1 Workshop Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement Modena (Italy) June 2002 PROCEEDINGS
2 International Association of Geomorphologists - IAG Association Internationale des Géomorphologues - AIG The Executive Committee of the International Association of Geomorphologists was elected at the 5 th International Conference on Geomorphology in Tokyo for the period : President: Vice-President: Secretary General: Treasurer: Publication Officer: Mario PANIZZA (Italia) Andrew GOUDIE (United Kingdom) Dénes LÓCZY (Hungary) André OZER (Belgique) José LUGO-HUBP (México) Elected Members: Edgardo M. LATRUBESSE (Brazil) Alfredo PÉREZ GONZÁLEZ (España) Co-opted Members: Mohamed T. BENAZZOUZ (Algérie) Vibhash C. JHA (India) Mauro SOLDATI (Italia) Zbigniew ZWOLINSKI (Poland)
4 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra - Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia Largo S. Eufemia, Modena (Italy) Tel Fax ISBN On the cover: Modena Cathedral and Sassi di Rocca Malatina (photos by M. Panizza)
7 WORKSHOP Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement Modena (Italy), June 2002 PROCEEDINGS Edited by Paola CORATZA and Mauro MARCHETTI Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia 2002
8 Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement WORKSHOP Modena (Italy), June 2002 Scientific and Organizing Committee Prof. Mario PANIZZA (President of the I.A.G.) Prof. Sandra PIACENTE (National Co-ordinator of the COFIN Research Project) Dr. Emmanuel REYNARD (Co-ordinator of the I.A.G. Working Group) Dr. Paola CORATZA (Scientific Secretary of the Workshop) Organizing Secretary Dr. Paola CORATZA Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra - Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia Largo S. Eufemia, Modena, Italy Tel.: Fax: Patronage I.A.G. International Association of Geomorphologists AIGEO Associazione Italiana di Geografia Fisica e Geomorfologia Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia Comune di Modena Provincia di Modena Regione Emilia Romagna Servizio Valorizzazione e Tutela del Paesaggio della Regione Emilia Romagna Sponsorships Consorzio di Tutela del Lambrusco Consorzio di Tutela del Parmigiano Reggiano Panini Editore
9 FOREWORD In the past few years our Modena Research Group has committed itself with continuity and enthusiasm to study in depth not only the geological aspects of the Earth s dynamics and the identification and mitigation of the resulting risks but also the definition of a new, milder discipline made of attractive diversities, history and why not? emotional and visual enjoyment. A sort of journey back to the natural civilisation in which man can identify with Nature and become involved with the symbolic meaning which goes through the complete range of his senses. Starting from the concept of geodiversity, i.e. the variety of the geological landscape and its forms, this new key of interpretation can open the way to new incentives, both in the scientific and social fields, towards a common goal: the knowledge and preservation of our geo-historical identity. It is therefore with great pleasure that the Modena School on Geosites and the Study Group of the Italian Research Group COFIN Geosites in the Italian landscape: research, assessment and improvement has organised and hosts the First International Workshop on Geomorphological Sites, research, assessment and improvement in the city of Modena. In organising this meeting we did not only intend to offer the first official opportunity for two research groups to meet on the research topic of geomorphological sites: the Working Group of the I.A.G. Geomorphological sites and the Italian Research project COFIN Geosites in the Italian landscape, but also to make a space available for all interested researchers in order to discuss, compare and reflect on the most recent themes and developments of this sector of Geology, which many people still consider a sort of fringe subject. If our goal is achieved, much will be due to the wide and qualified participation of the researchers who have decided to join in with oral presentations and posters; we wish to thank them sincerely. Most of the merit, though, goes to the collaborators who, with various roles, availability and enthusiasm, have put their competence at the service of our initiative and have done this in the best possible way. I wish therefore to thank warmly first of all Dr. Paola Coratza, industrious and tireless Secretary of the Workshop, then the colleagues Professors Doriano Castaldini, Alessandro Corsini, Mauro Marchetti, Maurizio Pellegrini, Mauro Soldati and Giovanni Tosatti, Drs. Milena Bertacchini, Lisa Borgatti, Cecilia Giusti, Massimo Barbieri and Alessandro Ghinoi, the sponsors and all those who, in different ways but always with great willingness, have helped us through the various stages of the organisation. Sandra PIACENTE National Co-ordinator of the COFIN Research Project
10 WELCOMING ADDRESS At the meeting of the International Association of Geomorphologists (IAG) held in Tokyo on August 26 th 2001, the IAG council unanimously approved the creation of a Working Group on the topic Geomorphological Sites. I have the pleasure to be the co-ordinator of this working group for the next four years. This workshop of Modena is our first official activity. I am therefore very happy to welcome all the participants who accepted our invitation and who will present an oral communication or a poster, or simply participate to the debates which will occupy us during these three days. I would address a particular thank to our hosts of Modena who welcome us in their university. My sincere thanks go especially to Professor Mario Panizza, President of the IAG, to Professor Sandra Piacente, Co-organiser of the conference, and last but not least to Dr Paola Coratza, who ensured with much perfection the role of general secretary of the meeting. I hope that these three days of conferences, discussions and excursions will be profitable for all, at the scientific level and in terms of human relationships as well. This conference of Modena should be the starting point for the development of various activities relating to the geomorphological sites, which will be discussed during the morning of Saturday June 22. All propositions are welcome! I would also give you appointment at the 32th International Geological Congress, that will be held in Florence on th August 2004 and where there will be a topical session on the theme Geologic and geomorphological sites in a cultural integrated landscape under threat. And don t forget the next International Conference on Geomorphology in 2005 in Zaragoza, where we will conclude our works with a symposium on the theme Geomorphological Sites! Emmanuel REYNARD Co-ordinator of the I.A.G. Working Group Geomorphological sites
11 WELCOMING ADDRESS On behalf of the International Association of Geomorphologists (IAG), I wish to express my friendly welcome to all the participants in this Workshop on Geomorphological Sites. I also wish to address my sincere thanks and appreciation to the organisers of this Meeting and, in particular, to Sandra Piacente and Paola Coratza. As you know, this is a joint meeting of the COFIN Italian Research Project Geosites in the Italian Landscape, co-ordinated by Sandra Piacente, and the IAG Working Group Geomorphological Sites, coordinated by Emmanuel Reynard. This Meeting is also an opportunity for the participation of numerous researchers interested in geomorphological sites. The Working Group Geomorphological Sites represents one of the most advanced research activities of the IAG and, together with six other working groups on different topics, involves many geomorphologists from all over the world. Each working group will have to work intensely in order to produce innovative and qualified scientific material to be presented in other scheduled Symposia which will be held during the next IAG International Conference, in Zaragoza (Spain) in September I think that during the oral presentation and poster sessions of this Workshop, the field trip and the work meetings, it will be possible to discuss and compare the various concepts, the research methods applied and the results attained. This will make up an essential framework for a further development of the scientific elements about this topic, which has aroused an ever growing interest in public opinion, local administrations and environmental policy makers. I really hope that many of the participants in this Workshop, who already belong to the IAG, will also join this specific Working Group. I wish you all an enjoyable and satisfactory time during these days here in Modena. Mario PANIZZA President of the I.A.G. - International Association of Geomorphologists
13 Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement WORKSHOP Modena (Italy), June 2002 PROGRAMME 19 June. Co-ordination Meeting of the COFIN Working Group. 20 June. Workshop dedicated to scientific reports. 8:30 hrs - Registration of Participants. 9:30 hrs - Opening of the Workshop and welcome addresses. 10:00 hrs Invited lectures and discussion. 13:00 hrs - Lunch. 15:00 hrs - Poster session and oral communications. Final discussion. 21:00 hrs - Social dinner. 21 June. Excursion in the Modena Apennines. 22 June. Co-ordination Meeting of the I.A.G. Working Group (open to all participants).
14 WELCOME ADDRESSES Mario PANIZZA (President of the I.A.G.) Sandra PIACENTE (National Co-ordinator of the COFIN Research Project Geosites in the Italian landscape ) Emmanuel REYNARD (Co-ordinator of the I.A.G. Working Group Geomorphological sites ) INVITED LECTURES Emmanuel REYNARD Institutional Resource Regime (IRR): a tool for managing the protection and exploitation of Geomorphological Sites Gerardo BRANCUCCI, Anna Elisa MANIGLIO CALCAGNO and Francesca MAZZINO The Geosites role in the landscape European convention Enrique SERRANO CAÑADAS Geomorphology, natural heritage and protected areas: lines of research in Spain Felice DI GREGORIO and Antonio ULZEGA The state of the knowledge in the conservation and the valorisation of Geomorphological Sites in Sardinia Mario PANIZZA and Sandra PIACENTE The Geomorphosites between scientific research, cultural integration and artistic suggestion POSTER SESSION Marco AVANZINI, Alberto CARTON, Roberto SEPPI and Riccardo TOMASONI First census of Geosites in the Province of Trento Milena BERTACCHINI, Paola CORATZA and Sandra PIACENTE An experimental data sheet for the inventory of Geomorphosites proposed by the COFIN 2001 Research Group Geosites in the Italian landscape: research, assessment and improvement
15 Milena BERTACCHINI, Paola CORATZA and Sandra PIACENTE Cultural Landscape between Geology and Literature in the 20 th century in Emilia-Romagna A poetical itinerary amidst the Geosites of Emilia Romagna Paolo BONI, Alberto CARTON, Lamberto LAURETI, Luisa PELLEGRINI, Pieruigi VERCESI and Francesco ZUCCA Census of Geosites in Lombardy Gerardo BRANCUCCI and Myriam D'ANDREA National project: Protection of the Italian geological heritage - The testing card for the Geosites inventory Lorenzo CARNEVALI and Olivia NESCI Marchean landscape: reading exercises Luigi CAROBENE, Marco FIRPO and Cristiano QUEIROLO Relics of low marine terraces along the Ligurian coast between Varazze and Cogoleto (Passeggiata Europa): a proposed Geosite Alberto CARTON, Paolo BONI, Luisa PELLEGRINI, Roberto SEPPI and Francesco ZUCCA A pre-geosite bibliography: a proposal for improvement Doriano CASTALDINI, Paola CORATZA and Mirko IOTTI Inventory of the lakes of the high Emilia-Romagna Apennines (Northern Italy) Paola CORATZA and Cecilia GIUSTI A method for the evaluation of impacts on scientific quality of Geomorphosites Jo DE WAELE, Felice DI GREGORIO, Roberto FOLLESA and Giuseppe PIRAS Geosites and landscape evolution of the Tacchi: an example from centraleast Sardinia Guglielmina DIOLAIUTI, Carlo D AGATA, Manuela PELFINI and Claudio SMIRAGLIA Geomorphosites in glacialized areas: routes in the upper Valtellina for the valuing of the high mountain environment Lucilla GREGORI, Laura MELELLI, Silvia RAPICETTA and Andrea TARAMELLI Principal Geomorphosites in Umbria Region
16 Nicolae JOSAN, Dorina ILIEŞ and Stelian NISTOR Geomorphological sites in the mountain area of Bihor county (Romania) Lamberto LAURETI The Geomorphological Sites of the Grigne Mountain (Lombardy) Maurizio LAZZARI Conservation and valorization of the geomorphological-environmental heritage of the Pollino National Park (Southern Italy) Giuseppe MASTRONUZZI, Yves QUINIF, Paolo SANSÒ and Gianluca SELLERI Marine/continental series in Grotta del Diavolo (Leuca, Apulia, Italy): a key for the reconstruction of coastal environmental changes during the Middle- Upper Pleistocene Olivia NESCI, Daniele SAVELLI, Antonio DILIGENTI and Diego MARINANGELI Geomorphological sites in the Marche region area: examples from carbonatic ridges and Montefeltro sheet Paolo ORRÙ, Valeria PANIZZA and Antonio ULZEGA Submarine Geomorphosites in the Marine Parks of Sardinia Giovanni PALMENTOLA and Maurizio LAZZARI Proposal for conservation and protection of the Quaternary coastal Geomorphological Sites in Western Salento (Southern Italy) Manuela PELFINI and Maurizio SANTILLI Dendrogeomorphology: a 4D-analysis instrument for the valuing of the Geomorphosites in the Alpine environment Daniela RUBERTI, Marco VIGLIOTTI, Giuseppe SIRNA and Maurizio MUSELLI Inventory of the geopaleontological heritage in protected areas of the Campania Apennines Gianluca SELLERI, Ilaria MARACCHIONE and Antonella MARSICO Marine and karstic landforms along the coast from Polignano a Mare to Monopoli (Apulia, Southern Italy) Afat SERJANI, Hamdi BESHKU and Ndoc VUKSAJ Geomorphological Sites in Albania and their geotourist values
17 Donato SOLDANI, Oronzo SIMONE, Paolo SANSÒ and Giuseppe MASTRONUZZI A Geosites' network as a tool for the environmental management in the territory of Ostuni (Brindisi, South Italy) Nicolas SUMMERMATTER, Jean-Pierre PRALONG and Emmanuel REYNARD Theoretical relationships between geomorphological tourist offer and anthropic impacts Gianluca TOMMASI, Enrico CASOLARI and Alberto CARTON Geosites and geological mapping: a starting point to make geology popular for tourists Jairo VALDATI Preliminary study on Geomorphological Sites: scenic components and scientific approach, the case of the National Park of Serra Geral (SC - Brazil) ORAL COMMUNICATIONS Monica BINI Antro del Corchia within an integrated naturalistic itinerary in the Apuan Alps Alberto COSTAMAGNA The inventory of Geomorphological Geosites in the framework of landscape management and tourist improvement Piero FARABOLLINI, Marco MATERAZZI and Gianni SCALELLA Mud volcanoes in central-southern Marche (Italy): proposals for their bounding, enhancing, preservation and protection from extinction Marco GIARDINO, Giovanni MORTARA and Gabriella DE RENZO Geosites in the Turin s Province (NW-Italy): scientific research and exploitation perspectives Jiun-Chuan LIN Developing a Strategy for Coastal Landscape Conservation in Taiwan Manuela PELFINI and Claudio SMIRAGLIA Glaciers, a changeable cultural property
19 Invited Lectures
21 The Geosites role and the landscape European convention Summary Gerardo BRANCUCCI, Anna Elisa MANIGLIO CALCAGNO and Francesca MAZZINO Dipartimento POLIS Facoltà di Architettura Università degli Studi di Genova The landscape European convention which was recently subscribed by the countries of the European Union, highlights the natural, rural, urban and periurban areas. Then it doesn t provide a sectorial view of the landscape, but a global one. This convention, therefore, needs to be the context in which we will consider the aims of the project Geosites in the Italian landscape: research, evaluation and improvement. Geosites are elements of great natural importance and they are an essential instrument for the choices of planning and for the safeguard and protection of the national and regional territory. As it was demonstrated in the past, it is not enough to enact laws like the number 1496 of 29/06/39 called Protection of the beauties of nature which was one of the first laws to list what is now reaffirmed by the European convention. Nowadays it is also necessary to do a strong cultural action to make people understand the need of a change of attitude towards collective assets. So it is clear that the problem to find a balance between protection, administration and planning of the landscape acts can t be postponed, so that, as far as it is possible, we can go beyond the idea of a constraint considered as something like stopping the use of a territory. In particular: - Protection needs to be developed by an active action which preserves the landscape quality and which is oriented to the availability for people in the areas where there are many socio-economical changes. - Administration needs to know the cause of the transformations made because of economical needs and has to go with them having the aim of a durable development which can improve the quality of the landscapes considering the desires of people. - Planning has to be oriented to elaborate real plans of landscape settlement which have to consider the existent values of the territory, particularly the ones concerning the structure of the territory. Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
22 2 G. BRANCUCCI et alii The experiences we gained from a census of the geosites made in Liguria and from a National project financed by MIUR which concerns the Ligurian landscape Atlas, showed that the analysis and the evaluation prospectus of landscape have to be structured by identifying the essential elements for its interpretation and by identifying a process which enables to know the kinds of analysis needed, the subjects and the investigations of the analysis, and the subjects which have to be studied because of their relation with the areas which concern the cognitive survey. In this context, the research, evaluation and improvement of geosites and of geomorphosites, which maybe are the real signs of the recent transformations of the landscape, find their own role. The geomorphologic characteristics in the evolution of the aesthetic and visual analysis of landscape. Since Renaissance naturalists, geographers and artists have been interested in the relation between the aesthetical values of landscape and analysis of the physical elements. The first scientific comments about the kinds of earth ranges and morphogenetic processes were made with practical purpose by architects, engineers and military technicians: the 16 th century architects Antonio Averulino, il Filarete and Francesco of Giorgio Martini started their studies by observing watercourses, inlets, lakes, valleys, mountains, rocks considered as geological enigmas which could be revealed by the analysis of the signs, and by the study of rocks stratigraphy, mineralogy, morphology, the chromatic characteristics of stones, rises and gravels (Camporesi, 1999). Leonardo da Vinci worked out a magnificent synthesis about the relations between the scientific observation of the earth's shapes and their aesthetical importance. He did it using drawings as an instrument for scientific investigation and for creative synthesis: these drawings highlight the geomorphological structure of landscape as an element which can condition the potentials and the limitations of human transformations. The analysis of the visual perception of landscape seen through scientific interest and aesthetic research gets importance also in the landscape painting which becomes an autonomous pictorial genre in the 17 th century: Carracci, Domenichino, Lorrain, Poussin give an interpretation of the natural lanscape using elements like mountains, rocks, rivers and waterfalls to create sublime or picturesque sceneries (Romano, 1978; Clark, 1985). Brueghel, Rubens and Dürer reproduce with scientific realism the elements of natural and humanized landscapes through a detailed observation of nature (Romano, 1978; Clark, 1985).
