2 Report Outline 1. Introduction to Survey and Data Collection 2. Audience Characteristics 3. Sources of Information 4. Access to and Engagement with Media 5. Radio Listening Preferences 6. Competitor Analysis 7. A Closer Look at Mayardit FM 8. Recommendations
3 1. INTRODUCTION AND RESEARCH DESIGN
4 1.1 Introduction The Research & Learning (R&L) Group, part of the BBC World Service Trust, conducted a survey with radio listeners in Warrap State in December Objectives of the survey: -To establish an understanding of Mayardit FM s reach with audiences in Warrap State -To provide Mayardit FM with information on audience needs and preferences, in order to help the station serve its audience better -To collect data on audience radio listening behaviours including -Listening times -Competitor stations The target population was men and women aged 16+ from across the counties of Warrap State served by Mayardit FM: Twic, Gogrial West and Gogrial East.
5 1.2 Fieldwork Design In order to reach audiences in both the urban centres and more hard-to-reach rural areas, local interviewers were recruited who could carry out the survey in their own villages and surrounding areas. Recruiting and training interviewers Researchers from the R&L Group travelled to Turalei town, where they recruited 7 interviewers from across Twic, Gogrial West and Gogrial East counties. The criteria for selection were: - Familiarity with the fieldwork area - Knowledge of local languages - Good written and spoken English - Ability to translate the survey questions and record data accurately on the English questionnaire Interviewers received 2 days training on survey research methods. The training covered interviewing skills, data recording, sampling methods, and the overview of the questionnaire. Training was followed by supervised practice, during which the R&L researcher provided feedback on performance and decided if the candidate qualified for the work.
6 1.3 Selecting the sample Each interviewer returned to their local area to recruit respondents for the survey. They worked in their local area for 5 days, with a target of achieving approximately 8 completed surveys per day. The area in which an interviewer worked was referred to as a cluster. Within each cluster it was desirable to select respondents at random, so that the sample would have a good mix of people of different ages, sex, occupation and radio listening habits and views. To achieve a random sample the interviewers were advised to: - Walk in a different direction from their starting point (home) each day - Visit every second household on the way - Select one person at each household to be interviewed. Select someone randomly by picking a person aged 16+ whose birthday was closest to the date of the interview As it was expected that recruiting enough female respondents would be challenging, interviewers were also asked to ensure that at least 3 out of 8 respondents each day were female
7 1.4 Sampling challenges As expected, recruiting females to the survey was very challenging. As males are the head of the household, and so the spokesperson, it was sometimes difficult for the interviewer to recruit a female or younger member of the household for the survey. Using the birthday method of selecting a household member, was sometimes helpful in overcoming this challenge. However where there was total refusal to allow another household member to participate the interviewer proceeded with interviewing the head of the household. Interviewing at every second household was difficult, particularly in sparsely populated areas where households were scattered. For example in some areas the distance between households was more than 20 minutes walk. In these situations interviewers were advised that they could visit every household to achieve their sample. Participants were sometimes suspicious about the nature of the survey. In order to improve the chances of getting permission from the head of household interviewers carried letters of introduction from the BBCWST.
8 1.5 Sample profile The sample selected was intended to achieve a mix of age groups, gender, education levels, etc, which would closely represent the population of these regions. The ratio of respondents recruited across counties closely represented the actual population spread across those areas In total 276 individuals aged 16+ were surveyed. A detailed summary of the sample demographics is provided in this table. Gender Female Male Age brackets Did not say Educa on No formal educa on Up to Primary Up to Secondary Did not say Totals Twic 44% 56% 24% 37% 12% 23% 5% 44% 23% 22% 11% 100% Gogrial East 46% 54% 15% 26% 23% 31% 5% 54% 13% 26% 8% 100% Gogrial West 41% 60% 26% 35% 32% 7% 0% 44% 25% 23% 8% 100% Total 43% 57% 24% 34% 22% 17% 3% 45% 23% 23% 9% 100% Base
9 1.6 Data collection Consent Before agreeing to take part in the survey each respondent was given some background information on the aims of the research and informed of the following: Participation in the survey is voluntary and not compulsory No monetary incentive would be provided but their input would help Mayardit FM to improve the radio service for the community The information they provided would be confidential and anonymous, and their names would not be used anywhere in the report They could skip/refuse any questions that they were not comfortable with, or end the interview at any time Survey interviewing Each survey took approximately 20 minutes to complete. The interviewer read out the questions to the respondent and marked their responses on the questionnaire. Security Interviewers were asked to check in by phone at the beginning and end of each day with the R&L team based in Turalei. Any problems or security issues were reported. In case of insecurity in the area, they were asked to stop the work and look for safety.
