age 03 Figure 76: Browsing/ searching for information at least weekly, by socio-economic group and gender 04 Figure 77: Device mostly used for surfing/ browsing the internet, by demographic group 05 Figure 78: Device mostly used for looking at news websites/apps, by demographic group 06 Figure 79: Using an app versus using a browser for online news 07 Figure 80: Use of a mobile phone for browsing/ searching for content: 3, 4 and 5 08 Figure 8: Use of a mobile phone at least weekly for browsing/ searching for content, by demographic group 08 Figure 8: Using transactional services online, by activity type: 3, 4 and 5 0 Figure 83: Weekly use of transactional services online, by demographic group Figure 84: Device mostly used for buying things online, by demographic group Figure 85: Device mostly used for banking online, by demographic group 3 Figure 86: Using an app versus a browser for buying things online 4 Figure 87: Using an app versus using a browser for banking and paying bills online 5 Figure 88: Use of a mobile phone for transactional activities: 3, 4 and 5 Figure 89: Use of a mobile phone at least weekly for transactional activities, by age Figure 90: Use of a mobile phone at least weekly for transactional activities, by socio-economic group and gender Figure 9: Using public or civic services online, by activity type: 3, 4 and 5 9 Figure 9: Use of public or civic services online, by age Figure 93: Use of public or civic services online, by socio-economic group and gender Figure 94: Device mostly used for completing government processes, by demographic group Figure 95: Reasons for not completing government processes online 3 Figure 96: Undertaking other activities online, by activity type: 3, 4 and 5 5 Figure 97: Other online activities, weekly incidence by demographic group 5 Figure 98: Using an app versus using a browser to access files through a cloud service 6 Figure 99: Use of a mobile phone for taking photos and videos and downloading apps: 3, 4 and 5 7 Figure 00: Weekly use of a mobile phone for photos and videos and downloading apps, by demographic group 8 Figure 0: Concerns about media among users: Figure 0: Concerns about television among users: Figure 03: Concerns about the internet among users: Figure 04: Concerns about mobile phones among users: Figure 05: Concerns about apps among users: Figure 06: Concerns about gaming among users: Figure 07: Awareness of how BBC TV programmes are mainly funded: Figure 08: Awareness of how commercial TV programmes are funded: Figure 09: Awareness of how BBC website is funded: Figure 0: Awareness of how search engines are funded: Figure : Agreement with statement: As long as the internet provides good websites it doesn t really matter who owns them or how they re funded. 39 Figure : Awareness of TV regulation: Figure 3: Awareness of rules and regulations relating to the content of games, by age, gender and socioeconomic group 4 Figure 4: Opinions on extent to which online content is regulated, by age, gender and socio-economic group 4 Figure 5: Extent of agreement that the internet needs to be regulated, by age, gender and socio-economic group 43 Figure : Agreement with statement: I should be free to say and do what I want online, by age, gender and socio-economic group 44 Figure : Agreement with statement Everyone should be free to say and do what they want online, by age, gender and socio-economic group 45 Figure : Belief that the press is regulated: Figure 9: Confidence as an internet user, by year 47 Figure : Confidence in doing creative activities online: Figure : Confidence online: search, safety and advertising 49 Figure : Understanding of how search engines operate:

20 Figure 3: Understanding of paid-for results returned by Google searches, among adults who use search engine websites or apps 5 Figure 4: Security concerns with sharing personal information: Figure 5: Security concerns with sharing personal information: Figure 6: Whether make judgements before entering personal details online: Figure 7: Security concerns about use of apps for making purchases 56 Figure 8: Attitudes towards security of mobile payments, among mobile users 57 Figure 9: Attitudes towards website terms and conditions, by age, gender and socio-economic group 58 Figure 30: Whether changed settings of specific social media sites to be more private: Figure 3: Who shares what with whom on Facebook: Figure 3: Agreement with statement: I give out inaccurate or false details on some websites to protect my personal identity online by age, gender and socio-economic group Figure 33: Agreement with statement: I tend to give the minimum amount of personal information required, by age, gender and socio-economic group Figure 34: Agreement with statement: I am happy to provide personal information online to companies as long as I get what I want, by age, gender and socio-economic group 3 Figure 35: Agreement with statement: I don t really think about the personal information I am providing to companies online, by age, gender and socio-economic group 4 Figure 36: Awareness and use of seven online security measures/ features: Figure 37: Experience of negative online events in the past months: Figure 38: Awareness and use of reporting function: Figure 39: Extent of agreement with statement: I tend to use the same passwords online, by age, gender and socio-economic group 8 Figure 40: Extent of agreement with statement: I tend to use easy-to-remember passwords like birthdays or names, by age, gender and socio-economic group 9 Figure 4: Extent of agreement with statement: Internet users must be protected from seeing inappropriate or offensive content : Figure 4: Proportion of newer and established users, by year and age 4 Figure 43: Volume of internet use per week: newer vs. established users 5 Figure 44: Weekly internet activities: newer vs. established users 7 Figure 45: Use of websites not used before: newer vs. established users 8 Figure 46: Confidence as an internet user: newer vs. established users 9 Figure 47: Opinions on search engine accuracy: newer vs. established users 0 Figure 48: Understanding of paid-for results returned by Google searches, among adults who use search engine websites or apps: newer vs. established users Figure 49: Personal details prepared to enter online: newer vs. established users Figure 50: Judgements made before entering personal details: newer vs. established users 3 Figure 5: Security measures installed on devices: newer vs. established users 4 Figure 5: Experience of negative types of online activity: newer vs. established users 5 Figure 53: Concerns about the internet: newer vs. established users 5 Figure 54: Opinion on much of what can be seen or read online is regulated : newer vs. established users 6 Figure 55: Breadth of use of the internet, by demographic group and recency of first use 8 Figure 56: Volume of internet use per week: narrow, medium and broad users 9 Figure 57: Use of websites not visited before: narrow, medium and broad users 90 Figure 58: Confidence as an internet user: narrow vs. all internet users 9 Figure 59: Opinions on search engine accuracy: narrow, medium and broad users 9 Figure 0: Understanding of paid-for results returned by Google searches, among adults who use search engine websites or apps: narrow vs. all internet users 93 Figure : Personal details prepared to enter online: narrow vs. all internet users 94 Figure : Judgements made before entering personal details: narrow, medium and broad users 95 Figure 3: Security measures/ safety features installed on devices: narrow vs. all home internet users 96 Figure 4: Experience of any negative types of online activity: narrow vs. all internet users 97 Figure 5: Concerns about the internet: narrow vs. all internet users 97 Figure 6: Opinion on how much online content is regulated: narrow, medium and broad users 98 Figure 7: Incidence of non-use of the internet, by demographic group 99 Figure 8: Demographic profile of all UK adults: users and non-users of the internet 99 Figure 9: Proxy use of the internet in the past year among non-users: Figure 0: Whether non-users will become users in the next year, by age and gender Figure : Perceived advantages of being online, among non-users 9

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