Adults media use and attitudes report

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1 Adults media use and attitudes report Research Document Publication date: April 013

2 Contents Section Page 1 Executive summary... 4 Introduction Background Research methodology and analysis Media literacy online how it fits together Introduction Change in media literacy over time Focus: High critical understanding and very confident internet users Take-up, preference and media use Household access to media devices Regular media activities Most-missed media activities Preference for making contact Internet use, by device Internet use, by location Volume of internet use Radio listening Devices used to play games and volume of gaming use Understanding, attitudes and concerns about media Awareness of the main source of media funding Regulation of media content Online content regulation Protection against inappropriate or offensive media content Trust in news, by media type Concerns about media, among users Using the internet Confidence in aspects of using the internet Websites visited Online activities undertaken Public and civic involvement Content creation and social networking Frequency of visiting social networking sites

3 6.7 Number of friends or contacts on social networking sites Uses of social networking sites Trust in social networking site content Data privacy on social networking sites Understanding how search engines operate Privacy concerns when posting information online Personal details prepared to provide online Attitudes towards sharing personal information online Judgements made about a website before entering personal details online Security concerns when entering personal details online Attitudes towards shopping online Awareness and use of online security measures/ safety features Attitudes towards online passwords Attitudes towards data privacy when purchasing online Website terms and conditions/ privacy statements Experience of negative online events in the past 1 months Online copyright infringement Use of mobile phones Profile of smartphone users Activities undertaken at least weekly using a mobile phone Mobile phone users experience of negative events Awareness and use of mobile phone security measures or safety features Newer users of the internet Incidence of newer users within the online population Profile of new users Volume of internet consumption and types of internet use Websites visited Confidence as an internet user Understanding of how search engines operate Privacy concerns when posting information online Security concerns about providing personal information Attitudes towards sharing personal information online Judgements made about websites Security concerns when entering personal details online Attitudes towards shopping online Awareness of use of online security measures/ safety features Attitudes towards online passwords... 15

4 8.15 Experience of negative online events in the past 1 months Narrow users of the internet Defining breadth of use and Narrow users Volume and location of internet use Websites visited Confidence as an internet user Understanding how search engines operate Privacy concerns about sharing information online Security concerns about providing personal information Attitudes towards sharing personal information online Judgements made about websites Security concerns about sharing information online Attitudes towards shopping online Awareness and use of online security measures/ safety features Attitudes towards online passwords Experience of negative online events in the past 1 months Non-users of the internet Internet take-up and intention to get access at home Demographic profile of internet users and non-users Proxy use of the internet by non-users Reasons for not intending to get internet access at home Interest in internet functions among non-users

5 Section 1 1 Executive summary UK adults are spending more time online There has been a significant increase in the self-reported volume of internet use since. Overall estimated weekly volume of use of the internet among users has increased to an average of just under 17 hours per week (16.8 vs hours in ). Over half (53%) of UK adults now use a mobile phone to go online, rising to 86% among smartphone users, and more than one in ten use a tablet computer (16%), games console/ player (16%), or a portable media player (1%), all significant increases since. On average, UK adult internet users claim to visit 19 websites in a typical week. There are considerable differences between demographic groups; for example, those over 75 estimate that they visit on average seven websites and narrow users 1 six. This compares to people in AB households, and men, who estimate that they visit on average 7 and 4 respectively. Some % UK adult internet users say they visit fewer than five websites in a typical week. Smartphone growth continues, increasing mobile phone affinity Smartphone ownership among UK adults rose from 44% to 54% in. The fastest growth was among the 16-4s (+15 percentage points), with significant growth also seen among the 35-44s (+13 percentage points) and the 55-64s (+11 percentage points); all of these are significant increases since. Although television remains the media activity that is most likely to be missed by all adults (43%), this is not the case for 16-4s; they are twice as likely to say they would miss their mobile phone than any other medium. And adults with a smartphone (irrespective of age) are as likely to miss their mobile phone as their television (30%) this is unchanged since. Smartphone users are more likely to carry out a variety of online activities, at least weekly, compared both to non-smartphone users, and to smartphone users in. The most significant increases in use since are: features such as maps or satellite navigation to get where you want to go/plot a route to a destination (+15 percentage points), followed by send or receive s and send or receive photo messages (+1 percentage points). Older users drive continued growth in social networking In just under two in three (64%) adult internet users said they had a social networking profile, a significant increase on 59% in. This growth has been driven by users aged 55-64, 35% of whom now have profiles, compared to 4% in. There has been no significant growth among any other age group since. Seven in ten (7%) of those with a social networking profile claim to visit social networking websites at least daily. Half claim to visit sites more than once a day, with just under one in ten (9%) visiting more than ten times a day. 1 Narrow users are defined as those ever carrying out 1-6 of the 18 types of online activity we ask about, and account for two in ten of all internet users (18% vs. 1% in ). 4