10 1.7 Quality control and challenges Quality Control The interviewers returned to Turalei with the completed surveys once they had completed their five days of fieldwork. The completed questionnaires were checked by the R&L team in Turalei, at which time any errors or clarifications that were needed were dealt with. Challenges in conducting the fieldwork Security had to be monitored constantly, and action taken when issues arose. Where security incidents occurred, interviewers were advised not to conduct fieldwork until the situation and safety had been assessed. Environmental conditions made conducting fieldwork difficult, including travelling long distances to interview participants, and working in strong sun during the day. Absence of the household head during afternoon hours often made it difficult to get permission for some family members to participate. This meant that interviewers sometimes had to return to households on multiple occasions to complete the interview. Many individuals expected to receive a monetary token of appreciation for their participation. Where money was requested the interviewers explained that this was not possible and stressed the other benefits of participating in the survey. However at times the lack of incentive meant that potential respondents refused to participate.
11 2. AUDIENCE CHARACTERISTICS
12 2.1 Languages spoken Languages spoken by the sample % of respondents Dinka Arabic English Other Dinka was spoken by 99% of the sample surveyed. This was followed by Arabic (54%) and English (39%). The other language category included: Kiswahili, Nuer, Angok, Fur, Nas and Zaghawa. Languages spoken Base: All respondents, n=279
13 2.2 Incomes Almost half of those surveyed said that they did not know their household s monthly income or refused to answer (49%). In total, 37% had a household income of less than 500SDG (Sudanese pounds) per month, with 23% earning less than 200SDG per month. Monthly household income 46% 1% 5% 23% SDG 14% 1,200+ SDG Did not say 11% Base: All respondents, n= SDG SDG 900-1,200 SDG
14 2.3 Occupations % of the respondents Farmer Student Occupa ons Trader Housewife Occupa ons Teacher Other occupations Total Female Male Base: All respondents, n=279 Over one quarter (28%) of those surveyed were occupied in agricultural work and 18% worked as traders. A greater proportion of males were engaged in education than females (24% vs 16% respectively), although the properition of females in education in Warrap state is quite high in comparison to other states that were surveyed.* The most common occupation among females was housewife (36%). The Other occupation category included: police, medical personnel, administrators. *Similar surveys were carried out for stations in Unity and Northern El Bahr state were the % of females who were students was 5% and X% respectively.
15 2.4 Length of time resident in the area 100% 90% Time resident in area The average number of years respondents had lived in each county were: Twic: 15 % of respondents 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 20% 44% 36% 23% 18% 59% 42% 54% 4% Twic Gogrial East Gogrial West County New to area - less than 3 years Intermediate - 4 to 10 years Long-term years Base: All respondents, n=279 Gogrial East: 19 Gogrial West: 5 The graph shows that Gogrial East had a greater proportion (59%) of longterm inhabitants than other counties i.e. 11+ years* Gogrial West had the highest number of people (42%) who had lived in an area for less than 3 years.