23 The Geosites role and the landscape European convention 3 The gentlemen of northern Europe, through the landscape paintings, recall the great views of big mountains, rocky formations, frightful cliffs and precipices, streams and rivers they saw during their journeys in Italy. In particular, the alpine landscapes, because of the beauty of geomorphological conformations, have been associated in the following centuries to the aesthetic sentiment of sublime, which was expressed in the first scientific descriptions of the Alps by Horace Benedict Saussure, in the poem Die Alpen (1750) by Haller, in the notes by Joseph Addison, one of the first defenders of the landscape park in England, who loves the mountains peaks, the tall rocks and cliffs, the big extent of water of the Alps (Bottoni, 1981; Battistini, 1981). The beauty of nature as a source of enjoyment for people who admire her, as an enormous work of art made by God is a popular idea in the 18 th century. In the 18 th century's scientific and popular literature the aesthetic interest is considered as an inducement to scientific studies, and the scientific knowledge is like a source of other aesthetic enjoyment, a correlation which had to arrive to the 19 th century philosophy and science ; Schelling and Kant, in their treatises about sublime, speak of the aesthetic emotion which involves us when we are in front of nature (Assunto, 1994). We find again the subject of the aesthetic appreciation of nature when we talk about the naturalist Alexander von Humboldt, who was friend to Goethe, Schelling, and the geologist Gottlob Werner; these three were all members of an intellectual group influenced by Romanticism. Humboldt s conception of nature was taken by many naturalists in the USA, for example the geologist Clarence Dutton who explored the Colorado river and studied the Grand Canyon to understand its geological evolution; he made important scientific studies but he also described his emotions in front of the spectacular views of that complex geological formations and he compared them to the aesthetic appreciation of the paintings which are defined as scenery exquisitely beautiful (Litton, 1979). In the USA the interest in this kind of analysis is connected with the growth of architecture and landscape planning and of the policies of preservation and management of environmental resources, particularly referred to the national parks where the management of natural resources has been considered since their foundation for recreational aims. Humboldt understood that morphology is the starting point for the description of landscape (Colantonio Venturelli,1983) and also Troll, a German biologist and geographer who is supposed to have founded in the 1950s the ecology of landscape, thinks that the landscape study has to start from morphology, which is the analysis of the shape, and from chorology
24 4 G. BRANCUCCI et alii which is the study of the articulation of borders (Colantonio Venturelli, 1993). Felleman, one of the main experts in visual analysis, thinks that the shapes of earth landforms (Felleman, 1979) are the fundamental visual elements because they delimit, define and individualize the main characteristics and are also the elements of interposition, because, according to appearance and structure, especially in the mountainous and hilly areas, they determine the visual or not visual areas of a territory and they influence the parameters and the pointers used to describe the visual sight. The earth shapes tops, peaks, watersheds, rock formations, valleys, plains, uplands, etc.- define the visual characteristics of the landscape and, according to the observer s distance and position, determine the articulation and the depth of the visual sight. The study of geomorphological characteristics helps to define the spatial organization and the elements which compose the landscape and the configuration of the visual sights analysed through the following elements: - visual levels (the succession of the elements in their spatial depth). - Visual cones (wideness, depth, orientation). - Principal points of reference (elements used for orientation and for localizing one s own position). - Circumscribed visual ambits (limited and contained vision). - Visual edges and borders (according to the distance of the observer, the highness and the consistency). - Visual exigencies. - Visual inconvenience elements (contrast, colour inconsistency, shape, texture, scale, ). The geomorphological characteristics are also determinant elements for giving identity to natural and transformed by men contexts through distinctive elements which give connotation to profiles, borders and scale ratios. In the Ligurian landscapes Atlas the attention is on identifying the elements of value in the landscape, even where transformations have made new landscape structures breaking the integration between human works and natural characteristics which was in act in the past thanks to the continuous checks of the interventions results and the sedimentation of activities so that they could be absorbed by natural and half-natural systems. The purpose was to give an answer to the worries expressed in the Landscape European convention for what concerns the waste and the impoverishment of European landscapes, by identifying the particular characteristics which need to be safeguarded and improved: this was done in a process of elaboration and application of the methods which could be
25 The Geosites role and the landscape European convention 5 used to identify the landscape values, which are of great importance where there is still a good and deep relation between people and places. The UNESCO s Protection of the cultural and natural world heritage convention gives some general methods to define the landscape values which can be applied also to regional and local contexts and to landscapes which do not have any particular value but do have important elements for identifying the identity of the places: the convention did it by recognizing the monuments and the complexes and sites which represent the nature, the genius and the history of world populations, which need different kinds of protection, preservation, improvement and restoration. In the convention there are single elements, groups of elements (monuments), complexes and sites. The convention defines the reason of value (historical, artistic, scientific, naturalistic, ethnologic, anthropological) and identifies a method of classification of the values importance, in particular the importance they put in evidence is considered at a world level (exceptional universal value). In the L. 1497/1939 and in the R.D. 1375/1940 we find this distinction too: the single beauties which are single elements, and the group beauties which are composed of many elements that have importance because, even if one of the elements has not a significant importance, these elements are a whole of significant regard in their relations and in their integration. The identification of the concept of landscape context and of its value was already expressed in the L. 1497, but this kind of assets was not really considered in comparison with the elements considered as monuments; they give importance to the single elements of the landscape more than to the landscape as a whole. A critical interpretation of L. 1497/143 and of R.D. 1357/1940 and of Franceschini s committee of the L. 431/1985, which concern the rarity principles used in contemporary methods for landscape evaluation, defines many kinds of landscape values: geomorphological, naturalistic and scientific - geological, geomorphological, petrographical and mineralogical and palaeontological assets which can be classified as cultural assets and also as landscape elements (art. 1, L. n.1497/1939) - things which are of palaeontology interest (art. 1, L n.1089/1939) - geological peculiarities defined by their scientific interest (art. 9, R.D. n.1357/1940) - natural areas which can be defined chorographically for their geological peculiarity (peaks, rocks, coasts, banks, beaches, islands, volcanoes, ecc.) and whose morphological characteristics are to be protected in their natural shape (acts of the committee for investigation on the protection and improvement of
26 6 G. BRANCUCCI et alii historical, archaeological, artistic and landscape assets, - Franceschini s committee -, 4 th document, declaration number XXXIX, 1966) - geological peculiarities, especially the layers full of palaeontological fossils (acts of the committee for investigation on the protection and improvement of historical, archaeological, artistic and landscape assts, - Franceschini s committee -, 4 th document, declaration number XLVIII, 1966) - natural waters, rocks, landscape peculiarities as lakes, lagoons, watercourses, waterfalls, floors, cliffs, coasts, ridges, caves, reefs, volcanic elements (acts of the committee for investigation on the protection and improvement of historical, archaeological, artistic and landscape assets, - Franceschini s committee -, 4 th document, declaration number XLVIII, 1966) geomorphological, vegetational, naturalistic and ecological - coastal territories in a zone of 300 m from the shoreline (L. n.431/1985) - conterminous to lakes territories in a zone of 300 m from the shoreline (L. n.431/1985) - rivers, streams and public watercourses and related escarpments in a zone of 150 meters for each one (L. n.431/1985) - mountains of the Alps over 1600 m (L. n.431/1985) - mountains of the Apennine range and of the islands over 1200 m (L. n.431/1985) - glaciers and glacial cirques (L. n.431/1985) - parks and national and regional reserves, territories of outward protection for parks (L. n.431/1985) - woods and forests, even those covered or damaged by fire and those liable to the restraint of reafforestation - areas given to the faculties of agriculture and liable to civic use (L. n.431/1985) - wetlands (L. n.431/1985) - volcanoes (L. n.431/1985) historical and cultural - areas of archaeological interest (L. n.431/1985) aesthetical - real estate immovable of great natural beauty or of geological peculiarity (art. 1, L. n.1497/1939) - groups of real estate immovable which compose a characteristic aspect of great aesthetic and traditional value (art. 1, L. n.1497/1939) - country houses, gardens and parks distinguished for their beauty (art. 1, L. n. 1497/1939) - panoramic beauties considered as natural paintings and public viewpoints from where we can enjoy the view of those beauties, (art. 1 L. n. 1497/1939) which include single elements (single beauties) and natural systems (beauties as a whole), (art. 10, R. D. n. 1357/1940, regulation in pursuance of the law 29 th June 1939 n about the protection of natural and panoramic beauties)
27 The Geosites role and the landscape European convention 7 This short examination of the laws in force shows that geological assets have always been considered as fundamental elements in the landscape and need to be protected and safeguarded. Nevertheless this problem has not still found a real practical solution, even if nowadays people are more sensitive to environmental problems. Then it is normal that we ask ourselves why there are so many difficulties in the application of safeguard laws, especially when these laws are referred to the physical elements of land surface. The experience we gained when we wrote the Ligurian landscapes Atlas tells us that geological asset is not a deep-rooted concept for common people. This difficult problem is pinpointed by the text of the Landscape European convention which defines landscape as a particular zone of territory recognized by people, whose characteristics come from natural and/or human elements and from their interrelations. So it is clear that we need to have a complete perception of a landscape as a whole, in order to avoid partial and incomplete interventions; for example we can mention the disproportion between the concept of biodiversity and the one of geodiversity: from this disproportion common people have derived a concept which says that everything that is bio is beautiful and need to be safeguarded and everything that is geo has not to be considered (one significant example is the directive Habitat 92/43 CEE: its purpose was to promote the preservation of biodiversity by adopting, where it was necessary, measures for the conservation and the restoration of habitats and species considered important at a community level and where geodiversity is considered in service ). This disproportion comes from the insistence of the scientific world on speaking about violent evolutive mechanisms to explain that human intervention produces only the increase of elements violence: this gives people the image of hostile inorganic environment and it makes people think that earth sciences are just the announcers of catastrophical events caused by hydrogeological disarray; moreover this disproportion comes from the lack of communication and diffusion of the main principles of this subject towards people. So geosites, considered as witnesses of the planet evolution, are areas of a great environmental and landscape value; the knowledge of territory and the signalling of their existence is a valid support for the planning and programming interventions which the public authority (especially regions and provinces) should put in action to conform the city planning instruments to the territorial situation. They have to know that the starting point for this is the concept of morphoregion, which gives importance to geomorphology and emphasizes the connection between the physical structures of territory and the development of human activities.
28 8 G. BRANCUCCI et alii So, as Calzolari said in 1965, it is necessary to create analytical and effective instruments which allow the improvement of our knowledge about the interrelations between formal and biophysical elements which constitute environment and psycho-physiological elements which are typical of men: this has to be done to put in action, as soon as possible, the Landscape Convention, which is the only way to guarantee an integrated safeguard of territory because it goes beyond, when it is possible, a protectionist and categorical vision and it brings us to a real safeguard of those elements which are a collective heritage.