6 On average, we found that UK adults with a social networking profile have 37 friends or contacts on their main social networking site, and this figure varies considerably with age. For example, those aged 16-4 claimed to have 35 friends, compared to 161 among those aged and 16 among those aged over 45. But despite this increase in use, trust in social networking sites is lower than in, with 43% of UK adult internet users disagreeing that they trust what they read or see when they visit social networking sites, an increase from 35% in. This attitude is shown across almost all age groups. Security and safety habits are mixed While overall levels of concern about the internet have stayed at the same rate as, specific concerns about security have increased; those saying they are concerned about security/fraud online have gone up from 1% to 5% since. Around half of all internet users say they have experienced spam/ unwanted s (5%), with around a quarter experiencing a computer virus (5%) or receiving an unsolicited directing them to a website which encouraged them to provide personal details (6%). Three in four (75%) smartphone users say they use a screen lock, with 50% stating they have PIN protection for their SIM card. This is higher than for non-smartphone users, where these features are used by 40% and 0% respectively. However, password security remains a challenge - more than half (55%) of internet users claim to use the same passwords for most websites. A quarter (5%) of users said they had problems remembering passwords, with this being more likely among users aged (33% ) and less likely among 16-4s, and Cs (both 18%). A similar proportion of users (6%) said they tended to use easy-to-remember passwords like birthdays or names. There has been an increase in understanding of how search engines operate The numbers who understand how search engines are funded has risen from 3% in 005 to 36% in, and the numbers who understand how search engine results pages operate has risen from 50% in 010 to 60% in. The increase in understanding about funding is apparent across almost all age and socio-economic groups, although the increase in understanding how search engines operate appears only among the under-45s. Increase in the number of people who believe the internet is regulated UK adults are now more likely than in to think that internet content is regulated (44% vs. 40%). This compares to 84% who believe that television content is regulated, 73% for radio, 4% for gaming and 9% for mobile phone content, none of which have changed since. Forty-four per cent of UK adults think that programmes, or clips of programmes shown on broadcasters websites (such as the BBC website or the ITV website), are regulated. While this is a decrease since (48%), it is substantially greater than in 007 (7%). Three in ten (30%) of UK adults also think that the content shown on sites like YouTube and homemade videos by the general public is regulated, a rise since 007 (1%). This belief in internet content regulation is likely to have an impact both on people s behaviour online and their perceptions of online content. 5

7 Four in ten internet users are critically aware and similar numbers are very confident / broad users Forty-two per cent of the internet population overall can be defined as critically aware. Separately, users with high levels of use and confidence 3 make up 39% of internet users. Analysis of these types of user shows us that the various elements of media literacy tend to go together the more people go online, the more they are likely to be critically aware, confident, risk aware, and so on. They are also more likely to encounter negative experiences, but among these types of user such experiences do not hinder further use and activity. Both newer, and narrow, internet users claim to spend less time online and visit fewer websites Both these groups are likely to be more cautious in most of their online activities, and carry out fewer activities, than internet users as a whole. Both newer 4 and narrow internet users have a far lower estimated weekly volume of use (8.9 and 6.6 hours respectively) compared to 16.8 hours among all internet users, and they carry out fewer activities online. Both these groups are more likely only to visit websites they have visited before. Just under half (49%) of newer internet users estimate that they visit fewer than five websites in a typical week, with narrow users estimating that they visit on average six websites in the same period. This compares to the average of 19 websites among all internet users. Twice as many newer users than established users say that they never share personal information online (6% vs. 1%) and they are less likely to say they would make a judgement about a website (74% vs. 8%). Narrow users are more likely than all internet users to say that security concerns prevent them entering personal details for the following activities: shopping online (14% vs. 6%), using government websites (11% vs. 5%) and banking online (1% vs. 10%). The majority of non-users continue to cite lack of interest as their main reason for not going online One in seven UK adults do not have the internet at home and do not intend to get access in the next 1 months. This level of non-use is unchanged since (15% in both and ). Those over 65 are the most likely not to have home access to the internet (56% of 65-74s and 8% of 75+ currently have internet access, compared to 79% of all adults) and are more likely to say they do not intend to get access (38% for 65-74s and 67% among over-75s). The reasons most often cited for not intending to get the internet continue to be lack of interest (85%), followed by cost (3%) and reasons relating to ownership / availability, for example not having a computer (19%). We took five core questions that relate to critical understanding in the survey, and created a group of those who responded in a particular way to at least four of them see page 18 for details. 3 We define this group as those who consider themselves to be very confident internet users, and say they ever carry out between 11 and 18 activities out of a possible Newer users are defined as those who first started using the internet up to five years ago, with those who first started using the internet five or more years ago defined as more established users. 6