16 3. SOURCES OF INFORMATION
17 3.1 Popular information sources Popular Informaon Sources % of the respondents Radio Word of Mouth Church Newspapers Text Messages T.V Billboards / posters Internet Police Radio is a key information source for the majority of respondents in Warrap state (96%), followed only by word of mouth (70%). Other media are used to a much lesser degree with just one quarter of participants watching TV (24%), 29% reading newspapers and only 10% accessing the internet. Source Base: all respondents, n=279
18 3.2 The most used source of information 7% 3% Most Used Source of Informa on 8% 82% Radio Word of Mouth Other Did not say Base: All respondents, n=279 Radio is the predominant source of information in Warrap, being chosen by 82% of the audience when they were asked which information source they use the most. Word of mouth (7%) was the only other source that featured significantly. The other category here combines TV, police and the church. 8% of respondents did not answer this question
19 3.3 Variations in most used source by education level % of respondents Most used source of information, by education level No formal education Up to primary level Education level reached 2 92 Secondary level or above Did not say Other WordofMouth Radio Across all education levels radio is the most used source of information, particularly among those educated up to secondary level (92%). However those who were less educated were more likely than others to mention word of mouth as a most used source, with 9% of those with no formal education choosing word of mouth. Base: All respondents, n=279
20 3.4 Variations in most used source by age group % of respondents Most used source of information, by age group Age group Did not say Other Word of mouth Radio Base: All respondents, n=279 While radio was the most used source across all age groups, there are variations in the degree to which the other sources are most used. An increase in the use of word of mouth as an information source by age is evident. While only 3% of those under 25 years say it is their primary source, 13% of those aged 45+ rely most on word of mouth for their information.
21 3.5 Types of information sources used for the CPA % of respondents Radio 92 Word of Mouth Sources for CPA Informa on 67 Church 39 Newspapers and Magazines 28 Text Messages TV Billboards/Posters Sources of informa on Internet Police Base: All respondents, n=279 When accessing information on the CPA radio was again the most popular source, with 92% of respondents saying they accessed information this way. Over two thirds also gained information through word of mouth. Newspapers & Magazines, text messages, internet and television were used by a much smaller number of respondents (28% or less).
22 3.6 Most useful source of information on CPA Most useful sources of informaon on CPA 14% 3% When respondents were asked which source was most useful for their CPA related information, radio was chosen by 83% of the audience. 83% Radio Word of Mouth Other Base: All respondents, n=279 14% of the audience said that word of mouth was most useful (an increase on the 7% who use word of mouth most for general information in section 3.2). The majority of these have no formal education (62%) or are male (71%). Only 3% cited other sources (combining tv, text messages, church and newspapers)
23 4. ACCESS TO AND ENAGAGEMENT WITH MEDIA
24 4.1 Most frequently used media sources Media Usage - frequency Radio is used by 93% of the respondents basis, and only 3% of the sample reported never listening to the radio. % of all respondents Radio 3 93 Mobile phone Newspapers T.V Internet Never Less than once per month At least once per month At least once per week Daily All other media sources are used much less regularly, with internet being the least accessed (91% reported never using it). Mobile is the second most frequently used media source, with 28% using mobile on a daily basis. Based on responses to this question, all respondents except those who never listened to the radio were defined as Radio Listeners. Type of Media Base: All respondents, n=279 All data in the next section of this report is based on this Radio Listener group (n=270).