29 The state of the knowledge in the conservation and the valorisation of Geomorphological Sites in Sardinia Felice DI GREGORIO and Antonio ULZEGA Dipartimento Scienze della Terra Università degli Studi di Cagliari Sardinia, on a limited surface of 24,000 square km, shows an extremely diversified geomorphological asset, due to the fact that its territory is covered with a wide variety of magmatic, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Their age spreads from Early Cambrian to now, and furthermore one has to keep in mind the structural complexity due to the succession of three orogenetic cycles Caledonian, Hercynic and Alpine). Therefore, in the Sardinian landscape have been impressed, generally in a beautiful way, the signs of peculiar geomorphic, palaeogeographic and palaeoclimatic events that are the memory of the Earth in the past 500 million years. A region, so from all the other Mediterranean areas, has drawn the attention of researchers of earth sciences since the moment in which, towards the end of the 19 th century, Alberto Della Marmora, with its extraordinary work Itinérarie de l ile de Sardaigne, has collocated the Island in the centre of attention of the European culture. In fact, already in this work the importance of the connections between geology and landforms, documented in a wealthy series of graphical images and in an atlas, is very clear. An overview of the great geomorphological units of Sardinia has been illustrated only recently by Ulzega (1988) in the "Geomorphological Map of Sardinia", where the submarine areas of the continental shelf are also reported. The inventorisation, the study and the hypothesis for conservation of the Sardinian geosites have started with the Regional Law n 31 of 7 June 1989, that defines the institution and the management of parks, reserves and natural monuments, together with the areas of special environmental interest, and under which the institution of 22 Natural Monuments, defined as "single elements or small surfaces of special natural or scientific value that have to be integrally preserved", is foreseen. Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
30 10 F. DI GREGORIO and A. ULZEGA Of these, nevertheless, only some have been effectively instituted, while other monuments, not inserted in the original list, have been created, testifying an incoherent and uncertain development. In fact, even though the creation of geological monuments has been the most significant aspect of this Law, also because none of the protected areas (Parks and Natural Reserves) has been practically instituted, this first list does not appear to respond to any serious scientific or conservation criteria of geological monuments that in Sardinia are numerous and various. A first tentative of inventory based on scientific criteria is referable to Barca and Di Gregorio (1991) who define geological monuments "those elements of the landscape that possess particular quality corresponding to significant treats of genetical type (lithology, morphology, structure etc.) or, anyhow, singular characteristics that confer to them an evident scientific, cultural or aesthetic valence". In short, the geological monument so defined is an element (punctual or aerial) of the landscape, of various dimension, that for its form, its constitution, its evolution process, its peculiarity or its greatness exemplifies a type of geological phenomenon or a geomorphological process of scientific, educational, scenographic or perspective interest, or of two or more of these characteristics that together can be defined valuable. Starting from this definition the same Authors have proposed the study and the classification of the geological monuments of Sardinia following a systematic order founded on genetic types and their evaluation according to criteria of importance on a geographical scale as a contribution to a regional Geographic Information System. After a first phase of methodological verification of the adopted surveying scheme and the evaluation method, the geological monuments of Meilogu-Logudoro (Barca et alii, 1992), North-West Sardinia (Panizza et alii, 1993), Sarrabus (Barca et alii, 1995a), Sulcis (Barca et alii, 1996) and Monte Arci (Barca et alii, 1997) were studied. During the same years some important publications were made, such as "I monumenti naturali della Sardegna" edited by Barrocu and Gentileschi (1996) that propose an overview of the most important geosites of the Island and "Paesaggi e monumenti geologici della Provincia di Cagliari" edited by Barca and Di Gregorio (1999) where a systematic analysis of the landscapes and the geological monuments of Cagliari province are reported according to criteria of importance on a geographical scale (local, regional, national and international) and in function of a specific level of performability. Besides these papers relative to geographic regions or to the entire Island others on more specific themes can be mentioned such as "Natural rock arches of Orosei Gulf" by Barca et alii (1995b), "Le vie dell ossidiana" (Di Gregorio and Piras, 1997), "Geosites inventory in the Paleozoic karstic region of Sulcis-Iglesiente"
31 The state of the knowledge in the conservation and the valorisation of Geomorphological Sites in Sardinia 11 (De Waele et alii, 1998), "The most important karstic geosites of Sardinia" (De Waele et alii, 1999), "Geosites of the Tacchi area (central-east Sardinia, Italy)" (Ardau and De Waele, 1999), "Geosites and human settlements in Sardinia" (Piras, 1999), "Geosites and touristic development of the karstic coastline of Southwest Sardinia" (Arisci et alii, 2001a), " I geositi nell identità del territorio del Parco geominerario: l'esempio della costa tra Buggerru e Nebida" (Arisci et alii, 2001b), "I siti carsici nel parco geominerario dell Iglesiente-Sulcis: proposta di uno sviluppo turistico sostenibile" (De Waele et alii, 2001) with which the overall situation of the variety of themes and the geological landforms of the region is progressively defined. Always on the same subject some papers with a different approach deserve to be mentioned, oriented towards the valorisation of geological monuments as an ensemble of resources, among which for example "Metodologia per lo studio delle reti di interconnessione dei beni che custodiscono la memoria della Terra" by Cannillo et alii (1997) or also for the evaluation and study of the interest level for the route connected to the land recreation. In all these papers the presence of the geological and geomorphological sites, areas and monuments is interpreted as a fundamental contribution to the quality of the landscape, increasing its value and its attraction for pleasure, education of the geological sciences and cultural tourism in general. On the other hand, though, to enable that these monuments can fully express their value it is necessary that they are identified, described and eventually equipped for their correct fruition in the limits of the specific boundary of compatibility of every single geosite, in other words of their carrying capacity. The identification, however, has to comprise also the recognition and the acquisition of these monuments within the conscience of the populations as general patrimony (geological heritage) together with all the high symbolic and geographic value of the surrounding territory. For this reason, aside the identification, classification and evaluation it will be necessary to assure also a widespread scientific popularisation that has to be done following appropriate and efficient criteria and methods, and the realisation of well equipped itineraries of knowledge, conservation and valorisation with explicative panels and advertising material. In this sense for its particular scientific and historical-technological interest, has to be remembered the historical and environmental geo-mining Park of Sardinia, which, in July 1998, has obtained the high recognition by the UNESCO with the introduction in the List of geosites/geoparks. The geo-mining park consists of 8 big areas with hundreds of mining sites in
32 12 F. DI GREGORIO and A. ULZEGA which physical remains tell about the human work in mines from prehistory till today. In the past decades researches on the geomorphology of the coastal and submerged areas of Sardinia have been performed, with special regards to the evolution of the continental shelf. This has allowed to individuate in the sea erosional and depositional forms both of great scientific, as documents of genetic processes, and of landscape point of view for their special characteristics and their intrinsic value as submerged geomorphosites that can be valorised. In particular, the geomorphological elements characterising the submerged landscape of the Marine National Parks (Parco dell Arcipelago di La Maddalena, Parco dell Asinara) and of the Protected Marine Areas (Tavolara, Capo Carbonara, Penisola del Sinis, Capo Caccia) have been surveyed and described, representing nowadays their fundamental abiotic valences. References Ardau F. and De Waele J., Geosites of the Tacchi area (central-east Sardinia, Italy). In: D. Barettino, M. Vallejo and E. Gallego (Eds.), "Towards the Balanced Management and Conservation of the Geological Heritage in the New Millenium", Madrid, Arisci A., De Waele J., Di Gregorio F., Ferrucci I. and Follesa R., 2001a - Geosites and touristic development of the karstic coastline of Southwest Sardinia, In: E. Ozhan (Ed.), "Medcoast 01: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on the Mediterranean Coastal Environment, Ottobre 2001, Hammamet, Tunisia", Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, 1, Arisci A., De Waele J., Di Gregorio F., Ferrucci I. and Follesa R., 2001b - I geositi nell identità del territorio del Parco geominerario: l'esempio della costa tra Buggerru e Nebida. Convegno Nazionale Per il Parco Geominerario. Avviamento, Progetti in itinere, Prospettive, Pau (Or), 17 dicembre 2001 (in press). Barca S. and Di Gregorio F., Proposta metodologica per il rilevamento dei monumenti geologici e geomorfologici. Bollettino dell'a.i.c., n. 83, Todi. Barca S., Cannillo C. and Di Gregorio F., Rilevamento e valutazione dei monumenti geologici e geomorfologici del Meilogu-Logudoro (Sardegna NW). Boll. AIC, n. 86, Fabriano. Barca S., Di Gregorio F. and Montis S., 1995a - Rilevamento e valutazione dei monumenti naturali geologici e geomorfologici del Sarrabus (Sardegna SE) come contributo al GIS (Sistema Informativo Geografico) e alla pianificazione ambientale, Atti 4 Conv. Int. Di Studi La Sardegna nel mondo
33 The state of the knowledge in the conservation and the valorisation of Geomorphological Sites in Sardinia 13 Mediterraneo, Sassari-Alghero, Università degli Studi di Sassari, aprile. Barca S., Di Gregorio F., Floris C. and Montis M., Rilevamento e valutazione dei monumenti e delle aree di rilevante interesse geologico e geomorfologico nei monti del Sulcis (Sardegna SO), Deputazione di storia patria per la Sardegna. Estratto da: Studi di Geografia e Storia in onore di Angela Terrosu Asole, Cagliari, Barca S., Di Gregorio F. and Piras G., La cartografia tematica per il rilevamento dei monumenti geologici e geomorfologici. L esempio del Monte Arci (Sardegna centro-occidentale), Atti del I Convegno di Telerilevamento e Cartografia Tematica, Cagliari novembre 1996, Rend. Sem. Fac. Sc. Univ. Cagliari, suppl. vol. LXVII, Barca S. and Di Gregorio F., Paesaggi e Monumenti geologici della provincia di Cagliari, Saredit srl, Cagliari. Barroccu G. and Gentileschi M.L., 1996 I monumenti naturali in Sardegna. R.A.S. Assessorato della Difesa dell Ambiente, Delfino Ed., Sassari. Cannillo C., Di Gregorio F. and Langiu M.R., Metodologia per lo studio delle reti di interconnessione dei beni che custodiscono la memoria della Terra. 2 Convegno Internazionale di studio Sentieri - Le reti di interconnessione delle risorse naturali e culturali, Cagliari febbraio 1997 (in press). De Waele J., Di Gregorio F. and Piras G., Geosites inventory in the Paleozoic karst region of Sulcis-Iglesiente (South-West Sardinia, Italy). Geologica Balcanica, 28, 3-4, De Waele J., Di Gregorio F. and Piras G., The Twenty most important karstic geosites of Sardinia. In: D. Barettino, M. Vallejo y E. Gallego (Eds.), "Towards the balanced management and conservation of the geological heritage in the new millennium". Atti del III International Symposium ProGEO on the Conservation of the Geological Heritage, Madrid, Spain, November 23-25, 1999, De Waele J., Di Gregorio F. and Piras G., I siti carsici nel parco geominerario dell Iglesiente-Sulcis: proposta di uno sviluppo turistico sostenibile. Atti del 18 Convegno Nazionale di Speleologia, Chiusa Pesio, ottobre 1998, Di Gregorio F. and Floris C., Le microemergenze geologiche e geomorfologiche per lo studio dei sentieri (Parco Regionale del Sulcis), 2 Convegno Internazionale di studio Sentieri - Le reti di interconnessione delle risorse naturali e culturali, Cagliari febbraio 1997 (in press). Di Gregorio F. and Piras G. (1997) - Le Carte tematiche per la valorizzazione dell ossidiana e dei geotopi del Monte Arci, Sardegna. Atti della 1 a Conferenza Nazionale A.S.I.T.A. Le immagini e le informazioni Territoriali, Parma 30 settembre - 3 ottobre 1997,
34 14 F. DI GREGORIO and A. ULZEGA Di Gregorio F. and Piras G., I geositi del Monte Arci. Convegno Nazionale Per il Parco Geominerario, Pau (Or), 17 dicembre 2001 (in press). Panizza V. and Cannillo C., Proposta metodologica per il rilevamento e la valutazione dei beni geologici e geomorfologici: esempio applicativo per un'area della Sardegna nord-occidentale, Atti 4 Conv. Int. di Studi La Sardegna nel mondo Mediterraneo, Sassari - Alghero, Univ. di Sassari, Patron Bologna, Piras G., Geosites and human settlements in Sardinia: some most significant example. In: D. Barettino, M. Vallejo y E. Gallego (Eds.), "Towards the balanced management and conservation of the geological heritage in the new millennium",. Madrid, Ulzega A., 1988 Geomorphological map of Sardinia.
35 Geomorphosites: a bridge between scientific research, cultural integration and artistic suggestion Mario PANIZZA and Sandra PIACENTE Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia Foreword In the past few years the general public has shown an ever-growing interest in geological sites and, in particular, geomorphosites. This trend can be observed in both spontaneous activities towards Nature and legal initiatives, concerning census, protection and appraisal, and, also in the scientific field, application of rigorous methods of investigation. These activities involve local boards and agencies such as ecological associations, public administrations, conservation offices etc., as well as national and international initiatives such as research projects, ministry norms, UNESCO, ProGeo and IAG programmes, etc. All the interventions, perspectives and goals of these activities can be summarised in three main fields: 1) Scientific research. This includes all research on geomorphological sites, considered as a natural resource and aims to identify, census, evaluate, protect and appraise. 2) Cultural integration. This inserts geomorphological sites in an integrated cultural landscape. 3) Artistic suggestion. This considers geomorphological sites as a source of literary, pictorial etc. artistic inspiration. In this article the above described points will be developed by making reference to the experiences so far achieved by the authors at a local, national and international level. Scientific research Basic studies and application research projects have been carried out; some of them are still in progress and have been funded both by national ministries, the European Union and other public boards. These investigations, which started some 20 years ago, have been developed with the following goals. Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
36 16 M. PANIZZA and S. PIACENTE - Identification and assessment of the relationships between physical landscape and quality of the environment and between development of geomorphological knowledge and socio-economic development (Panizza, 1989; Panizza and Piacente, 1989; Panizza, 1992a; Panizza and Piacente, 1993; Panizza and Piacente, 1999a; Panizza and Piacente, 1999b; Piacente, 1999a; Piacente, 1999b; Panizza and Piacente, 2000). - Application of a methodology for the description and census of geosites (Panizza, 1992b; Carton et alii, 1994, Panizza and Pellegrini, 1999; Panizza and Piacente, 1999a, 1999b). - Presentation and experimentation in different landscape contexts of a cataloguing data sheet linked to a computer-based archive (Bertacchini et alii, 1999; Bertacchini et alii, in press). - Providing an example of geo-referenced map of the sites of geological interest, constrained within a particular regional territory (Piacente et alii, 2000). - Realisation of thematic routes, where a geosite is transformed from geological site into cultural asset, accessible and enjoyable by everybody (Piacente et alii 2000; Bertacchini et alii, 2001; Piacente et alii, 2001). - Organisation of educational projects in which the curricula carried out provide the opportunity to bring students of all grades nearer to Geology during normal school activities, in order to offer them not only theoretical knowledge of this discipline but also real experiences in the field (Piacente and Giusti, 2000; Bertacchini, Coratza and Piacente, 2001). From this starting point, our investigations tried to translate the complex environmental system into a language accessible to the widest possible public, including also categories with special needs such as the elderly, the disabled and children. This can be achieved by using local resources giving priority to the young and the elderly. The former in the educational and professional phase, the latter in the conservation phase, by transmitting values and experiences and by utilising the past to pave the way for the future. Indeed, most researchers acknowledge that the geological aspect has not yet acquired the value of a shared cultural Asset; therefore, before proposing its conservation it is necessary to start from its recognition, by applying strategies of awareness not just in the scientific and institutional world but rather in the widest society.
37 Geomorphosites: a bridge between scientific research, cultural integration and artistic suggestion 17 Cultural integration The relationship between Geomorphosites and Cultural heritage is a stimulating field, as is the link between cultural heritage and landscape. These investigations, which are still in progress, have been carried out according to three conceptual perspectives and therefore three methodological approaches which are illustrated below. The environmental approach, which is based on the relationship between Environment (in particular geomorphological) and Cultural Heritage, in conformity with a scheme in which the environment may be considered according to two aspects: the landscape s geomorphological resources (e.g., geomorphosites) and geomorphological hazards (e.g., erosion, landslides). On the other hand, Cultural Heritage may be considered both as vulnerability (i.e., susceptibility to material damage) and the site of recreational activity (e.g., tourism). These relations may produce situations of either risk or impact (Panizza, 1992a). Another approach can be the historical one, which is based on history as a means of interpretation, that is, on the concepts of continuity and integration between the present landscape and, proceeding backwards in time, its history and prehistory up to geohistory. For example, we can refer to the relations between social, strategic or religious needs on the one hand and geomorphological characteristics of a site on the other hand. Thus, the aim is to recognise the integration and relations occurring in time in the landscape by interpreting all its historical components (lato sensu) in an interdisciplinary manner (Panizza and Piacente, 2000). The philosophical-cultural approach concerns the cultural communication and integration of humanistic and scientific disciplines. For example, one could refer to the relations between construction, degradation and restoration of an architectonic site on the one hand, and, on the other hand, provenance, characteristics and perishability of the building materials, also in terms of cultural upgrading policies. More in general, an answer should be given to the ever-growing need to establish a neo-humanistic culture, that is for the unity of culture (Panizza, 1989). Artistic suggestion All regions and places with natural aspects, especially geomorphological ones which make a landscape significant, are unique in the features, atmosphere and sensations they suggest. The signs of the landscape are a sort of writing traced on the Earth s surface, an unedited alphabet which the poet and the artist use and reinterpret, becoming its aesthetic and emotional witnesses.
38 18 M. PANIZZA and S. PIACENTE A geological-literary itinerary was thus created starting from the assumption of the existence of specific Emilia-Romagna poetics and culture, linked to the outstanding morphological and geological features of our territory (Bertacchini et alii, 2002). The description of each geosite has been combined with a poetical passage by an author expressing the atmospheres and identities of particular places, further enhanced by photographs by a great Emilian master of the camera. This geological-literary itinerary was organised as a sort of guide for a sightseer yearning to meet Nature also in its poetical forms by travelling in space and time. This can take place only through the awareness that Nature can acquire a value for Man only if he finds a way to go through the complete range of his senses, including those most specifically spiritual. At present, another research project is in progress: it consists of the study of some natural scenes from an artistic and geomorphological viewpoint, describing landscapes which, for examples, were depicted by Venetian painters of the 16 th century. This approach aims to identify in the present landscape the natural features which were painted in a picture; for example, a Dolomite mountain portrayed by Titian. Therefore, an art critic will carry out a detailed research on the painting whereas a geomorphologist will study and describe the landforms of the real landscape and a photographer will reinterpret the image artistically. The goal is to rediscover a time link between what it was in the past, what it inspired then, and what it is and could inspire now by a new approach. No place is far nor unreachable, no land is foreign if one can find the common thread capable of guiding and involving even the most distant or distracted visitor in that widespread heritage which is the landscape of our land. On the basis of these investigations and their methodological approaches, in the academic year the Modena and Reggio Emilia University has inaugurated a three-year degree course in Sciences for Cultural Heritage, which has met with considerable success among both new students and local cultural and administrative institutions. The knowledge acquired both in terms of identification and assessment of problems and of methods and techniques, aims to produce a consultant capable of promoting the necessary links between the various competencies in the study, evaluation, knowledge and conservation-promotion of Cultural Heritage and its related context. This graduate will therefore be capable of interacting with the specialists of the various disciplines involved in the management of cultural assets and make use of particular technical-scientific know-how.