8 Table of figures Figure 1: Types of internet activities carried out at least once a week: Figure : Levels of overall concern by media platform: Figure 3: Measures of critical understanding: Figure 4: Household take-up of key platforms: 005, 007, 009, 010, and... Figure 5: Take-up of digital television, internet and digital video recorder, by age: 005, 007, 009, 010, and... 4 Figure 6: Take-up of digital television, internet and digital video recorder, by socioeconomic group: 005, 007, 009, 010, and... 5 Figure 7: Take-up of mobile phone and smartphone, by age: 005, 007, 009, 010, and... 6 Figure 8: Take-up of mobile phone and smartphone, by socio-economic group: 005, 007, 009, 010, and... 7 Figure 9: Regular media activities (1-5 of 10): 005, 007, 009, 010, and... 8 Figure 10: Regular media activities (6-10 of 10): 005, 007, 009, 010, and. 9 Figure 11: Regular media activities, by age: Figure 1: Regular media activities, by socio-economic group: Figure 13: Most-missed media activity among all UK adults : 005, 007, 009, 010, and... 3 Figure 14: Most-missed media activity, by age: Figure 15: Most-missed media activity, by socio-economic group and gender: Figure 16: Preferred communication method for making contact: 005, 009, 010 and Figure 17: Key measures of internet access and use: Figure 18: Devices used in the home to visit internet websites: 009, 010, and Figure 19: Devices used in the home to visit internet websites, by age and device used: Figure 0: Devices used in the home to visit internet websites, by age and device usage group: Figure 1: Devices used in the home to visit internet websites, by socio-economic group and device used: Figure : Where the internet is used by UK adults: 005, 007, 009, 010, and... 4 Figure 3: Where the internet is used by UK adults, by age: Figure 4: Where the internet is used by UK adults, by gender and socio-economic group: Figure 5: Where the internet is used by users: 005, 007, 009, 010, and.. 44 Figure 6: Volume of internet use per week: 005, 007, 009, 010, and Figure 7: Volume of internet use per week, by age: Figure 8: Volume of internet use per week, by socio-economic group and gender:.. 47 Figure 9: Where radio is listened to by UK adults, by age: Figure 30: Where radio is listened to by UK adults, by gender and socio-economic group: Figure 31: Ways of playing games at home or elsewhere: 007, 009, 010, and Figure 3: Online gaming: 009, 010, and Figure 33: Volume of gaming per week: 007, 009, 010, and and by age, socio-economic group and gender Figure 34: Awareness of the main source of funding for television programmes, radio stations and websites:

9 Figure 35: Belief that TV and radio content is regulated: 005, 007, 009, 010, and Figure 36: Belief that internet, mobile phone, gaming content is regulated: 005, 007, 009, 010, and Figure 37: Belief that online content is regulated: 007, 009, 010, and Figure 38: Platform content users must be protected from inappropriate or offensive content: 010, and Figure 39: Agreement with statement: When I watch TV news / listen to radio news / visit news websites / read newspapers I tend to trust what I hear / read or see : 009, 010, and Figure 40: Concerns about platforms among users: 005, 007, 009, 010, and Figure 41: Concerns about the internet among users: 009, 010, and... 6 Figure 4: Concerns about television among users: 009, 010, and Figure 43: Concerns about mobile phones among users: 009, 010, and Figure 44: Concerns about gaming among users: 009, 010, and Figure 45: Confidence as an internet user: 007, 009, 010, and Figure 46: Visits to websites not visited before, in most weeks when the internet is used: 007, 009, 010, and Figure 47: Visits to websites not visited before, in most weeks when the internet is used, by age, gender and socio-economic group: Figure 48: Estimated number of different websites visited in a typical week, by age:. 7 Figure 49: Estimated number of different websites visited in a typical week, by gender, socio-economic group and location of internet use: Figure 50: Individual uses of the internet, by activity group: Figure 51: Types of internet activities carried out at least once a week: 007, 009, 010, and Figure 5: Types of internet activities carried out at least once a week, by age: Figure 53: Types of internet activities carried out at least once a week, by socioeconomic group and gender: Figure 54: Individual internet activities carried out at least once a week: 010, and, and by age: Figure 55: Individual internet activities carried out at least once a week, by socioeconomic group and gender: Figure 56: Individual internet activities ever undertaken: 005, 007, 009, 010, and... 8 Figure 57: Top ten individual online activities ever undertaken, by frequency: Figure 58: Public/ civic online activities ever undertaken, by frequency: Figure 59: Agreement with statement: I consider myself to be involved in the local community : Figure 60: Agreement with statement: I consider myself to be involved in political or campaigning issues : Figure 61: Experience of, and interest in, content creation (1 to 4 of 7): 007, 009, 010, and Figure 6: Experience of, and interest in, content creation (5 to 7 of 7): 007, 009, 010, and Figure 63: Set up own social networking site profile, by age: 007, 009, 010, and Figure 64: Set up own social networking site profile, by gender and socio-economic group: 007, 009, 010, and... 9 Figure 65: Frequency of visiting any social networking sites: 007, 009, 010, and Figure 66: Frequency of visiting any social networking sites, by age, socio-economic group and gender:

10 Figure 67: Friends or contacts listed on main social networking site, by age, gender and socio-economic group: Figure 68: Social networking site uses: 007, 009, 010, and Figure 69: Social networking site uses: Figure 70: Agreement with statement: When I visit social networking sites like Facebook I tend to trust what I read or see : 009, 010, and, and by age, gender and socio-economic group: Figure 71: Privacy of information shown on social networking site profiles, by age: Figure 7: Search engine users attitudes towards the accuracy or bias of the websites returned by a search: 009-, and by age, gender and socio-economic group: Figure 73: Search engine user actions when looking for general information: Figure 74: Privacy concerns relating to putting information online: and Figure 75: Privacy concerns relating to putting information online, by age: Figure 76: Personal details prepared to enter online (1-3 of 5): 005, 007, 009, 010, and Figure 77: Personal details prepared to enter online (4-5 of 5): 005, 007, 009, 010, and Figure 78: Attitudes towards sharing personal information online, by age: Figure 79: Judgements made about a website before entering personal details online: 009, 010, and, and by age, gender and socio-economic group: Figure 80: Types of judgements made about a website before entering personal details online: 005, 007, 009, 010, and Figure 81: Security concerns when entering personal details online, by type of online activity: Figure 8: Attitudes towards shopping online, by age, gender and socio-economic group: Figure 83: Security measures/ safety features installed on PC/ laptop used at home (1-3 of 6): and Figure 84: Security measures/ safety features installed on PC/ laptop used at home (4-6 of 6): and Figure 85: Attitudes towards online passwords: Figure 86: Agreement with statement: People who buy things online put their privacy at risk : 009, 010, and, and by age, gender and socio-economic group: Figure 87: Awareness of, and reaction to, website terms and conditions/ privacy statements: and, and by age, gender and socio-economic group: Figure 88: Experience of negative types of online activity: and Figure 89: Attitudes towards online copyright infringement: 009, 010, and, and by age: Figure 90: Attitudes towards online copyright infringement: 009, 010, and, and by socio-economic group and gender: Figure 91: Age and socio-economic group profile of mobile phone users, and smartphone / non-smartphone users: Figure 9: Mobile phone activities carried out at least once a week (1-9 of 18): Figure 93: Mobile phone activities carried out at least once a week (10-18 of 18): Figure 94: Mobile phone activities carried out at least once a week by smartphone users compared to those with another type of mobile phone: Figure 95: Mobile phone activities carried out at least once a week by smartphone users: and Figure 96: Top ten mobile phone activities ever undertaken, by frequency of use:

11 Figure 97: Experience of potentially negative types of mobile phone activity: Figure 98: Awareness and use of mobile phone security measures/ safety features: 13 Figure 99: Age and socio-economic group profile of internet users by newer and more established users: Figure 100: Volume of internet use per week by newer and more established users: Figure 101: Types of internet activities carried out at least once a week by newer and more established users: Figure 10: Individual internet activities carried out at least once a week, by newer and more established users: Figure 103: Visits to websites not visited before, in most weeks when the internet is used, by newer and more established users: Figure 104: Estimated number of different websites visited in a typical week by newer and more established internet users: Figure 105: Confidence as an internet user in : newer and more established users Figure 106: Search engine users attitudes towards the accuracy or bias of the websites returned by a search, newer and more established users: Figure 107: Use of search engines, newer and more established users: Figure 108: Personal details prepared to enter online, newer and more established users: Figure 109: Attitudes towards sharing personal information online, newer and more established internet users: Figure 110: Judgements made about a website before entering personal details online, newer and more established users: Figure 111: Security concerns when entering personal details online: newer and more established users: Figure 11: Attitudes towards shopping online, newer and more established internet users: Figure 113: Security measures/ safety features installed on PC/ laptop used at home: newer and more established users (1-3 of 6): Figure 114: Security measures/ safety features installed on PC/ laptop used at home: newer and more established users (4-6 of 6): Figure 115: Attitudes towards online passwords, newer and more established internet users: Figure 116: Experience of negative types of online activity, newer and more established users: Figure 117: Breadth of use of the internet: 009-, by age: Figure 118: Breadth of use of the internet: by gender, socio-economic group and by newer and more established internet user: Figure 119: Volume of internet use per week, Narrow, Medium and Broad users: Figure 10: Visit to websites not visited before, in most weeks when the internet is used, Narrow, Medium and Broad users: Figure 11: Estimated number of different websites visited in a typical week: Narrow, Medium and Broad users: Figure 1: Confidence as an internet user, Narrow users: Figure 13: Search engine users attitudes towards the accuracy or bias of the websites returned by a search: Narrow, Medium and Broad users: Figure 14: Use of search engines, newer and more established users: Figure 15: Privacy concerns relating to putting information online (1-4 of 9), Narrow users: Figure 16: Privacy concerns relating to putting information online (5-9 of 9), Narrow users: Figure 17: Personal details prepared to enter online, Narrow users: Figure 18: Attitudes towards sharing personal information online, Narrow, Medium and Broad users:

12 Figure 19: Judgements made about a website before entering personal details online: Narrow, Medium and Broad users: Figure 130: Security concerns when entering personal details online, Narrow users: Figure 131: Attitudes towards shopping online, Narrow, Medium and Broad users:. 170 Figure 13: Security measures/ safety features installed on PC/ laptop used at home by Narrow users (1-3 of 6): Figure 133: Security measures/ safety features installed on PC/ laptop used at home by Narrow users (4-6 of 6): Figure 134: Attitudes towards online passwords, Narrow, Medium and Broad users: Figure 135: Experience of any negative types of online activity, Narrow users: Figure 136: Internet take-up and intentions: 005, 007, 009, 010, and Figure 137: Internet take-up and intentions, by age and socio-economic group: Figure 138: Demographic profile of all UK adults, users and non-users of the internet: Figure 139: Proxy use of the internet in the past year among non-users: 009-, and by age, gender and socio-economic group: Figure 140: Stated reasons for not intending to get home internet access in the next 1 months: 005, 007, 009, 010, and Figure 141: Interest in internet functions among non-users, (1-4 of 11): Figure 14: Interest in internet functions among non-users, (7-11 of 11):

13 Section Introduction.1 Background The promotion of media literacy is a responsibility placed on Ofcom by Section 11 of the Communications Act 003. Under Section 14 (6a) of the Act we have a duty to make arrangements for the carrying out of research into the matters mentioned in Section 11 (1). Our media literacy research informs three of Ofcom s strategic priorities: to maintain audience confidence in broadcast content; to promote opportunities to participate; and to contribute and implement public policy as defined by Parliament. Media literacy enables people to have the skills, knowledge and understanding they need to make full use of the opportunities presented by communications services. Media literacy also helps people to manage content and communications, and to protect themselves and their families from the potential risks associated with using these services. Ofcom s definition of media literacy is: the ability to use, understand and create media and communications in a variety of contexts. This report is designed to give an accessible overview of media literacy among adults aged 16 and over, and is based in one wave of research conducted in autumn. Where possible, within the overall sample of adults, demographic analysis is conducted by age, by gender and by household socio-economic group. The key objectives of this research are: to provide a rich picture of the different elements of media literacy across the key platforms of the internet, television, radio, and mobile phones; and to identify emerging issues and skills gaps that help to target stakeholders resources for the promotion of media literacy.. Research methodology and analysis This report draws on research from the Media Literacy Tracker with adults aged 16 and over. Comparisons are made between this research and the Media Literacy Audit surveys conducted in 005 and in 007, and the Media Literacy Audit Trackers conducted in 009, 010 and. These reports can be found at Media Literacy Tracker with adults: A quantitative survey comprising 1,805 in-home interviews with adults aged 16 and over, with interviews conducted from September to November. 1

14 Media Literacy Tracker with adults: A quantitative survey comprising 1,83 in-home interviews with adults aged 16 and over, with interviews conducted from September to October. Media Literacy Audit Tracker with adults: 010 A quantitative survey comprising,117 in-home interviews with adults aged 16 and over, with 1,063 interviews conducted from April to May 010 and 1,054 interviews conducted from September to October 010. Media Literacy Audit Tracker with adults: 009 A quantitative survey comprising 1,84 in-home interviews with adults aged 16 and over, with 81 interviews conducted from April to May 009 and 1,01 interviews conducted from September to October 009. The report was published in 010. Media Literacy Audit survey: 007 A quantitative survey comprising,905 in-home interviews with adults aged 16 and over from October to December 007. The report was published in 008. Media Literacy Audit survey: 005 A quantitative survey comprising 3,44 in-home interviews with adults aged 16 and over from June to August 005. The report was published in 006. Where possible, we have included findings from 005, 007, 009, 010, and. Some questions, however, have not featured in every year in which the research has been conducted. Comparisons are generally made between the and findings rather than the long-term trends, as detailed below. Significance testing Significance testing at the 95% confidence level was carried out, and any findings detailed in this report have been found to be significant to a 95% confidence level. This means that where findings are commented on, there is only a 5% or less probability that the difference between the samples is by chance. Statistically significant findings between and are indicated in the figures in the report by circles or arrows. In addition to reporting on differences over time, we look at adults in the different age groups and socio-economic groups and compare these to all adults interviewed in, to see if there are any significant differences within these sub-groups. We also report on differences between men and women. Take-up figures The take-up figures in this report give useful information to contextualise people s media literacy-related behaviour and attitudes. Official all-uk Ofcom take-up figures based on a larger survey can be found in the annual CMR (Communications Market Report) published in the summer of each year