25 4.2 Access to radio Table 1 shows that the majority of those surveyed said their household had a working radio (86%). However the graph below shows that of those who do not own a radio, 74% still manage to listen to the radio outside of their own household. This indicates a high level of radio listening in social and community settings. Table 1: Radio ownership Working radio in household No working radio Did not say Total Base Table 2: Waves FM only FM & Short wave Shortwave only Does not own radio Did not say Total Base % 86% 13% 1% 100% 279 % 58% 17% 2% 13% 11% 100% 279 % of all respondents Radio ownership and listenership 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Radio in Household 74% No radio in household Of those who reported having a working radio in their households (n=241), the majority had access to FM only (58%) Non-listener Radio Listener
26 5. RADIO LISTENING PREFERENCES
27 5.1 What programmes do the audience listen to? % of radio listeners Radio Programme Audiences Local news & Discussions Music Culture Education Health matters Sports Agriculture Women Religion International news & Dis... Types of programmes English education Politics 23 When asked what programmes they listen to on the radio, 91% of radio listeners said that they tune into local news and discussion. After news, entertainment shows were the most popular - Music (82%) and culture (73%). Politics (23%) was the least popular programme types, followed by International News (33%) and English Education (31%). Base : All radio listeners, n=270
28 5.2 What are the most popular programme formats? Formats News Community Announcements Drama Phone-ins Experts (%) Base: Radio listeners, n=270 The responses to the question Which of these programme formats do you like listening to? indicate that audience primarily use the radio as an information source The most popular formats were those which provide relevant information such as news (74%) and community announcements (73%). However over two thirds of the audience also enjoy drama (67%)
29 5.3 Most popular audience listening times The graph below shows the most popular times for the audience to listen to the radio, based on the 270 radio listeners in the sample. Most respondents reported that they listen first thing in the morning, with 6am to 9am being the most popular slot (79%), followed by mid morning 9am-12pm (39%). Radio listening is much lower later in the day and evening with less than one quarter of those surveyed listening between 12pm and 12am. Radio listening mes % of radio listeners am-9am 9am-12pm 12pm-3pm 3pm-6pm 6pm-9pm 9pm-12am Listening mes Base: Radio listeners, n=270
30 6. COMPETITOR ANALYSIS
31 6.1 Station awareness and listenership % of radio listeners Mayardit FM BBC Miraya FM Sta on Reach Radio Omdurman Radio Kuajok Sudan radio Service Nhomlaau FM Radio Rumbek Radio sta on Bentiu FM Dabanga FM 1513 Other stations 5 3 Base: Radio listeners, n=270 Aware of the sta on Personally listens to the sta on Mayardit FM was the most well known (93%) and listened to station (83%) among the audience surveyed. The next most popular station was the BBC (59% listeners) Although awareness of Miraya FM was also quite high (57%), listenership was only 37% - similar to that of the state radios Omdurman (39%) and Sudan Radio Service (26%) Note: The other station category included Radio France, Werebe FM and Naath FM
32 6.2 Most listened to station When the audience were asked to select the station they listened to the most, Mayardit FM was chosen by almost half of respondents (43%). BBC was the second most popular station (20%), followed by Radio Omdurman (15%) and Radio Kuajok (11%) The other stations category included Miraya FM, Sudan Radio Service & Radio Dabanga Most listened staon 3% 8% 11% 15% 43% Mayardit BBC Omdurman Kuajok Other Did not say 20% Base: Radio listeners, n=270
33 6.3 Comparison of listening times This graph compares the most popular stations on the number of listeners they attract at different time of the day. -Mayardit FM commands more listeners than other stations first thing in the morning between 6am and 9am (43%) and in the afternoon from 3 to 6pm (23%). -But listenership to Mayardit FM is very low between 12 and 3pm, with only 2% of listeners reporting that they tuned in at this time. Radio Omdurman has more listeners at this time % of radio listeners Comparison of station listening times Mayardit Omdurman BBC Kuajok -Listeners to BBC and Radio Kuajok are very much concentrated in the early morning hours 6am- 9am 9am- 12pm 12pm- 3pm Times 3pm- 6pm 6pm- 9pm 9pm- 12am Base: Radio listeners, n=270
34 6.4 Frequency of listening % of radio listeners Regular Radio Listening (Daily or at least once a week) Mayardit BBC Omdurman Kuajok Popular radio stations 8 Mayardit FM was the most frequently listened to station, with 53% of radio listeners tuning in at least once per week. Almost one third of those surveyed also tuned into BBC at minimum once per week (30%). The remaining popular stations have a low proportion of listeners who could be called regular listeners (between 20% for Radio Omdurman and just 8% for Radio Kuajok) Base: Radio listeners, n=270