39 Geomorphosites: a bridge between scientific research, cultural integration and artistic suggestion 19 References Bertacchini M., Bettelli G., Bonazzi U., Capedri S., Capitani M., Castaldini D., Conti S., Corradini D., Fioroni C., Fontana D., Fregni P., Gasperi G., Giusti C., Lugli S., Marchetti M., Panini F., Panizza M. and Pellegrini M., Piacente S., Rossi A., Soldati M. and Tosatti G., I Beni Geologici della Provincia di Modena. Artioli Editore, Modena. Bertacchini M., Coratza P. and Piacente S., Le Pietre del Diavolo tra borghi e castelli nell Appennino emiliano. Un percorso culturale e didattico nel paesaggio ofiolitico. In: Atti del Convegno nazionale Le ofioliti: isole sulla terraferma. Per una Rete di aree Protette., June 2001, Riserva Naturale Monte Prinzera. Bertacchini M., Coratza P. and Piacente S., Paesaggi Culturali - Geologia e Letteratura nel Novecento in Emilia Romagna. Regione Emilia-Romagna, Servizio Tutela del Paesaggio, Inchiostro Blu Ed., Bologna. Bertacchini M., Coratza P. and Piacente S., La memoria della Terra, la terra della memoria. Regione Emilia Romagna, Servizio Tutela del Paesaggio, Inchiostro Blu Ed. (in press), Bologna. Carton A., Cavallin A., Francavilla F., Mantovani F., Panizza M., Pellegrini G.B., Tellini C. Con La Coll. Di Bini A., Castaldini D., Giorgi G., Floris B., Marchetti M., Soldati M. and Surian N., Ricerche ambientali per l individuazione e la valutazione dei beni geomorfologici. Metodi ed esempi. Il Quaternario, 7(1b). Panizza M., 1989 Beni geologici e cultura del paesaggio. Atti Conv. Intern. Accad. Naz. Lincei, Roma. Panizza M., 1992a - Sulla valutazione dei Beni Ambientali. Mem. Descr. della Carta Geol. d Ital. Panizza M., 1992b - Geomorfologia. Pitagora Ed., Bologna. Panizza M. and Pellegrini M., I beni di tipo geomorfologico. In: M. Bertacchini, C. Giusti, M. Marchetti, M. Panizza and M. Pellegrini (Eds.) I Beni Geologici della Provincia di Modena, Artioli Editore, Modena. Panizza, M. and Piacente, S., Geomorphological assets evaluation. Proc. Int. Geomorph., Frankfurt. Panizza M. and Piacente S., Geomorphological Assets Evaluation. Z. Geomorph. N.F., Suppl. Bd. 87, Berlin. Panizza M. and Piacente S., 1999a - Conoscenza geologica e gestione dei beni architettonici. I.B.C. Emil. Rom., Atti Conv. Int. Archeologia e Ambiente, A.B.A.C.O. Ed. Panizza M. and Piacente S., 1999b Le forze della natura generatrici dei paesaggi e dell aspetto del pianeta. In: G. Poli (Ed.) Geositi testimoni del tempo, Regione Emilia-Romagna, Bologna.
40 20 M. PANIZZA and S. PIACENTE Panizza M. and Piacente S., 1999c - Il concetto di bene nel paesaggio fisico. In: M. Bertacchini, C. Giusti, M. Marchetti, M. Panizza and M. Pellegrini (Eds.) I Beni Geologici della Provincia di Modena, Artioli Editore, Modena. Panizza M. and Piacente S. (2000) Relazioni tra Scienze della Terra e patrimonio storico-archeologico. In: G. Lollino (Eds.) Condizionamenti Geologici e Geotecnici nella Conservazione del Patrimonio Storico Culturale, Atti Convegno GeoBen 2000, Turin 7-9 June Pubbl. GNDCI n Piacente S., 1999a - Sensibilità geologica e consenso sociale. Mem. Descr. Carta Geol. d Italia. Piacente S., 1999b - La conoscenza scientifica, un valore aggiunto. In: G. Poli (Ed.) Geositi testimoni del tempo, Regione Emilia-Romagna, Bologna. Piacente S., Bertacchini M. and Coratza P., La Cartografia come Strumento di Percezione e di Gestione Dinamica dei Beni Geologici. In: Atti del Convegno Cultura Cartografica e Culture del Territorio December 2000, Sassari. Piacente S., Bertacchini M., Coratza P., Tourisme géomorphologique entre nature et culture: exemples en Emilie Romagne (Italie). Actes Colloque Géomorphologie et Tourisme, September, Finhaut (Lausanne). Piacente S., Bertacchini S., Coratza P. and Malmusi S., 2000 Il patrimonio geologico: nuova occasione di sviluppo turistico e culturale. Un esempio in Emilia Romagna. In: Atti del Convegno Internazionale Sviluppo Economico e Sostenibilità: il Turismo Ambientale e Culturale occasione di nuova occupazione, Anacapri. Piacente S. and Giusti C., Geotopos, una oportunidad para la difusion y valoracion de la Cultura Geologica Regional. In: F.J. Barba Regidor and J. Saiz De Omeñaca González (Eds.) Documentos del XI Simposio sobre la Enseñanza de la Geología, September 2000, Universidad de Cantabria, Santander.
41 Institutional Resource Regime (IRR) A tool for managing the protection and exploitation of Geomorphological Sites Emmanuel REYNARD Swiss Graduate School of Public Administration (IDHEAP) and Institute of Geography, University of Lausanne Introduction Geomorphological sites (or geomorphological assets) are defined as geomorphological landforms that have acquired a scientific, cultural/historical, aesthetic and/or social/economic value due to human perception or exploitation (Panizza and Piacente 1993). They can be single geomorphological objects (e.g. waterfalls, inselbergs, etc.) or larger landscapes (e.g. glacier forefields, coastal landscapes, etc.). The value of a site can be of four types: scientific (e.g. a moraine representative of a glacier extension), cultural/historical (e.g. a mountain that has religious or mystic value or a landform/landscape that is a support for cultural/historical activities or infrastructures), aesthetic (e.g. some amazing mountainous, coastal or desert landscapes), and social/economic (e.g. aesthetic landscapes as tourist destinations). As pointed by Cavallin et alii (1994), geomorphological sites may be modified, damaged, and even destroyed, by direct or indirect impacts of human activity. Direct impacts are defined as active modifications of a geomorphological site by human activity (e.g. destruction of a morainic crest by a road construction, modification of the aesthetic value of a coastal environment by tourist settlement building), whereas indirect impacts do not have direct contact with the geomorphological site but highly affect it (e.g. sedimentation changes in an alluvial fan by gravel extraction upstream, reduction of the view of a geomorphological asset by the construction of buildings). As they are in contact with (and exploited by) human activities, the geomorphological sites can therefore be considered as natural resources, defined as the part of the natural environment used by humans for satisfying their needs. In this sense, it is to be noted that, as well as for other natural resources, there is an increasing competition for geomorphological sites between various users or user groups that have quite different, and Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
42 22 E. REYNARD sometimes contradictory, interests and perception of the value of the resource. Such rivalries may be mitigated by defining regulations and institutions, whose objectives should be the co-ordination between rival uses in order to avoid conflicts, the planning of long-term resource management and the preservation of the resource stock in order to be able to satisfy the needs of future generations. In this paper, we present a new framework that was developed for analysing in a systemic manner the functioning of natural resource management institutions and their effects on the sustainability of the resource management. This framework is called Institutional Resource Regime (IRR) (Kissling-Näf and Varone 2000, Knoepfel et alii 2001), and combines an analysis of public policies and a study of the property regime concerning the resource. In the next two sections, we successively present the IRR concept, and its possible use for analysing, evaluating and improving the management of geomorphological sites. The institutional resource regime (IRR) The IRR concept considers that a renewable natural resource is generally exploited by more than one type of users. Forests, for example, are used for various wood exploitation (e.g. fire, construction), other material exploitation (e.g. mushrooms), protection (e.g. against rockslides and avalanches), leisure (e.g. walking) and biodiversity conservation. Natural resources are therefore defined as the components of the natural system that are used by societies for satisfying their needs and it can be considered that they create goods and services for the society. Renewable natural resources are formed by two components: the stock, that is auto-reproduced (e.g. in the case of water, the reproduction is made by the water cycle), and the yield that is produced by the stock. Goods and services are produced by the stock as well than by the yield. Management of such highly heterogeneous resource use systems needs efficient institutional regulations and we postulate that sustainability of resource management highly depends on institutional framework. The IRR concept allows the analysis of all the components of such institutional conditions. An institutional resource regime is defined as the combination of the property regime and public policies that regulate the natural resource management (Knoepfel et alii, 2001). The property regime is analysed through three types of property rights (formal property titles, disposition rights and use rights) and two categories of public policies are considered: exploitation and protection policies. Two complementary dimensions are also considered: the extent and the coherence. The extent describes the number of goods and services explicitly regulated by the IRR. The coherence concerns the degree of co-ordination of the actors network. The IRR are then
43 Institutional Resource Regime (IRR) A tool for managing the protection and exploitation of Geomorphological Sites 23 classified into four regime types: no regime, simple regime, complex regime and integrated regime (Kissling-Näf and Varone 2000). The analysis of the institutional regime of a resource is carried out in five successive steps. First, the resource perimeter is defined and a compilation of the various goods and services provided by the resource is made in order to represent the main current rivalries, the historical evolution of the relationships between goods and services, and the principal transformations of the resource stock and yield. This part of the analysis concerns essentially the resource and its characteristics. Then, the property regime (formal ownership, disposition rights and use rights) and the public policies related to the resource exploitation and protection are successively analysed. The three first steps are then combined to characterise the resource regime. It is assumed that simple or integrated regimes are more sustainable than complex regimes. The last step is dedicated to the improvement (if necessary) of the resource regime in order to improve sustainability. Thus, the systemic IRR analysis is assumed to allow a rational selection of management instruments. The IRR was used for comparing institutional management of water, forest and soil in Switzerland and for comparing water management of six European countries (Italy, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Spain and Switzerland). It was also used for characterising landscape management in Switzerland (Bisang et alii 2000). Three categories of landscape uses were defined: the landscape as natural heritage (support for life), as cultural heritage, and as space for tourism and recreation. Three types of relationships between society and landscape were established: exploitation, protection and production of symbolic value. Geomorphological sites and the IRR concept If we try to consider the management of geomorphological sites in a systemic manner, the IRR appears an adequate tool for analysing the sites uses by humans and for improving management mechanisms. First of all, what are the main goods and services produced by geomorphological sites? They are presented in table 1. In each specific case of protection/exploitation of geomorphological sites, one should consider all the three categories of uses and their respective relationships, in order to take into account the three dimensions of what should be the sustainable management of geomorphological sites (natural, cultural/social, and economic needs). Protection and exploitation of geomorphological sites are highly influenced by the property regime, as well. In table 2, we summarised the
44 24 E. REYNARD various possibilities of regulating the sites management using property instruments. Table 1 - Goods and services provided by geomorphological sites Categories of use Natural heritage Cultural heritage Economic exploitation Type of use Principal users Examples Life support Biodiversity heritage Earth history heritage Support for cultural heritage Aesthetic heritage Space for cultural and religious identification Space for political identification Pedagogic sites Landscape with tourist/leisure valorisation Framework for tourist/leisure activities Support for specific tourist/leisure activities Other economic uses Support for transport All living beings (humans, animals, plants) Humanity, future generations, scientists, tourists Humanity, future generations, scientists, tourists Humanity, future generations, scientists, tourists Painters, photographs, tourists Local population Local population, politicians, State Schools, environmental organisations, scientists Tourists, tourist industry, local population Tourists, tourist industry, local population Tourists, tourist industry, local population Industry State, industry, communication industry Volcanoes (that are support for a large range of human settlements) Deltas or alluvial plains (that are often environments with high vegetal and animal biodiversity) Moraines or erratic blocks (that often testify former glacial extents) Isolated mounts, cluses, locks (that are often occupied by castles and fortresses) Impressive landscapes Large natural regions (e.g. Alps, islands), religious monuments (e.g. Uluru for Australian Aborigines) Saharan landscapes for the Tuaregs Cross-sections in sediment deposits, sites where active processes are visible Impressive landscapes (e.g. Ayers Rock, Grand Canyon, Matterhorn) Coasts (for bathing), mountains (for hiking or skiing) Cliffs (for climbing), reefs (for diving), rivers (for canyoning) Glacial locks (that are often sites for dam building) Valleys, cluses (used for road or rail tracks construction), mounts (for building antennae)
45 Institutional Resource Regime (IRR) A tool for managing the protection and exploitation of Geomorphological Sites 25 Table 2 - Property rights related to geomorphological sites Property rights Private property State property Common property Formal Erratic block Geomorphological Geomorphological site property title bought by an site managed by a localised in an commonly environmental National Park owned alpine meadow and organisation administration managed by the communal association Disposition Servitude for x Decree for classifying (?) rights years for an a geosite environmental organisation Use rights Restriction, fee for visiting a private cave Restriction, fee for visiting a National Park Restriction, fee for visiting a commonly owned landscape (?) Finally, the management of geomorphological sites largely depends on the public policies regulating the environmental protection and the resource exploitation of a country. Restrictive policies concerning the resource exploitation (hydropower production, mining, territorial planning, etc.) will certainly be beneficial for the protection of geomorphological sites. Moreover, explicit mention of the protection of geomorphological sites in the environmental policies is also better than more general environmental protection policies. Accurate analysis of public policies is therefore essential for guaranteeing effective protection of geomorphological sites and coordination with other human activities. Perspectives The aim of the paper was to present the IRR concept and to show the possible application of this institutional approach for improving the management of geomorphological sites. For the moment, there has been no application, at a local or regional level, of the approach. Certainly that such research would be useful for testing the method and evaluating the interest of the institutional regime analysis in the domain of geomorphological sites assessment and valorisation. References Bisang K., Nahrath S. and Thorens A., Screening historique des régimes institutionnels de la ressource paysage ( ). Lausanne, Working Paper de l IDHEAP , 140. Cavallin A., Marchetti M., Panizza A. and Soldati M., The role of geomorphology in environmental impact assessment. Geomorphology, 9,
46 26 E. REYNARD Kissling-Näf I. and Varone F., 2000 (Eds) - Institutionen für eine nachhaltige Ressourcennutzung. Innovative Steuerungsansätze. Chur, Verlag Rüegger. Knoepfel P., Kissling-Näf I. and Varone F., 2001 (Eds) - Institutionelle Regime für natürliche Ressourcen: Boden, Wasser und Wald im Vergleich. Basel/Genf/München, Helbing and Lichtenhahn. Panizza M. and Piacente S., Geomorphological assets evaluation. Zeitschr. für Geomorphologie N.F., Suppl. Bd., 87,
47 Geomorphology, natural heritage and protected areas: lines of research in Spain Enrique SERRANO CAÑADAS Dep. Geografía Universidad de Valladolid Spain is characterised by the great diversity of landscapes and abiotic environments deriving from its peninsular and insular nature (Canary and Balearic Islands) at medium latitudes, its high mean altitude, which gives rise to a wide range of natural environments between sea level and the 3718 m of the Teide and, lastly, its geological heterogeneity, with a broad section of the Hercinian massif deformed in block-faulting mountains and tertiary basins, ridges, and folding reliefs. These characteristics provide the basis for great geodiversity in the form of a proliferation of landforms, geomorphic systems and landscapes. This geomorphological variety and richness has been recognised by the declaration of numerous protected areas, but has not formally been evaluated, assessed or protected regarding its geomorphological value. Currently there is no specific legislation dealing with relief, for neither singular elements nor multiple structures. The legal assessment of relief departs from the laws of natural and cultural heritage (B.O.E and ), which loosely establish the generic assessment and protection of geological and physiographic structures in direct relation with the International Agreement for the Protection of Cultural and Natural Heritage (1972). The law for the preservation of natural areas and wildlife (B.O.E. 4/ ) refers, in Articles 13 and 16, to geological and geomorphic elements as being subject to protection, centring attention on the structures of the National Park, Natural Park and Natural Monuments, with a biological concept of protection of species and the preservation of ecosystems. Inventaries of natural areas (Outstanding Landscapes, Natural Areas) were first made in 1975, which included the National Inventary of Geological Sites, carried out from 1978 by the Spanish Geological and Mining Technical Survey (ITGE). This inventary, which covered only 20% of national territory and which ended in 1988, spanned the entire geological heritage and highlighted the importance of geomorphology in Spanish natural heritage (IGME, 1983, 1985, García et alii 2000). It is significant that Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
48 28 E. SERRANO CAÑADAS over 70% of the Spanish geological sites were classified as being of geomorphological interest. From 1988 other isolated regional studies were made (Murcia, Vizcaya, León and Madrid) and in the nineties the regional governments took over the initiative in making inventaries and cataloguing natural areas and outstanding landscapes (Durán and Vallejo, 1998; Valle, 2000), which covered interesting geomorphological sites (Aragón, Andalucia, Cantabria, Cataluña, Castilla La Mancha, La Rioja). In 1995 another attempt at homogenization commenced in the form of the National Inventory of Geological Sites by the ITGE in collaboration with the project GEOSITES (IUGS-UNESCO). In 2000 it proposed four geomorphological frameworks, which made up 20% of all those proposed covering sedimentary, stratrigraphic, paleontological, petrology, tectonic, and metalogenic frameworks. The geomorphological sites put forward included the fluvial network of the Hercyniana Massif, the Southwest Atlantic coast, the peninsular karstic systems, volcanic landforms of the Canary Islands, Campo de Calatrava and Olot, the Pliopleistocene deposits and Apalachian ranges of Montes de Toledo, and the dissection landforms, fluvial terraces and structural platforms of the Ebro basin (García Cortés et alii, 2000). Only in some autonomous communities have systematic assessments of geomorphic elements been started. In Andalucía, the inventary of geomorphic resources, the geomorphological cartography (1/ ) (Moreira and Rodriguez, 2001) and the assessment of morphogenetic representativeness of the whole territory have been carried out, together with their application to protected areas. Protection of 17% of the coastal geomorphic system has been laid down, 42% of coastal wetland geomorphic systems, 49% of eolian geomorphic systems and 36% of karstic geomorphic systems, undoubtedly high percentages which place greater importance on landforms and processes in the structure, dynamics and configuration of protected areas. Currently, the autonomous communities and the state have centred their attention, on one hand, on performing the National Inventary of Geomorphological Sites, by the ITGE within the framework of the project Geosites, and on the other, on regional and national protected areas. The Ministry for the Environment, responsible for National Parks, recently expressed its concern for abiotic elements of parks, in particular in mountain regions, and began analysis, on different scales, which includes the evaluation and assessment of geomorphic elements within a landscape framework. The landscape is the natural and cultural heritage of the structure of the territory and expresses its environmental quality. Assessment of the landscape is now a social necessity and concern over it has increased greatly in recent times. While at the beginning of conservationism the single element