15 Section 3 3 Media literacy online how it fits together 3.1 Introduction Since we started tracking media literacy in 005, the media landscape has changed significantly, particularly in terms of online take-up. Internet take-up has increased from 54% of UK households in 005 to 79% in, and mobiles and other portable devices have changed our ability to be online in a variety of ways. This first section explores how some key elements of online media literacy have changed over this period. Media literacy can be defined in many ways, with a variety of attitudes and behaviours forming its constituent parts. We have taken five core areas that we feel cover many of the parameters of media literacy in the online environment, and examined how these measures have changed over time. These core areas are as follows: Use what people say they do online; Security/risks the extent to which people think about or take action about personal security online, and whether they take risks or experience negative online activities; Concerns how concerned people are about a range of online issues; Confidence levels of self-confidence in using the internet; Critical understanding levels of understanding about the internet, including checks and judgements on websites. We are also interested in the relationships between some of these areas, namely those between use and attitudes: Are people with critical understanding more or less likely than those without to be engaged and active internet users? Do people who use the internet a lot, and are confident in using it, have different attitudes and different levels of understanding to people who don t use it as much? The following analysis is not intended to be definitive. Rather, its purpose is to generate discussion, with our findings providing a springboard for further exploration and development. We base our analysis on data that are available for a period of at least three years; a twoyear time span is insufficient to represent trends. And as some questions were introduced in different survey years, or have been modified during the period, our analysis may be based on comparisons with data from 005, 007, 009 or

16 3. Change in media literacy over time Use over time People s regular use of the internet has changed over time. Activity levels for some activities have expanded rapidly, but others have increased more slowly; some activities have barely changed since 007. Figure 1: Types of internet activities carried out at least once a week: Sending and receiving s 70% 74% 75% 79% 79% 80% General surfing/ browsing the internet % 80% Looking at social networking sites - 19% 35% 45% 53% 55% Finding information for your work/ job/ studies 5% 48% 36% 45% 46% 4% Banking and paying bills online 31% 6% 6% 33% 36% 39% Looking at news websites 5% 4% % 31% 31% 34% Watch online or download short video clips % 0% 6% 9% Using online chat rooms or Instant Messaging - % 7% 30% 30% 7% Listen to or download music online % % % 5% Watch online or download TV programmes or films % 14% 18% 3% Buying and selling things online % 17% 0% % Finding information for your leisure time including cinema and live music 0% 13% 14% 17% 18% 1% Playing games online 10% 1% 13% 15% 16% 19% Looking at job opportunities % 16% 16% Send or receive Twitter updates % 14% Downloading software - 1% 11% 11% 13% 14% Listening to radio stations online 16% 13% 10% 15% 11% 13% Making or receiving calls over the internet ( e.g. Skype) % 11% 13% Maintaining a website or blog 7% 9% 9% 10% 10% 11% Finding information about public services provided by local or national government 1% 9% 8% 8% 10% 11% Finding information about health related issues - - 7% 9% 9% 10% Finding information for booking holidays - 3% 8% 6% 7% 9% Complete government processes online - - 4% 4% 5% 8% Looking at political/ campaign/ issues websites 4% 4% 4% 6% 3% 6% Doing an online course to achieve a qualification % 4% 4% Looking at adult-only websites % % 1% % % 3% Online gambling % 3% 3% 4% 3% 3% Sign an online petition % % Contact a local councillor or your MP online % 1% Visiting dating websites % 1% 1% 15