35 7. A CLOSER LOOK AT Mayardit FM
36 7.1 Who are the Mayardit FM audience? This table compares Mayardit FM listeners and non-listeners on demographic factors The majority of non-listeners were in the year category (43%) while a high proportion of the listener group were aged years (37%). This suggests that Mayardit FM is less popular with younger audiences. Gender Males Females Age group Did not say Listens to Mayardit FM 44% 56% 20% 37% 25% 15% 3% Does not listen 30% 70% 43% 28% 7% 22% 0% Total 42% 58% 24% 35% 22% 16% 3% Non-listeners were more mostly located in rural areas (89%), compared to 62% of listeners. Mayardit FM was quite popular among those who had no formal education - 48%. Location Urban Rural Education Level No formal education Up to primary level Up to secondary level 38% 62% 48% 18% 23% 11% 89% 24% 48% 26% 33% 67% 44% 23% 24% Did not say 11% 2% 9% Total 100% 100% 100% Base (radio listeners only)
37 7.2 Who listens to Mayardit FM at what time? -Gender differences Across all radio listeners, Mayardit FM is listened to most between 6am and 9am (52%). The following graphs show variations between different audience members Listening mes by gender Gender % of group who listen at this time 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 6am-9am 52% 51% 9am-12pm 27% 27% 12pm-3pm 31% 25% 16% 2% 10% 3% 3pm-6pm 6pm-9pm 9pm-12am 12% 14% Females Males Patterns of listening are very similar for males and females, apart from in the late afternoon and early evening (3pm -9pm) when females are more likely to tune into Mayardit FM than males. Base: Mayardit FM listeners, n=224
38 7.3 Who listens to Mayardit FM at what time? -Age differences Age Listening mes by age Older audience members (36+) are more likely to listen in the early morning between 6 and 9am. Those 45+ also listen late at night between 9pm and 12am. A popular time for the youth audience is mid morning when 41% listen compared to less than 28% across other age groups % of group who listen at this time 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 6am-9am 68% 63% 43% 44% 9am-12pm 41% 26% 28% 11% 12pm-3pm 9% 5% 0% 2% 3pm-6pm 47% 32% 20% 15% 6pm-9pm % 30% % 16% 10% 9% 4% 6% 9pm-12am Base: Mayardit FM listeners, n=224
39 7.4 Who listens to Mayardit FM at what time? -Location differences % of group who listen at this time 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 6am-9am 64% 44% Listening mes by loca on (urban vs rural) 9am-12pm 44% 17% 12pm-3pm 7% 0% 3pm-6pm 27% 27% 28% 6pm-9pm 4% 9pm-12am 22% 7% Urban Rural LOCATION Overall Mayardit FM has more rural than urban listeners (which reflects the spread of population generally refer to Table 3). However this graph demonstrates the peak listening times for listeners in each location. Both groups listen most in the early morning from 6am to 9am. The second most popular time for rural listeners is afternoon from 3-6pm (28%), but for urban dwellers it is mid-morning from 9am to 12pm (44%). Base: Mayardit FM listeners, n=224 Evening is not a popular time for rural listeners, with between 4 and 7% listening after 6pm.
40 7.5 Most popular programme types for the Mayardit FM audience % of Mayardit FM listeners Preferred Mayardit FM Programmes Local news and discussion Music Culture Education - general Health matters Agriculture Sport Religion Women English education International News and D... Politics Types of programmes 21 Base : Mayardit FM listeners, n=224 Preferences for programmes among Mayardit FM listeners followed the same pattern of programme listening overall Local news and discussion programmes are the most listened to, followed by entertainment shows on music (83%) and culture (80%) Politics holds the least interest for listeners, and less than one third tune into programmes on international issues, English education or women s issues.
41 7.6 What is the appeal of Mayardit FM programmes for different audience members? % of Mayardit FM Listeners 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Programme preferences - significant gender differences 47% 45% 33% 31% 23% 36% Agriculture Sport Internaonal news and discussion Programme type 46% 23% Women's issues Base: Mayardit FM listeners, n=224 Female Male GENDER Males and females reported similar levels of preference for 7 out of the 12 programme types they were presented with. However for the 5 programmes types shown in this graph, there were significant differences. More males than females said that they listened to international news (36%) and programmes on agriculture (47%) and sport (45%). As expected, females were more likely to listen to programmes on women s issues (46% vs 23%).