49 Geomorphology, natural heritage and protected areas: lines of research in Spain 29 and the monumental aspect of the landscape in the protection of natural areas was given more attention (Ordesa, Picos de Europa, Natural Monuments, Sites), in later times the system as a whole has been given greater importance, with a large biological component (Doñana, Reserves, Protected areas). Nowadays, a territorial concept is prevalent (Biosphere Reserves, Common Heritage). The natural component of the landscape is made up of biotic and abiotic elements, but it is relief that is the key element articulating it, and the materials, their formation, the shapes and current processes are the main factors affecting its configuration. The morphostructures, landforms, the way they combine and their dynamic, as well as the appearance of the whole, constitute the basis of all landscapes, natural or human (Martínez de Pisón, 1997, 1998) in such a way that relief is one of the main elements in the configuration and dynamic of the landscape. The number of constituent elements and their characteristics enrich the landscape and determine uses and limitations. In the landscape framework, geodiversity, as defined by Duff (1994), is the primordial element of richness and variety of the landscape, particularly in mountain environments. The content of geodiversity is made up of individual elements, such that relief is of value in the assessment of heritage and its management. Relief includes systems of landforms which, in their morphostructural and climatic framework, generate morphoclimatic environments, functioning through a broad set of morphodynamic systems. The associations of landforms, considered on different scales and as geomorphic systems -morphoclimatic, morphostructural, morphodynamic- and individual landforms, are part of the geomorphological heritage. In this landscape framework of the assessment of geomorphological aspects, the application of a methodology has been started (Figure 1) for the study of protected areas which considers geomorphological aspects on their own terms and permits an assessment of the importance of landforms and processes in the landscape, as well as making an inventary and evaluation of geomorphological sites. Geomorphological analysis within a mountain landscape framework begins with the medium scale evaluation of relief as the basis of the landscape. The analysis of the landforms and landform associations allows the establishment of a set of relief units which form the basis of the larger units of the landscape. In the Biosphere Reserve Ordesa-Viñamala 10 larger units have been established with a predominant geomorphic component (morphostructural and glaciar modelling). On a detailed scale, smaller units of a territorial nature have been created, in which the study is centred on landforms and associations of landforms, and above all the morphodynamic. The geomorphological and units maps are the basic documents, elaborated
50 30 E. SERRANO CAÑADAS on scales of between 1/25000 and 1/5000. The analysis of the geomorphic and hydrological dynamic is indispensible in determining the organization of biotic elements, interferences by human use and the development and dynamic of the landscape. In the Ordesa and Monte Perdido National Park, in the region of the refuge of Góriz, six morphodynamic units have been set up in the most visited high mountain area in the park. The landforms, landform associations and the dynamic provide, directly from the cartography, an inventary of sites of geomorphological interest which include the classification of each element (individual landforms and inherited or functional associations). In the N.P. of Ordesa and Monte Perdido, outstanding elements on different scales have been established, the Monte Perdido Massif and individual morphostructural elements, the glacial system formed by the Monte Perdido glacier and the Little Ice Age moraines, the patterned ground, the surface karstic systems, cave systems and peat-bog, all of which are assessed in terms of their fragility and vulnerability, to elaborate the geomorphic vulnerability map of the unit. Together with the remaining landscape elements (physiography, vegetation, soils, hydrology and human uses) smaller landscape units and units with a territorial component are created. Assessment of territorial units is based on the analysis of aspects which lead to a definition of their characteristics and qualities. Quantitative or semi-quantitative expressions must be defined for comparative use within a single territory and for application to the management of protected mountain areas. The parameters which make assessment possible are many. First of all, the intrinsic qualities of the unit are assessed through singularity and representativeness. Geodiversity with a considerable weighting for landforms and geomorphic processes- and biodiversity provide an evaluation of richness and stability through a natural diversity index, which encompasses both. Fragility considers natural elements and their dynamic, in which geomorphic elements again have an important role, and vulnerability, which comes from adding real or potential human impact to the above, giving an approximation of the acceptable limits to change (Wight, 1998) of the unit, not only to its landscape and territorial structures, but also to its dynamic. The maps of uses and number of visits permit the evaluation of the vulnerability of the different environments surrounding the refuge at Góriz. These same parameters provide the assessment of the geomorphic sites. Through analysis of singularity, representativeness, fragility and vulnerability of landforms and their associations, the acceptable limits to change are established both for the structure and the dynamic of the geomorphic sites, which aid management and provide an orientation for
51 Geomorphology, natural heritage and protected areas: lines of research in Spain 31 their use as a resource (educational, cultural, turistic, scientific, etc.) and for their conservation. LANDSCAPE FUNDAMENTALS RELIEF Relief Units MAPS 1/ to 1/ scale Vegetation Hidrology MAPS 1/ to 1/ scale MAIN LANDSCAPE UNITS Main Units map 1/ to 1/ scale Lanscape assessment LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS UNITS Geomorphic elements Map: 1/ to 1/5.000 scale Morphodynamic Map: 1/ to 1/5.000 scale Vegetation Maps:1/ to 1/5.000 scale Phisiography Maps:1/ to 1/5.000 scale SMALLER LANDSCAPE UNITS Territorial Units assessment Uses: Impact, Frequentation Smaller Units Maps 1/ to 1/5.000 scale ASSESSMENT GEOMORPHOLOGICAL SITES ASSESSMENT: Singularity Representativeness Fragility Vulnerability Limits of Acceptable Change TERRITORIAL UNITS ASSESSMENT Singularity Representativeness Geodiversity Natural Diversity Biodiversity Fragility Vulnerability Limits of Acceptable Change Figura 1. Methodological sketch of landforms and processes assessment in a landscape framework on mountain protected areas.
52 32 E. SERRANO CAÑADAS As closing considerations, the following are some points of interest for the study of geomorphic sites in Spain: - The need to continue with the inventary of geomorphic sites on a national basis, increasing the geomorphological framework to include both singular elements of special interest (glaciars, dunes, granitic landforms, etc.) as highly representative elements or today non-contained geomorphic frameworks (mountains, lakes systems, etc.), in accordance with the high degree of geodiversity. - The proliferation of protected areas, with high geomorphic values as justification of their declaration, implies the need to carry out geomorphological studies in a landscape framework which assess the geomorphic elements and dynamics in close relation to geodiversity. - The need to make an inventary of geomorphic elements with heritage value of protected areas considered on differents scales and framed in the physical environment, landscape and territory. It is, therefore, indispensable to incorporate geomorphological analysis in territorial studies of protected areas in such a way that relief plays a fundamental role in the assessment of geodiversity and natural heritage. To achieve this end specific methodologies must be developed which include quantitative parameters and incorporate geomorphic landforms and processes. Singularity or representativeness, fragility and vulnerability, the inherited or active condition, the potential as a resource and the acceptable limits to change at geomorphic sites must all be assessed to avoid the deterioration of the geodiversity and irreparable loss of natural and cultural assets in particularly relevant environments and to suit their conservation to the recreational, cultural and turistic use of protected areas. References Barettino D., Wimbledon W.A.P. and Gallego, E (Eds.), Patrimonio Geológico: Conservación y gestión. ITGE, Mº de Ciencia y tecnología, Madrid. Duff, K., Natural areas: a holistic approach to conservation based on geology. In: O Halloran et alii (Eds): "Geological and landscape conservation". Geological Society, Londres, Duque L.C. and Elizaga E., Puntos de Interés Geológico en el sector oriental de la Cordillera Cantábrica. IGME, Ministerio de Industria, Madrid, IGME, Ministerio de Industria, Madrid. Durán, J.J. and Vallejo M. (Eds.), Actas de la IV Reunión Nacional de la Comisión de Patrimonio Geológico. Sociedad Geológica de España, Madrid. García A., Barettino D. and Gallego E., Inventario y catalogación del patrimonio geológico español. Revisión histórica y propuestas de futuro. In: D.
53 Geomorphology, natural heritage and protected areas: lines of research in Spain 33 Barattino, W.A.P. Wimbledon and E. Gallego (Eds.) "Patrimonio Geológico: Conservación y gestión". ITGE, Mº de Ciencia y tecnología, Madrid., IGME, Puntos de Interés geológico de Asturias. IGME, Ministerio de Industria, Madrid. Martínez de Pisón E., El paisaje, patrimonio cultural. Revista de Occidente, nº , Martínez de Pisón E., El concepto de paisaje como instrumento de conocimietno ambiental. In: "Paisaje y medio Ambiente". Fundación Duques de Soria-Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Moreira J.M. and Rodríguez M., Geodiversidad y Geomorfología en Andalucía. MA-Medio Ambiente, nº38 :6-15. Ortega Valcarcel, J., El patrimonio territorial: el territorio como recurso cultural y económic. Ciudades, Revista del Instituto de Urbanística, nº4, Valle, B.(Eds.), Geografía y espacios protegidos. Asociación de Geografos Españoles, Murcia. Wight P., Tools for sustainability in planning and managing tourism and recreation in a destination. In: C. Hall and A.Y Lew (Eds.) "Sustainible Tourism: a geographical perspective". Harlow, A.W. Longman,75-91.
57 First census of Geosites in the Province of Trento Marco AVANZINI 1, Alberto CARTON 2, Roberto SEPPI 1 and Riccardo TOMASONI 1 1 Museo Tridentino di Scienze Naturali, Trento 2 Università degli Studi di Pavia, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Pavia Only through a documented work of identification, assessment, cataloguing and publishing of results can the conservation and fruition of geosites, in a wide sense, take place. In the past few years this approach has been followed by some regions which have produced complete censuses or at least preliminary inventories on geosites. This operation may be the first step in the implementation of a national framework, as is already taking place for some research groups within the ProGEO Europa programme. Within the framework of the Research Programme of great national interest named Geosites in the Italian landscape: research, assessment and improvement, also in the Province of Trento a first census of sites showing geomorphological interest is being carried out. Considering the marked geological and geomorphological value of Trentino, because of the particular origin and evolution of parts of its territory, priority should be given to an accurate selection of the geomorphosites. It was decided to draw attention to those elements whose uniqueness, spectacularity, educational exemplarity and environmental value makes them representative of a whole category of morphological processes. In the preliminary phase a fair amount of pictorial material published by local offices, tourism agencies, private boards etc. was collected together with a number of scientific articles, including some of the past aiming to document and describe particular and/or spectacular aspects of the natural landscape. In most cases, these publications make up touristpopular material in which the quotation of a single element is inserted in a wider context. It should also be remembered that in the 70s a Nature itinerary known as Geological Route of Doss Cappello was set up in Trentino, making it the first example of this kind in Italy. At present about 80 sites of geomorphological interest, both local and areal, have been censused. In order to make use of the widest possible knowledge, other boards, such as the Tridentine Museum of Natural History and the Geological Survey of the Autonomous Province of Trento are participating in this research co-ordinated by the Department of Earth Sciences of Pavia University. Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
58 An experimental data sheet for the inventory of Geomorphosites proposed by the COFIN 2001 Research Group Geosites in the Italian landscape: research, assessment and improvement Milena BERTACCHINI, Paola CORATZA and Sandra PIACENTE Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia The need for managing and storing bibliographic and field-collected information on Geomorphosites requires the planning and implementation of a computer-based archive, organised by means of data sheets inserted into a database. Among the basic goals of its programme, the COFIN 2001 Research Group Geosites in the Italian landscape: research, assessment and improvement, which is composed of five Operative Units from the universities of Cagliari, Genova, Modena - Reggio Emilia, Pavia and Urbino, aims to set up a standardised cataloguing sheet for geomorphosites that can be linked to a computer-based data bank associated with a GIS (Geographical Information System). The experimental data sheet produced by the COFIN researchers on the basis of the information and experience attained within the single Operative Units, is here presented. This Poster shows an example of data sheet relative to a geomorphosite already identified and studied in the province of Modena: the Salse di Nirano mud volcanoes which, owing to their scientific characteristics and environmental implications, are particularly suitable to illustrate the structure of the fields in which information is collected. Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
59 Cultural Landscapes between Geology and Literature in the 20th century in Emilia-Romagna A poetical itinerary amidst the Geosites of Emilia Romagna Milena BERTACCHINI, Paola CORATZA and Sandra PIACENTE Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia A geological-literary itinerary was created starting from the assumption of the existence of specific Emilia-Romagna poetics and culture, linked to the outstanding morphological and geological features of our territory. This geological-literary itinerary was organised as a sort of guide for a sightseer yearning to meet Nature also in its poetical forms by travelling in space and time. This can take place only through the awareness that Nature can acquire a value for Man only if the latter finds a way to go through the complete range of his/her senses, including those most specifically spiritual. Therefore, our itinerary across the geological landscapes of the region is also a spiritual and human journey running through literary scenarios and images, where the physical places and those of the narration are materialised in a sort of permanent exhibition. Thus, our journey takes the traveller or perhaps the reader? (why not both?) to enjoy the narration while wandering in the places that have inspired those words by means of their outstanding geological features. "No place is far or unreachable, no land is foreign, if it can find the common thread capable of directing and involving even the most distant visitor through that vast heritage which is the Italian landscape." Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
60 Antro del Corchia within an integrated naturalistic itinerary in the Apuan Alps Monica BINI Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra e Geologico Ambientali, Università degli Studi di Bologna Antro del Corchia is the deepest karstic cavity in Italy and one of the largest caverns in the world, with 50 km of galleries and a depth of 1210m. Like all karstic cavities, it is an inexhaustible source of important scientific data. Its spectacular physical features have aroused a great deal of interest among the general public and media. Since the cavern was opened to the public, in August 2001, there has been a steady stream of visitors to the area. However, very often the Antro is seen merely as an isolated natural monument, with its impressive natural setting hardly ever being taken into consideration. The great attractive power of the Antro del Corchia could be well used as a starting point from which other nearby sites of geological-geomorphological interest could be made known to the general public. These are sites of great scientific interest, but which are more difficult to promote. Relating them to the Antro as part of a tourist itinerary could introduce the particular natural and cultural characteristics of the Apuan Alps to a wider public. The content of the itinerary could range from geological features to the exogenous agents modelling the landscape and also include those clear signs of activity by man. Among the sites that could be related to Antro del Corchia are the following: - The Hercynian unconformity of Monte Corchia, which is a site already belonging to the national geosites list, even if unknown to the general public. - The historic mercury mine in Levigliani, which is unique in Italy as regards mineral paragenesis. Thanks to the excellent conservation of minerals, it lends itself particularly well to guided visits. The mine also illustrates well the differences between natural and artificial caverns, which have always competed with each other in the Apuan Alps, historically greatly affected by quarrying activity. - The glacial complex in Fociomboli, ancient peat bog of great botanic and geomorphological interest. Although its very typical erosional and accumulative glacial landforms are not as impressive as the spectacular Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
61 M. BINI 39 alpine features, those of Fociomboli have a greater importance given their location and paleo-environmental significance. Antro del Corchia is the main geosite point and centre of tourist attractions in the Apuan Alps Park. When considered within a wellorganized tour including the above mentioned sites, the cavern could gain value not only in itself, but at the same time greatly enhance the surrounding landscape. In addition, the tour could provide interesting starting points to consider the relations between geotope and biotope, which have a particular significance when looking at karstic cavities and wet areas. Finally, the tour could also stimulate interest concerning problems related to the difficult, though not impossible, cohabitation between the exploitation of unrenewable resources and the enhancement of the cultural heritage.