17 Weekly internet activities Some of the activities that people say they do weekly or more often have increased over time: watching online or downloading TV programmes or films (10% in 009 to 3% in ); looking at news websites (5% in 005 to 34% in ); buying and selling things online (17% in 009 to % in ); banking and paying bills (31% in 005 to 39% in ); and ing (70% in 005 to 80% in ). With the exception of online TV/film, these increases are relatively modest. For some activities, incidence has remained flat; for example, finding out information about public services has shown no change at a weekly basis (1% in 005 v 11% in ). There are various demographic differences 55-64s are twice as likely now as they were in 005 to bank and pay bills online on a weekly basis (37% vs. 18%), while those aged 65+ show no change over time (6% in 005 vs. 5% in ). 16-4s are also more likely to bank and pay bills online than they were in 005 (30% vs. 17%). This pattern is similar for accessing news sites; the 16-4 and age groups show increased consumption patterns. One third (3%) of 16-4s say they access news websites on a weekly basis (19% in 005); and 31% of 55-64s do this in compared with 1% in 005. Most age groups watch or download TV online more often than in 009, except for those aged (14%) and the over-65s (6%). Creative activities There has been an increase since 007 in creative activities 6 such as uploading video (from 10% to % in ), uploading photos (from 43% to 57%), and contributing comments to blogs (from 19% to 31%), across most ages and socio-economic groups. Social networking has showed the largest increase over time, increasing from 1% in 007 to 64% in. However, contributing to Wikipedia, and setting up a blog or website, have not increased, and are done by only around 10-15% of internet users. Arguably, these latter activities are for the relatively engaged online users, while the former activities are more informal or leisure-based means of communication. In summary, leisure-based and entertainment activities have seen the biggest increases in regular use, with use relating to transactional activities showing some signs of increase as well. But other types of activities, particularly those related to civic behaviour such as using public services, have remained largely static on a weekly basis, despite the growing imperative for such services to be used. 6 Creative activities include making blogs (or online diaries), editing photos and sharing them with friends and uploading short videos to the internet. 16

18 Security Another facet of media literacy is the ability to keep safe online, and to make an informed choice about the amount and type of personal information to provide to third parties. We have asked the same question since 007 about whether people are happy to enter various types of personal detail when online. There has been no change in the percentage of internet users who say they would have some concerns but would still carry out the activity, which we categorise as a broadly medialiterate response falling between those who say they would be happy to give out personal details, and those who would never do so. For example, in % said they would have some concerns but would go ahead with entering their mobile phone number, and this was unchanged in at 47%. There is a similar trend for entering your home address or home phone number. However, there has been one increase over time 48% now say they would have concerns but would go ahead with entering their personal details (from 38% in 007). About two-thirds of internet users in (66%) say they use filters on the PC/ laptop or netbook they use at home, and 59% said they deleted cookies from their web browser. There are few differences by age group, except that those aged 65+ are far less likely to do these things. Concerns Over time, concerns about the internet have decreased substantially from 70% in 005 to 5% in. This applies to all age groups except the over-65s, and to all socio-economic groups. This reduction in concerns over time is similar across all platforms. For the internet, this could be linked to increases in online activity, making the online environment more of an integral part of daily life and therefore more familiar. Figure : Levels of overall concern by media platform: % of users (variable bases) Concerns about the internet overall Concerns about TV overall Concerns about mobile overall Concerns about radio overall Concerns about gaming overall Confidence We ask internet users to rate their levels of confidence in various aspects of using the internet, and at an overall level as an internet user 7. Levels of confidence online have 7 Changes were made to this section of questions in which we believe have had an impact on the findings reported here. Three aspects of using the internet were removed from the section asking users to rate their levels of confidence: using an internet search engine, starting up the internet, and finding what you want when you go online. The 010 surveys found that 80% or more of internet users said they were very confident with each of these three aspects of using the internet. The removal of these aspects may have had an impact on the levels of confidence reported for the aspects covered in. In particular, it seems likely that the removal of these aspects has affected the response to the question: Overall, how confident are you as an internet user. Whereas a majority 17