42 7.7 What is the appeal of Mayardit FM programmes for different audience members? % of Mayardit FM Listeners 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Programme preferences - significant age differences 55% 35% Listens to sport programmes Base: Mayardit FM listeners, n=224 Youth audience Older audienxe AGE When preferences of younger audience members (16-25 years) were compared to the rest of the sample (25+ years), a significant difference was only found in the number that tuned into Mayardit FM s sports programmes. Only 35% of the older audience listened to sports compared to 55% of those under 25 years old. No other programme listening differences were found between the age groups.
43 7.8 What is the appeal of Mayardit FM programmes for different audience members? Programme preferences - significant loca on differences LOCATION Urban and rural audiences varied in their preference for 4 programme types. % of Mayardit FM Listeners 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 89% 74% Music 37% 35% English Educaon 22% 22% Internaonal News 26% 46% Women's Issues Rural Urban Base: Mayardit FM listeners, n=224 A greater proportion of rural listeners enjoyed music (89%), international news (35%) and English education (37%) shows, in comparison to urban listeners. Urban listeners were more likely to tune into shows on women s issues (46%). This increase is partly due to the fact that the urban group has a higher proportion of females compared to the rural group, however the effect of urban/rural location is still significant.
44 8. RECOMMENDATIONS
45 8.1 Recommendations for Mayardit FM As well as being an important source of local news and information, the audience in Warrap state also enjoy radio for music and culture. The audience values the local and community knowledge they can gain by listening, but quality entertainment shows should also be a priority for Mayardit FM in order to satisfy the audience. Although a very small number of people used word of mouth most for their general information (7%), 14% still thought that it was more useful than radio for important CPA information. As these audiences were mostly male (71%) it is likely that the useful information they gained on the CPA was through social interactions and discussions. Mayardit FM could explore further how to provide similar information and debate in discussion programmes. As mobile phones are only used regularly by one third of the audience in Warrap state, encouraging audience participation by means of phone-ins or text messages may be challenging for Mayardit FM at present. However as mobile phone penetration increases in the state these options should be further explored. As Dinka is spoken by 99% of the audience, programming should be primarily be in this language. Producers should be aware that programmes in Arabic or English will only reach approximately half of the potential audience.
46 8.2 Recommendations for Mayardit FM Programmes on women s issues only attract 23% of the male listeners to Mayardit FM compared to 46% of the female audience. These programmes are therefore not currently not the best forum to broadcast information about issues affecting women, which aim to reach the wider population. A programme which incorporates issues affecting women into the wider topic of social and family issues might attract a wider audience. Mayardit FM s English education programmes currently attract a very small audience (32%) in comparison to education programmes in general (53%), and only 22% among urban listeners. The popularity of general education suggests that there is a demand for informal educational radio programming. Mayardit FM could potentially improve it s English educational programmes so that they cater for, or better target, those who might benefit from language learning through the radio. Sports programmes were much more popular among the youth age bracket (16-25 years, 55%) than older listeners (25+ years, 35%). This age difference is not common to other stations that were surveyed (e.g. Naath FM, Nhomlaau FM) and so Mayardit FM may need to explore whether current sport programming is meeting the interests of older people. Mayardit FM s most popular programmes are local news and discussion, music and culture, however interest is much lower for other programmes such as politics and international news and discussion. Improvements may be needed in these important areas to make them more engaging and relevant for listeners.
47 8.3 Recommendations for Mayardit FM While Mayardit FM is the most popular station overall, Radio Omdurman attracts as many, if not more, listeners between 9am and 3pm in the day. Exploring what Radio Omdurman offers listeners at these times would be beneficial to ensure Mayardit FM maintains its high listenership going forward. Mayardit FM has a large audience at some specific times of the day, and during periods when the following programmes are aired. Times: 6am-9am and 3pm to 6pm Programmes: Local news and discussion, music, culture These would be appropriate times to broadcast particular programmes or messages that aim to reach large numbers of people. Programming and advertising targeted at specific groups could be considered during the following periods Females: 6am-9am, 3pm - 6pm, and following programmes on women s issues Males: 6am-12pm, and following programmes on agriculture, sport and international issues Youth (16-25): 9am-12pm Urban audience: 6am-12pm Rural audience: 6am-9am and 3pm-6pm
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