62 Census of Geosites in Lombardy Paolo BONI, Alberto CARTON, Lamberto LAURETI, Luisa PELLEGRINI, Pieruigi VERCESI and Francesco ZUCCA Università degli Studi di Pavia, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Pavia Lombardy is a region of northern Italy where the territory is very varied from the physiographic viewpoint. It stretches from the upper Alps, with glaciers of different shape and extent, to the middle-altitude pre-alpine areas, the Po Plain and, to the south, as far as the ridges of the Northern Apennines. In this complexity of landscapes where history, geopolitics and art have always played a major role, as testified by numerous studies and publications, also the environment is extremely important for an adequate policy of conservation of natural assets. As in many other regions or provinces, also in Lombardy there is a strong need to describe and popularise particular sites and landscape peculiarities, environmental routes etc. Numerous guides, monographies and illustrations have indeed been published but, owing to their specific character or difficult availability, can hardly be used by the general public. This paper is part of the research of high national relevance named Geosites in the Italian landscape: research, assessment and improvement. It aims to complete a census of the Lombardy geomorphosites, in accordance with similar initiatives carried out in other Italian regions. This initiative will mark the first step towards the final goal which, besides complete cataloguing, will be the conservation, improvement and enjoyability of these sites both at a scientific and tourist level. As already stated, since the regional setting is very heterogeneous from the physiographic viewpoint, a subdivision was made between the Alpine, Apennine and plain areas. Within the framework of this subdivision, those elements which showed a particular geomorphological value, owing both to educational exemplarity or paleogeographic or evolutional evidence, were identified, described and subsequently grouped according to their types. At the moment over 120 sites have been catalogued; some of them correspond to single landforms whereas others make up an areal distribution of objects which on the whole satisfy the characteristics of a geomorphosite. Some of these places are already popular with tourists; on Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
63 P. BONI et alii 41 the contrary, others have not yet been recognised for their unusual and specific features. Bibliographic research was also associated with the census; in this way a fair amount of material, especially pictorial material mainly published by private and public local boards, the Italian Touring Club etc. was collected.
64 National project: Protection of the Italian geological heritage - The testing card for the Geosites inventory Gerardo BRANCUCCI 1 and Myriam D'ANDREA 2 1 Centro di Documentazione Geositi- Facoltà di Architettura, Università degli Studi di Genova 2 Ufficio Ricerca, Servizio Geologico d Italia, Dipartimento per i Servizi Tecnici Nazionali The Italian Geological Survey, with the aim to promote the knowledge, the protection and the valuing of the geological heritage in Italy, has started a project titled Protection of the Italian geological heritage (D Andrea, 2000; Auteri et alii, 2001; D Andrea and Angelelli, 2001) which plans: - to costitute a computerized data base of geosites; - to set guide-lines on the geosites inventory; - to check on site and to georeference the geosite in small and/or medium scale; - to publish on the Geological Survey website pages dedicated to the geosites inventory, with links to other geosites data banks and geosites valuing activities. The aim of the project is to create an informative pole, in order to popularize and connect the several enterprises in act on Italian territory and to provide the public administration with a tool for territorial planning. At the base of the data bank is a testing card for the geosites inventory, planned to collect the data surveyed on the field and to link the information to its source. This card has the agreement of ProGEO italian members and has been already sperimented in Liguria for the Inventory of geosites in the objective-2 areas of the European Union (Brancucci and Burlando, 1999). Both the testing card and the manual are published on the DSTN website ( in order to spread them abroad as much as possible. The testing card has been presented to the scientific context: - at the Congress La città incantata dei Monumenti di Pietra: interpretazione, conservazione ed utilizzo del patrimonio geologico e paesaggistico (Genova, maggio 2000); - at the Società Paleontologica Italiana meeting: Giornate di paleontologia (D Andrea, 2001); - at FIST Congress Geoitalia 2001 (Auteri et alii, 2001); Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
65 G. BRANCUCCI and M. D'ANDREA 43 and published several times (Brancucci and Burlando,1999, 2001; Brancucci et alii, 1999; D Andrea, 2000; web-site of Geosites Documentation Centre of Polis Department ( web-site of the Department of Tecnical Services of Italy ( The testing card is being verified in co-operations and agreements between the Italian Geological Survey and other Institutes regarding different topics such as: - CARG Project (with some partners of different Institutions involved in the national cartographic project, 1: scale). - Ichnofacies of vertebrates footprints (with the Earth Sciences Department, University of Rome La Sapienza ); - Geomorphosites (within the Research Program COFIN-MIUR 2001 Geosites in the italian landscape: research, estimation and valuing coordinated by the Earth Sciences Department, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia); - Sites of mineralogic interest (with the Natural History Museum, University of Florence); - Quarries bearing ornamental rocks (with the Earth Sciences Department, University of Rome 3); - GSSP (Global Stratotype) (with the Stratigraphic Committee, Geological Society of Italy). References D Andrea M. and Angelelli F., 2001 Progetto Conservazione del patrimonio geologico italiano. Invito alla Paleontologia, Paleoitalia, 5, Auteri M., Brancucci G, D Andrea M and Lugeri N., Banca dati nazionale dei siti geologici. Geoitalia 2001, 3 Forum Italiano di Scienze della Terra Chieti, 5-8 sett.2001, Abstract, Brancucci G. and Burlando M., Geosites inventory in Liguria (Northern Italy) activation phases and its possible future developments. III Int. Symposium ProGeo Madrid. Brancucci G. and Burlando M., La salvaguardia del patrimonio geologico. Scelta strategica per il territorio. L esperienza della Liguria, Franco Angeli Ed., pp. 96 Brancucci G., Carton M. & Pavia G., 1999 Scheda inventario geositi, Geoitalia, vol. 4, nov 1999, D Andrea M., Servizio Geologico Nazionale: Progetto Conservazione del patrimonio geologico italiano. Nota informativa. Giornale di Geologia, Ser. 3, 62, Suppl.,
66 Marchean landscape: reading exercises Lorenzo CARNEVALI and Olivia Nesci Istituto di Geologia dell'università degli Studi di Urbino It will be presented an integrated reading experiment of some geomorphological sites of the Marche region. Authors, joining their own research experience, try to connect geomorphological representation with linguistic and poetic definition. In this poster are shown two samples of the work actually in progress: the coastal cliff of Monte San Bartolo and the Sasso di Pietrarubbia (Valmarecchia Sheet). Poetry becomes a linguistic translation of the relief shapes, modelled by marine and slope processes. Natural evolution of the geomorphosites (primitive shape present shape) is projected not only in a scientific dimension but in a philosophic and poetic perspective as well, trying to catch a glimpse of an utopian harmony between History and Nature. Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
67 Relics of low marine terraces along the Ligurian coast between Varazze and Cogoleto (Passeggiata Europa): a proposed Geosite Luigi CAROBENE, Marco FIRPO and Cristiano QUEIROLO Dipartimento per lo Studio del Territorio e delle sue Risorse This memorandum proposes the establishment of the first protected geosite providing geomorphological evidence of the action of ancient sea levels along the Ligurian coastline. The coastal tract selected, which lies at an almost constant height of seven metres above sea level, between Varazze and Cogoleto, and is known as Passeggiata Europa, and which was once occupied by the late nineteenth century Genova-Ventimiglia railway line, coincides with the inner margin of a marine terrace of which only small promontories and remains of deposits survive. In particular, this marine terrace has two distinct features: the relics of an extensively reworked marine rock platform, without deposits, between 4 and 7 m a.s.l., extending for 30 or 40 m in length, and 2) an internal tract of the platform, between 6.5 and 8 m a.s.l., extending 15 or 30 m in length, which preserves remnants of marine deposits; a small cave between 9 and 11.5 m, formed by the sea, and large, isolated, rounded masses situated on surfaces between 5 and 8 m a.s.l. The marine deposits mainly consist of rounded pebbles and sand. The tract studied lies at the foot of a wide slope along which there are numerous features associated with sea action; the highest include the relics of heavily reworked terraces, without deposits, over 100 m a.s.l.; the lowest, carved into metamorphic rocks, have good lateral continuity and a maximum width of 750 m. The inner margin rises towards the NE from 95 to 105 m a.s.l., while the outer edge varies between 55 and 85 m over a distance of 3.5 km. The marine deposit, not always clearly visible in every remains because of erosion or continental covering, usually consists of large, wellrounded clasts, sometimes flattened, with a diameter up to cm; the highway cutting clearly reveals the deposits along the inner margin. This description also agrees well with the relative age attributed to these relics, in that the highest and most eroded are the oldest; the lowest, Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
68 46 L. CAROBENE et alii protected by the continental deposits at the foot of the slope, are the most recent: the terrace at +7 m can probably be attributed to the Tyrrhenian. The relics along Passeggiata Europa are the only evidence of the Late Pleistocene visible along the western Ligurian coast today, if we ignore the Sea Caves of Balzi Rossi at Ventimiglia, which have already been protected for some time. The value of the area could be better promoted by the erection of didactic signs that would permit the tourist to travel in time and space on the one hand, and help to protect one of the most touristed and beautiful natural areas of Liguria on the other.
69 A pre-geosite bibliography: a proposal for improvement Alberto CARTON 1, Paolo BONI 1, Luisa PELLEGRINI 1, Roberto SEPPI 2 and Francesco ZUCCA 1 1 Università degli Studi di Pavia, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Pavia 2 Museo Tridentino di Scienze Naturali, Trento Man has often felt the need to describe or point out those physical elements of the territory or unusual landscape features whose aesthetic appeal or spectacular nature arouse special interest or emotions. Through time, the natural, cultural and even historical aspects related to geosites have further enriched his interest. A Research Programme of great national interest (PRIN 2001) has been enterprised named Geosites in the Italian Landscape: research, assessment and improvement. Within this framework, the first operative phase has meant identifying bibliographic references relative to the geosites of the areas pertaining to the single Operative Units. In reality, references related to the natural aspects of a site are rather scanty since the concept of geoconservation and therefore geosite is a recent cultural acquisition. Nonetheless, even in the past several works identified and described situations of this kind although the word geosite or geotope was never used. The bibliographic research carried out in Lombardy and Trentino by the Operative Unit of Pavia University has pointed out numerous publications of this kind, of which only the more recent ones were written from the standpoint of geoconservation. In most cases these papers are of popular interest, although their starting point is often from scientific observations which describe physical objects or situations of particular interest owing to their specific features. Apart from the papers already quoted, deliberately written for geoconservation purposes and published in qualified scientific reviews, most of them are multi-purpose monographies, articles from local Nature journals, booklets and brochures edited by tourist promotion boards or atlases and catalogues such as those describing karst microforms and cavities, glaciers and so on. Many of these, although they are not exhaustive from the scientific viewpoint, can be starting points for managing and improving the geotopes thus identified. Very often this grey or minor bibliography is known only locally and therefore hard to be found. Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
70 48 A. CARTON et alii In order to optimise this type of bibliography, a proposal is advanced to create a georeferenced data base, manageable at a national and/or regional level and consultable on the Internet, which would be constantly updated with newly found references. The purpose of this collected bibliography is to provide anybody interested in a certain territory with specific references consultable also by the general public before actually visiting a site. This will be particularly useful for those people desiring to visit places off the main tourist routes. This computer-based bibliography will also be useful for tourism operators (graduates in Ecotourism, tourist guides etc.) who will find hints and guidelines for organising Nature tours even outside their regional knowledge. Moreover, from these reference sources it will be easier to go back to the specific scientific bibliography. From the operative viewpoint, a card containing basic information (author/s, title, review etc.) was produced for each bibliographic entry. Further information is also provided on the type and quality of the pictures, the existence of thematic mapping and how to obtain a publication. A specific file will contain a ten-line long comment describing the scientific value of each publication (seen from the standpoint of geoconservation and enjoyment) and information about food and accommodation. Two fields of images will be respectively dedicated to illustrate a geosite and its geographic setting. Furthermore, this system will allow each user to search for the references of interest by means not of key words but of geographic areas. The boundaries of the areas described will be georeferenced in order to find out if there are references related to a specific site by clicking on any point from a general regional image. By means of a detailed index map, the resulting computer image will furnish specifications on a particular bibliography, the topic discussed and the specific location of a site. Apart from providing the user with various mapping elaborations, the use of GIS in this type of bibliographic consultation will advantage research, which is traditionally linked to key words (whose correct interpretation can greatly favour the finding of references) or to the knowledge of the author/s and/or title. In this way the users will find it easier to programme and enjoy their trips and visits to a site according to the material available (presence of specific bibliographic references).