19 remained unchanged since across all internet users, with just over half (54%) describing themselves as very confident as an internet user, compared to 5% in. The lack of growth in overall confidence over the past two years could indicate people s increased awareness of the rapid appearance of new devices and applications, while their levels of understanding have not kept pace. However, people are now more likely than in 007 to say they are very confident in using the internet to do creative things 45% vs. 37%. This is also the case among under-45s and those in higher socio-economic groups. This rise could be related to the increased ease of use of various content uploading tools have become easier to use. Critical understanding over time Critical understanding is a core component of online media literacy, and refers here to knowledge about the norms of the internet platform, in terms of how aspects of it are funded and operate, and the person s judgements about their own online activity. We have a number of measures that combine to indicate a degree of critical awareness or savviness - about the online environment. These measures include: awareness of how the BBC website is funded (an offline analogy here could be that of public libraries, and people being aware that these are funded through local taxes); awareness of how search engine websites are mainly funded, and awareness of how they operate (given the dominance of search engines for most navigation online, it is important that the basics of its funding models are understood - an offline analogy could be the widespread knowledge of the distinction between TV advertising and editorial broadcasting); and making any type of judgement about a website before entering personal details online, and being careful about sharing personal information on websites or with companies that are trusted (taking steps to validate sites before entering personal details displays due caution in online activity). We can examine most of these measures over time to see the extent of change. Awareness of how the BBC website is funded there has been no statistically significant change since 005 in this measure at an overall level (46% in 005 v 49% in ), nor among nearly all age and socio-economic groups. Awareness of how search engine websites are mainly funded this measure has risen at an overall level (3% in 005 vs. 36% in ) and among most age and socioeconomic groups. Awareness of how search engines results pages operate there has been an increase from 50% in 010 to 60% in, and among younger groups (under-45s) and most socio-economic groups. Make any type of judgement about a website before entering personal details online there has been a small increase over time at the overall level 81% made a judgement of internet users had said they were very confident with three aspects of using the internet before answering this question in 010, but this is not the case in. We have therefore not shown comparisons over time relating to overall confidence as an internet user. 18

20 in compared to 77% in 007 although not for individual age or socio-economic groups. There has been a larger increase among those who make formal judgements such as using padlock signs or system messages, from 43% in 005 to 61% in. Over time, then, online critical understanding reveals a mixed picture. While measures relating to search engine understanding show signs of improvement over time, the overall level of understanding of how they are funded, while improving, remains relatively low. And while four in five say they make judgements about a website, this has barely increased over the past five years. Figure 3: Measures of critical understanding: % of adults/ users (variable bases) Awareness of how the BBC website is funded Awareness of how search engine websites are mainly funded Awareness of how search engines results pages operate Make any type of judgement about a website before entering personal details online Focus: High critical understanding and very confident internet users When we compare the internet users who can be defined as critically aware 8 with those that are not, we can see that online critical understanding has a positive relationship with levels of confidence, amount of internet use, and risk-taking, as well as risk-awareness. In other words, those who are critically aware are more likely to do more online, to be aware of risks and to mitigate them through safety techniques, and also more likely to have had negative activities online. They are also more likely to be very confident users than those who aren t critically aware. But levels of concern are greater among the critically aware group, and attitudes to internet content are different from those who are not critically aware. This group appears to display a rounded online engagement, aware of complexities and concerns but not being put off by them. It is also useful to examine internet users who have high levels of use and confidence online, to see how their levels of knowledge and attitudes compare with those who are less broad 8 We took five core questions that relate to critical understanding in the survey, and created a group of those who had at least four of the following elements of knowledge or habits: aware of how the BBC website is mainly funded; aware of how search engines are mainly funded; aware of how search engines operate; make any type of judgment about a website before entering personal details online; either say they are happy to share personal information but only with websites/companies they trust, or say they think very carefully about sharing their personal information with any website or company even if it is one they trust. Overall, one in five (18%) of internet users had all five elements, and a further 4% had any four, making two in five (4%) of internet users who had at least four the critically aware group. In terms of their profile, this group is more likely to be AB than those who aren t aware of at least four of these criteria (37% vs. %); more likely to be male (54% vs. 44%); more likely to be a broad user (66% vs. 45%) and more likely to have first started using the internet ten years ago or more (69% vs. 5%). 19

21 and confident internet users 9. Like the critically aware group 10, they are more likely to be security-conscious, and more likely to have had experience of negative online activities, than those that are not broad/ confident users. They are also more likely to have experienced any of the negative online activities we asked about. While broad/ confident users are as likely as those who aren t broad/ confident users to have any concerns about the internet, they are more likely to have specific concerns relating to personal privacy and data privacy. However, they are more likely to say they are happy to enter personal details than those who aren t broad/confident users. Finally, these broad and confident users are more likely to be critically aware across all the measures, except for understanding how search engines operate. What these analyses of particular types of user show us is that the various elements of media literacy tend to go together the more people do online, the more they are likely to be critically aware, confident, risk aware, and so on. They are also more likely to encounter negative experiences, but among these types of user such experiences do not hinder further use and activity. 9 We define this group as those who consider themselves to be very confident internet users, and say they ever carry out between 11 and 18 activities out of a possible 18. This group comprises 39% of all internet users, and is compared to those who are not very confident broad users, or medium or narrow users (61% of all internet users). In terms of their demographic profile, this group is more likely to be AB (36% v 4%) and more likely to be aged 16-4 (7% v 1%). They are more likely to be male (53% vs. 45%) and to have first started using the internet ten or more years ago (7% vs. 51%). 10 It is important to note that some 5% of broad/ confident users are also part of the critically aware group, so there is a sizeable overlap between the two groups. 0

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