71 Inventory of the lakes of the high Emilia-Romagna Apennines (Northern Italy) Doriano CASTALDINI, Paola CORATZA and Mirko IOTTI Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia This paper illustrates the inventory of the lakes of the high Apennines of Emilia-Romagna (northern Italy); the term lake is attributed to those features of the landscape indicated by this name in bibliographic references (they are therefore bodies of water which at present may be either existent or extinct), whereas the term high refers to the Apennine sector above the altitude of 1000 m a.s.l. This study has been carried out within the framework of the Cofin national research programme Geosites in the Italian Landscape: research, assessment and improvement. The inventory was prepared by means of a data base through the following phases: i) detailed bibliographic research on single lakes, compilation of lakes data sheets and elaboration of a Map of the Lakes. In particular, for each lake or group of lakes the data sheets contain the name, geographic location (administrative references, main catchment basin, geographic coordinates, mapping references and altitude), dimensions (length, width, area, depth), presence of an influent and effluent, origin, summarised description from literature, state of conservation (permanent, temporary, extinct), bibliography (essentially physiographic and geomorphological) and explanatory notes if present. The Map of the Lakes was realised at a 1:250,000 scale and the various lakes were numbered and represented according to their origin. In total, 118 lakes were listed and illustrated on the map. The inventoried lakes were analysed on the basis of their main characteristics. From this analysis, it comes out that most lakes (95% circa) are located west of the River Reno basin and over half of them. Within the basins of the rivers Reno, Lamone and Savio, lakes were not found; their presence is in any case very low (5% circa) in the Romagna Apennines (south-eastern sector of the chain). As for altitude, the highest percentage of lakes (20% circa) is located in the altimetric belt ranging from 1300 to 1400 m. At altitudes higher than 1800 m the presence of lakes is minimal (only 2). Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
72 50 D. CASTALDINI et alii Most of the lakes described (78%) have an area less than 1 hectare; therefore they are classified as very small bodies of water. As for their origin (which in 12% of the cases is not indicated in bibliography and will therefore be defined), the most common genesis (about 65%) is due to glacial processes (comprising both lakes from moraine damming and glacial erosion) and, secondarily, landslide processes (about 17%). In particular, glacial lakes are exclusively found west of the R. Reno catchment basin. This is related to the fact that during the last glacial period the glaciers of the northern Apennines were located exclusively west of the above mentioned sector and corroborates the important role played by lakes in landscape modelling. By considering the state of conservation, it results that 102 lakes (86.5%) are existent (with 75 permanent and 27 temporary) whereas 16 are extinct (13.5%). The data relative to active lakes (location within their catchment basins, distribution according to altitude, area and origin) are consistent with all general data. Nevertheless, the detailed analysis of extinct lakes emphasises that their disappearance affected mainly the basin of the R. Secchia, those ranging between 1000 and 1400 m a.s.l., those with a surface less than 1 hectare and glacial lakes. This inventory makes up a preliminary investigation which is fundamental for assessing and improving the conditions of the lakes present in the study area.
73 A method for the evaluation of impacts on scientific quality of Geomorphosites Paola CORATZA and Cecilia GIUSTI Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia The method here presented it is elaborated in the frame of a research develop in the project COFIN 2001 Geosites in the Italian landscape: research, evaluation and valorisation, coordinated by Prof. S. Piacente. In the sector of the scientific world more involved in the environmental problems, the growing interest in the conservation and in the management of the Environmental Assets, had been born the need to study and select the aspects of the landscape that, more than other, merit to be known and protect. The Geomorphosites are part of the Environmental Assets, probably they are the more spectacular from a visual point of view. A Geomorphosites can be defined as a punctual or areal geosite, which interest is determined by his particular geomorphological scientific value. The proposed method it could be an useful tool in order to optimise the decisional process in the frame of the Territorial Planning, the Environmental Impact Assessment and the Protection of the Natural Heritage. The method has been elaborated for the evaluation of the impacts of antrophic constructions on scientific quality of Geomorphosites. It is quantitative, but a series of qualitative guide lines have been elaborated, in order to give a support for the attribution of the values. The scientific quality is calculated considering a series of parameters, some strictly linked with the scientific connotation of the SGI, other indirectly linked. These parameters are: expert s knowledge (related to the educational value of the asset and its own value for the research); areal extent (in relation to overall extent of similar sites); rarity (in relation to quantity of similar sites); degree of conservation (depending both of natural and human factors); exposure (related to the visual impact) and an added value (related to the importance that the asset has for non-geomorphological aspects that nevertheless can increase its scientific value; e.g. tourism, ecology). Than each parameter had to be weighted. The impact of a human construction on Geomorphosites can be physical and/or visual and had to be calculated on the basis of the difference of the scientific quality in a pre-project and in a post-project situation. In the post- Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
74 52 P. CORATZA and C. GIUSTI project situation the weights of each parameter had to be re-assigned for the two type of impact and the they have different value, because of each parameter has a different weight according to if the impact is physical or visual. Finally, the total antrophic impact on a Geomorphosite is given by the no-calculated sum of the physical impact and of the visual impact. The method is tested on a Geomorphosite of the Modena Province (Northern Italy).
75 The inventory of Geomorphological Geosites in the framework of landscape management and tourist improvement Alberto COSTAMAGNA Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi, Torino The first results of a project of research promoted and realized by the corporate body for the Management of the Parks and Reserves of Asti and by the Department of Earth Sciences of the University of Turin are exposed. They consist in the census of geomorphological geosites in an area of the Piedmont Region including the hills of Turin, of the Monferrato, of Asti, of the Roero and a part of the Langhe Hills and of the Po Plain (Piedmont Tertiary Basin, NW Italy). The inventory is based on the bibliographic research and on surveys on the groud that have led to determine and classify the sites which better represent the geomorphological systems of the area. The morfogeosites have been scientifically evalueted consiedring fundamental criteria as integrity, rarity, representativeness, paleogeographic value, importance as research site, and assigning to each factor a score from 0 to 3 taking account of secondary criteria as dimentions, constitution, age, morphogenic activity, geo-diversity, environmental context, number, arrangement and associativity of landforms. The description of geomorphological objects as been completed by the evaluation of: scenic value, existence of other scientific or cultural interests, conservation degree, risks of damage, existence of territorial ties, accessibility, availability, distance from essential services and from receptive structures. The collected data have been archived in a Data Base of Geological Heritages wich has been made in accordance with the directions of the National Geological Service. For every geotope this database gives the following informations: identification, designation, location, geomorphological description, results of the assessment, bibliographical sources, images. This digital archives enable to draw up for every geosite both synthetic descriptive file-cards and specific file-cards (containing detailed technical Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
76 54 A. COSTAMAGNA and cartographic data), and they can be used to represent the geotopes in a GIS. The inventory of the geomorphosites makes possible to describe in a simple and exhaustive way the morphology of the landscape examined and it represents a source of information and an instrument for planners, in order to realize a sustainable use of natural resources. In conclusion some feasable applications wich could improve a lasting tourist development in the studied area are proposed: - exploitation of the network of geosites for didactic aims: carrying out of tour itineraries and informative panels; - promotion of sporty activities: cycling tourism along the trails of the Roero Hills; canoeing on the river Tanaro; - appretiation of damaged zones: amateur speleological exploration of the cave in the chalks of Monticello d Alba.
77 Geosites and landscape evolution of the Tacchi: an example from central-east Sardinia Jo DE WAELE, Felice DI GREGORIO, Roberto FOLLESA and Giuseppe PIRAS Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Cagliari The Tacchi area is a landscape unit located to the South of the Gennargentu mountains in the central-eastern part of Sardinia, mainly characterised by table-like carbonatic Mesozoic mountains, locally named "Tacchi", unconformably overlaying a Paleozoic peneplain constituted of Cambro- Silurian silty and sandy shales. The Tacchi are the result of a complex geologic history, deriving from a unique and widespread Jurassic carbonatic cover that was split up in clods due to epirogenetic movements, faulted, uplifted or lowered and successively eroded and isolated by fluvial processes. The palaeo-geography and the evolution of this landscape can be explained using several different geosites of the area, such as the San Giorgio Gorge, the Su Marmuri cave and the Monte Tisiddu Tacco that, united in a network of geosites, can bring to an improvement of the tourist offer of this interesting area. The San Giorgio Gorge is situated above the little town of Osini on the slopes of the Riu Pardu river, and forms the natural gateway to the higher karstic plains of the Tacco of Ulassai. This Geosite is the result of the combination of several factors that, during Plio-Pleistocene, have profoundly modified the landscape. In fact, the rapid deepening by erosion of the river Pardu along a NW-SE alpine fault has caused mass movements, mainly along tension cracks, provoking a whole generation of Quaternary landslides. The most impressive of these tension cracks is the San Giorgio Gorge, across which passes a tarmac road that connects the village of Osini with the carbonatic high plateau rich in karst forms, interesting endemic flora and archaeological remains. The Su Marmuri show cave is situated at less than 1 km of the Gorge and is one of the major tourist attractions of the region. This enormous natural fossil subterraneous river passage, with a length of 850 meters, is developed in Jurassic carbonates close to the contact dolomites and underlying transgressive arenaceous and marly sequences, constituting a precious Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
78 56 J. DE WAELE et alii testimony of palaeo-geography and palaeo-hydrography, and is entirely open to public. From the cave the landscape is dominated by the alone-standing Monte Tisiddu Tacco, erosion testimonial of the Jurassic carbonate cover now isolated from the rest of the Tacchi by deeply cut valleys. The vertical walls which border this karst mountain suggest a rapid evolution confined to the late Quaternary. Besides these geosites many other places of geological interest such as the Riu Pardu river and its abandoned villages of Gairo vecchio and Osini vecchio (partially destroyed by phenomena of hydrogeologic hazard following an exceptional rainfall in October 1951), several waterfalls and travertine deposits can be mentioned, completing an already rich and varied landscape. The Project aims to the conservation of the multiple valences present in the territory, and comprises the valorisation of the sites of geological interest in line with the principles of a sustainable development. This valorisation foresees the realisation of a local network of geosites connected to the system of Natural Monuments instituted by the Regional Law 31/1989, the arrangement of equipped pathways, the elaboration of explicative panels in which geology, geomorphology, karst landscape, biology and archaeology are described. Some panels will be focalised on the reading of the landscape and its evolution (Lecture du Paysage) in which geological, geomorphological and environmental aspects collimate to form an educational model of great suggestion. This proposal of valorisation of these geosites, grouped in a network, could well be applied to other areas, and the Authors hope that the regional and local stakeholders will, in the near future, participate in the geoenvironmental preparation of their territory, giving an important service to the many tourists that come and visit the Tacchi area.
79 Geomorphosites in glacialized areas: routes in the upper Valtellina for the valuing of the high mountain environment Guglielmina DIOLAIUTI, Carlo D AGATA, Manuela PELFINI and Claudio SMIRAGLIA Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Milano High mountain environment answers to the actual climatic changes with very evident signals, in particular with a strong glacier reduction. Therefore, it represents an archive of precious geomorphosites like glaciers, characterized by great vulnerability and now located in the upper valley, whose destiny is strongly linked to the climatic trend. For this reason the climatic variations influence the natural evolution of the landscape with particular effectiveness on those landforms whose equilibrium is closely climate-correlated, like glaciers used for touristic activity. In the case of the glaciers utilized for summery skiing, like Vedretta Piana, Ghiacciaio Presena, Ghiacciaio di Scerscen Inferiore etc., the progressive reduction of skiing areas is clearly observable; that reduction for the Scerscen forced the end of this activity. The increasing of climatic variability and therefore the intensifying of the extreme phenomena, favour the occurrence of some flooding processes, like debris flows, that in some areas with high tourist frequentation can constitute environmental hazard. The tourist enjoyment of this kind of geomorphosites (glacial and periglacial features, fluvial and/or gravitative landforms, observable along geomorphological-naturalistic routes) can be considered weather-dependent, such as some other activities that involve the direct contact with alpine environment (mountain bike, climbing). In the Central Alps and particularly ine upper Valtellina, some proposals for the valuing of the geomorphosites have been already realized. The glaciological path of the Ghiacciaio dei Forni represents an example of valorisation of a glacial area with an intense tourist frequentation, which has a rich natural (history of the glacialism) and human (the Firs World War) history. It is the largest valley glacier of the Italian Alps (13 kmq), whose geomorphological interest is represented by the complete moraine sequence. It is possible to reconstruct all advance and retreat phases of the glacier, to observe the morphologic effects of these episodes and to understand the Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
80 58 G. DIOLAIUTI et alii dimension of the environmental and climatic phenomena that have generated the observable shapes. For the valorisation of the geomorphological and glacial sites two routes are in phase of realization in the Presure and in Dosdè Valleys. The first is a valley accessible with the cableway facilities from Bormio. It shows a morainic amphitheatre, a panoramic vision of the Val Pola landslide, and peculiar landforms controlled by the rock outcrops (pegmatitic sill) and several small alpine lakes located in a glacial cirque. The routes in Val Viola and Val Dosdè, which are now carrying on, represent an alternative to the gastronomic route, widely attended by tourists, which extends between the locality of Arnoga and the Viola huts reachable on foot or with shuttle service. The frequentation of the valley is limited to the axis road-hut; the surrounding zones and glaciarized areas on the upper side of the valley and close to Val Grosina are not so much frequented. Particularly interesting is the Ghiacciaio Dosdè Orientale, studied since several years with mass balances, frontal variations and also monitored for its superficial dynamics. The geomorphosites surveyed with GPS techniques have been inserted in a GIS allowing the construction of personalized routes in function of the tourist needs (accessibility, geomorphological importance etc).
81 Mud volcanoes in central-southern Marche (Italy): proposals for their bounding, enhancing, preservation and protection from extinction Piero FARABOLLINI 1, Marco MATERAZZI 1 and Gianni SCALELLA 2 1 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università dagli Studi di Camerino 2 Geologist Mud volcanoes (also vulcanelli di fango or salse in italian language) have been the subject of several studies in the past from different authors; mentioned in classic scripts, this argument has been treated more in detail starting from 600 within naturalistic studies from Scientific Academies or Cultural Associations. These phenomena have been observed, in the Marche region, only in its peri-adriatic sector where pliocenic and pleistocenic terrains outcrop; here they are well represent as typology, numerous and extension (San Paolo di Jesi Ancona; Petriolo Macerata; Montappone, Montegiorgio and Monte Ascensione Ascoli Piceno). In this paper several strategies for their preservation and protection have been proposed. In particular these aim to avoid that characteristic morphologies produced by leaking mud (also several times per year in some cases) will be suddenly demolished by anthropic or natural agents; mud leakage generally occurs on a flat surface called piano della salsa in particular placed on thalweg or along very gentle portion of the slope. Typical, in the mud volcanoes morphology, is the presence of one of more cones of different height and extension with emission of differently fluid mud; sometimes natural boundaries exist and the leakage remains confined in a depression but in other cases mud emissions can reach the hydrographic network. The Marche Region Administration, as other italian Regions, have not rules (unless some indication in the PPAR- Landscape and the Environment Regional Plane) for preventing and protecting these geo-sites yet. The procedure for these geo-sites safeguarding should start from territory analysis and study of its resources in particular defining characteristics, potential risks and objectives to reach; more, it should formulate proposals for their use and enhancing also indicating possible Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
82 60 P. FARABOLLINI et alii thematic routes (geological and geomorphological paths) in particularly significative areas. This could be realized through the following steps: - Analysis - Evaluation and Settling - Proposal of Prevention and Enhancing Tools for the geo-site management could be represented by: - specific regional rules for mud volcanoes preserving and protecting - natural conditions restoring of the sites and promotion of activities for their preservation - specific signals and posters (and possibly specially designed areas) for evidence and supply explanation about genesis and spatial-temporal evolution of the phenomenon. Expectancy is therefore to realize, as some particular places in Italy (i.e. Fiorano Modenese Modena), sets of rules and strategies for preserve and manage the mud volcanoes geo-sites in the Marche region; this in order to avoid that this phenomenon, many times especially in the past considered as a magic natural event disappears also from the human memory.
83 Geosites in the Turin s Province (NW-Italy): scientific research and exploitation perspectives Marco GIARDINO 1, Giovanni MORTARA 2 and Gabriella DE RENZO 3 1 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Torino 2 C.N.R. - Istituto per la Protezione Idrogeologica- Torino 3 Provincia di Torino Settore Difesa del Suolo The coincidence among scientific research interests (National Research Council, University) and the safeguard demands as well as environmental exploitation by local authorities (Province) can turn into a good occasion to spread the culture and the conscience of geodiversity. This possibility realized in a study of the geologic-geomorfological assets ("geosites") in the Turin s province territory. Natural environment can not only be considered as simple main resources but, from a cultural, scientific or more simply landscape point of view, these resources are important as well. The always intense human modifications of the natural environment on wide scale puts nevertheless in danger the cultural patrimony constituted by the Earth s "memories", written in the depths as on its surface, in the rocks and in the landscape. For this reason there are in action around the world initiatives to individualize and to protect the environmental assets and to safeguard therefore the memory of our Planet. Among these initiatives the International Project GEOSITES proposes to realize a world inventory of the most meaningful sites to preserve, but also geoconservation actions local and nationwide. This way, it s been decided to analyze Turin s province territory recognizing areas or territories in which it s possible to define a geological and geomorfological interest for natural patrimony conservation ("Geosites", sensu Wimbledon, 1995). The sites choice in the Province regards scientific classification criterions of landscape forms depending on various requisite, for instance, the rarity, the representativeness, the scenic and historical-cultural value, and not last the accessibility for a direct or indirect fruition. Some of the assessed landforms are induced by natural instability phenomena.the motivation that has pushed to valorize also this type of landforms resides in the conviction that, especially in a highly dynamic area, as most of the Turin s province territory, it s necessary to educate the natural environment fruitoris to recognize the phenomenon traces with which they Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
84 62 M. GIARDINO et alii cohabit and to teach them that these form the landscape that surrounds them. The study permited the realization of a series of informative cards concerning the individualized geosites, exposed by popular material including images and thematic cartography. The work structure is articulated by different cards: a) framing geosites, b) presentation of interesting observation points, and c) close examination on geologicalgeomorfological evolution of the individualized element. As far as possible a simple language has been adopted, not specialistic, at the same time it s been choosen a not ordinary treatment as well as resorting to a lot of visual esemplificative representations.
85 Principal Geomorphosites in Umbria Region Lucilia GREGORI, Laura MELELLI, Silvia RAPICETTA and Andrea TARAMELLI Università degli Studi di Perugia The Umbria region is characterised by different geological and the geomorphological environment which give the territory a geomorphodiversity and, obviously, as well as a deep variability of the ecosystems. The identification of potential geomorphosites is interesting and finalized not only to their protection, but also to the appropriate management and use of the territory. This work is aimed to provide a preventive analysis by individuating common parameters of those numerous environment that, for historical, geomorphological and landscaped characteristics, would better match to the model of geomorphosite. Therefore a review of the Umbria s environments has been prepared. Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
86 Geomorphological sites in the mountain area of Bihor county (Romania) Nicolae JOSAN, Dorina ILIEŞ and Stelian NISTOR University of Oradea - Romania The Apuseni Mountains incorporate the highest density of endokarst and exokarst elements within the Carpathians of Romania. Despite the petrographic mosaic, the distinct note is provided by the developed areas on karsiable rocks (calcareous stone and Mesozoic dolomites). Geographic sites of Bihor County: - The Valley of Sighiştel is considered to be the most karstic area of Romania (160 caves on 15 square kilometers), developed in Jurassic calcareous stone. - The Bears Cave, developed in white Mesozoic marmoreal calcareous stone, in which the first sample of cavern bear (Ursus Spelaeaus) was found in anatomic connection. - The karstic complex Cetăţile Rădesei is one of the most representative karstic areas of Bihor Mountains that integrates the Rădesei Cave and Someşul Cald Gorges. - The Hollow of Ruginoasa, developed in gritstones and permo-triastic reddish clay schist and sandstone; it is a huge-sized torrential organism, developed on approximately 5 ha; it is 100 m deep - The cave of Meziad, 4.7 km long, it is disposed on 5 levels and has numerous galleries and cave formations. The endoreic Plateau of Padiş- Cetăţile Ponorului - It is the most typical karstic area of Romania that associates representative endokarst and exokarst forms. - The karstic system of Cetăţile Ponorului represents an imense complex of dolinas which are followed in the underground area by an active cave. The complex represents the third hydrologic level that defines the Padiş- Cetăţile Ponorului complex. - The Galbenei Valley, associates Izbucul Galbenei and its homonimous valley, one of the most typical karstic valley of the Bihor Mountains with a multitude of exokarstic elements (dixies in steps, waterfalls) and endokarstic forms (active caves). - The cave Focul Viu is one of the five icy caves of the Apuseni Mountains, the second in size as regards the accumulated ice volume ( m 3 ). Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
87 N. JOSAN et alii 65 - The karstic area Lumea pierdută groups together three avens: The Black Aven (diameter 50 m, 108 m deep), the Gemănata Aven (diameter 20 m, 100 m deep ), the Covered Aven(8 metres in diameter, 29 metres deep). - The karstic complex Bârsa Pit associates three remarkably long caves (The Black Cave m), avens with ice (The Borţig Aven, The Glacier of Bârsa), steepness (Zăpodie Steepness). The Mountains Pădurea Craiului (surface of 1150 km), consist of sedimentary Mezozoic formations. The Jurasic occupies 1/3 of the total surface of the karstic system and its Cretacic formations are made of bauxite formations disposed in the escavations of a karstic paleorelief. The great area s extension of the karstic formations, the big tectonic complexity imposed the outlining of some endokarstic and exokarstic complex areas. Out of a multitude of geomorphological sites which define the exokarst of Pădurea Craiului Mountains we can mention: the karstic depressions (Damiş, Ponoare, Cămârzan-Zece Hotare depression) the karstic plateau (Runcur, Vida, Igraţ), the karstic valleys (Brătcuţei, Videi, Mişid etc). The endokarst of Pădurea Craiului Mountains is represented by vast karstic underground systems (the caves of Gălăşeni, Izbucul Topliţa, Ciur Ponor etc). Among these, the cave system of Vântu is detached; it holds the record in length from Romania (the total length of the galleries is of 47 km; the caves are disposed on 6 levels). The Codru Moma Massif Although the surface of the occupied areas of karstic rocks is important, the karstification level and the endo and exokarst elements are relatively weakly represented. The endokarst is represented by the karstic systems of the Lunca Valley and the cave of Băi. The karstic intermittent spring of Călugăreni is a representative element, unique in the perimeter of the Apuseni Mountains. Exokarst is well-defined by the karstic plateau of Vaşcău where the exokarst forms (dolines, uvalas, lapies etc) cover important areas. The Crişul Repede Gorge It stretches on a distance long of 48 km and it represents one of the most typical gorge sectors within the Western Carpathians. It associates more sectors each one having distinct features and particularities: the district of Bologa-Poieni (cut into hard vulcanic dacites), the depression of Bratca, the sectors of Bălnaca-Şuncuiuş, Şuncuiuş-Vadu Crişului (digged mezozoic calcareous stones).
88 The Geomorphological Sites of the Grigne Mountain (Lombardy) Lamberto LAURETI Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Pavia As a part of researches about the geomorphological sites in Lombardy, that are carrying out by the operative unit of Pavia University, this poster will show a specific situation represented by the Grigne Mountain calcareous-dolomitic massif, dominating the eastern branch of the Como lake. This mountain is noteworthy for its plenty of morphotypes, owing to karst and glacial processes, as well as to the selective erosion. In this poster it is shown only a significative selection of the most typical geomorphological sites. Among them are the famous natural arch of Porta di Prada, the Bellano wild gorge, the glacial cirque of Moncodeno, etc. Sketches, bibliographical references and the relative cards are joined to the pictures of the sites. In addition, a general map of the Grigne Mountain showing the geolithological basis and the position of the main geomorphological sites is included in the poster. Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
89 Conservation and valorization of the geomorphological-environmental heritage of the Pollino National Park (Southern Italy) Maurizio LAZZARI C.N.R.- Istituto Sperimentale per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali - Sezione di Studi Federiciani di Potenza The safeguard concept of the geological, geomorphological and environmental heritage (geosites) that every region possesses in different measure and quality is affirming from some years in Europe and recently in Italy. The conservation of high geologic interest sites is useful to guarantee that the future generations could continue to know and appraise directly the effect of the Earth geologic evolution. Therefore such aspect must consider the necessity to protect the geological heritage, that in some cases results strongly exposed to deterioration risk, and the opportunity to make it usable to the public. In fact, in Italy and Europe, several geosites of remarkable geological and environmental interest had degraded by mining activity, road layouts, urbanizations and other anthropic interventions. The management and conservative aspect makes necessary to protect the geosites, that could be incluted and/or integrated in protected areas, as that of the Pollino National Park (southern Italy), or become protect sites, evaluating contemporarily the protection modality. The Mt. Pollino, wild calcareous relief, heart of the National Park, offers to the naturalist and excursionist some rocky landscapes among the most spectacular of the Southern Italy, resulting in the morphostructural evolution of the Calabrian-Lucanian Apennine chain. For example it may reference to the great calcareous complex that culminates in the peak of Timpa S. Lorenzo, like morphological unity not much frequent in the Apennine landscapes and, however, such to characterizing all the eastern border of the observed area. It is a truncated monocline on the back front from a series of NW-SE vertical faults that have originated steep slopes with a gradient of about 600 m. A part of the Park very important is identified with the heart of the Pollino, circumscribed area from the peak of Serra del Prete, Mt. Pollino, Serra Dolcedorme, Serra delle Ciavole, Serra di Crispo, where the typical element is not structural, but is the modelling linked to the glaciations wurmian activity and karst erosion. The presence of the glacial Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
90 68 M. LAZZARI residues (circus, cavity, moraines) of the Pollino planes assumes an exceptional value of geotipia, because the glacial forms of the Southern Apennine are much rare and would be enough to justify the necessity of maximum safeguard of this environment that goes considered as high naturalistic value heritage. Usually, in the geomorphic composition of the natural landscape, there are fundamental elements of first order (as that just remembered) and secondary elements, as the wide conoids that get off from the western slope of the calcareous-dolomitic complex, defining wide surfaces originated for the intense Pleistocene river erosion cycles that have carried in the underlying plains, probably center of a lake basin, a considerable amount of calcareous and calcareous-dolomitic clasts. Other important element in the morphological landscape is represented from the notable extension of the Triassic dolomites, that have a important hydrogeological role and are interested from intense phenomena of superficial erosion, locate in prevalence on the milonitic level linked to the intense cataclasis sustained from these lithologies. Finally, another important morphological element of the Pollino area is represented by the high-altitude karst planes, a rarity in the Southern Apennines, improperly called high-altitude grasslands, that are extended among the 1500 and the 1900 m. The examination of the geobotanical and geomorphological components of the Pollino relief underline, besides, the narrow relationships existing, among the morphotypes and vegetation: both are the result of the selective and modelling action operated from the wurmian glaciations in the only morphotypical sector meaningful of the studied zone, because the region of the Pollino planes entertains a dense series of glacial accumulation of forms (moraines), rare in the extreme southern section of the calcareous Apennine.
91 Developing a Strategy for Coastal Landscape Conservation in Taiwan Jiun-Chuan LIN Department of Geography, National Taiwan University - Taiwan Coastal areas and their natural resources have a strategic role to play in meeting the needs and aspirations of current and future populations. The productivity of open coasts, coastal lagoons, tidal inlets, salt marshes and estuaries have an important part to play in food production, through the maintenance of fisheries and aquaculture, and in safeguarding nature and biodiversity. Coastal zones are plagued by increasing conflicts between users and institutional and policy problems. Since 1986, in accordance with the Cultural Heritage Preservation Law, the Council of Agriculture has designated 18 nature reserves covering 63,243 hectares amounting to 1.8% of Taiwan's total area. For the purposes of promoting public awareness and conservation education to motivate the public to protect these natural resources For this reason it makes sense for Governments to establish mechanisms to promote good practice and to ensure that the competing interests cooperate, understand each point of view and develop actions that do not cause difficulties for another group. This paper will illustrate the action being taken in Taiwan. The purpose is to suggest a possible approach to Coastal Zone Management in Taiwan. This application should also apply to many other places in Taiwan. Many of these ideals have a very wide application and would certainly suit the management of many coastal areas in Taiwan such as Yehliu. There are good parallels both with the concern of the Government for the environment, the available university staff and the proven involvement of the Taipei County Government. A proposal for Yehliu as a GEOPARK is also proposed by the Taipei County Government. Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
92 Marine/continental series in Grotta del Diavolo (Leuca, Apulia, Italy): a key for the reconstruction of coastal environmental changes during the Middle- Upper Pleistocene Giuseppe MASTRONUZZI 1, Yves QUINIF 2, Paolo SANSÒ 3 and Gianluca SELLERI 1 1 Dipartimento di Geologia e Geofisica, Università degli Studi di Bari 2 Centre d Etudes et de Recherches Appliquées au Karst, Service de Géologie Fondamentale et Appliquée, Faculté Polytechnique de Mons - Belgique 3 Osservatorio di Chimica, Fisica e Geologia ambientale, Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università degli Studi di Lecce Numerous sea caves open along the coast of Salento peninsula. They are carved in Upper Mesozoic or Oligocene limestones and contain more or less complex stratigraphic series made by marine and continental deposits. These series have been studied throughout the first half of the last century for the rich palaeontological and palethnological contents which characterize the continental levels. Notwithstanding, no detailed geomorphological and stratigraphical analyses have been carried out so far. Some indications of relative sea level changes are been drawn out but never supported by direct geomorphological evidences or absolue cronological attribution. The cave series start generally with very coarse beach deposits on a wave-cut platform often marked by the activity of boring bivalves. Upward, some generations of slope deposits interbedded with speleothemes and, in some cases, beach deposits can be found. New researches have been carrying on The Grotta del Diavolo, to define the stratigraphical sequences of cave fillings, obtaining a chronological control by means of U/Th determinations performed on speleothemes occurring at different levels. At Grotta del Diavolo, the stratigraphical sequence, mostly composed of slope deposits, is marked out by two distinct beach levels placed at about +3 and +5.5 m a. p.s.l. and by several speleothemes. The older beach level, the lower one, is characterised by a presence of big pebbles with Lithophaga covering the wave-cut platform which constitutes the cave floor; the pebbles are covered by medium-coarse sands. Those last ones are covered by a Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
93 G. MASTRONUZZI et alii 71 speleotheme; a U/Th age determination has been carried out on the lowest speleotheme; it yielded an age of Middle Pleistocene (about 340 ka). About two meters of continental breccia fallow in the upper part; some speleothemes marks biostatic period characterised by interruption of breccia development and by karst activity. At about 5.5 m a.p.s.l. a second beach level of medium-fine sands have been found. It is covered by another spheleoteme. The uppermost levels of local sequence are breccia deposits marked by continental mammalofauna referable to the last glacial period. Taking into account these first data, the detailed study of this sequence would allow the definition of coastal environmental changes occurred in Salento peninsula during the Middle-Upper Pleistocene and the comparison with its Holocene evolution.
94 Geomorphological sites in the Marche region area: examples from carbonatic ridges and Montefeltro sheet Olivia NESCI, Daniele SAVELLI, Antonio DILIGENTI and Diego MARINANGELI Istituto di Geologia dell Università degli Studi di Urbino Two geomorphological sites consisting of several meaningful landforms shaped in similar morphoclimatic conditions, but pertaining to quite different geological and structural contexts of the Marche region, are here proposed. Monte Nerone-Monte Catria ridge. It is one of the most characteristic examples of carbonatic anticline ridges of the Central Apennines. This morphostructure, cut by deep transverse gorges, has been shaped by different geomorphic processes, often with selective behaviours able to highlight both lithologic contrasts and structures features. The erosion of the anticline has been effective under Quaternary contrasting climatic conditions, and several important landforms in the modern ridge are relicts of past cold morphogenetic stages. Our work will take into account only a few of the many landforms of the ridge, namely landforms strictly related to the structure (e.g. flatirons), landforms produced by Pleistocene cryogenic and glacial processes and by karst processes, both modern and relict. Val Marecchia. The area is occupied by the Epiliguride succession resting above the Ligurid units of the allochthonous Val Marecchia sheet. The strong lithologic contrast between soft and hard rocks of different types, as well as the chaotic arrangement of the outcropping sediments are accountable for a very rough landscape characterised by steep spurs elevating on badlands and landslides. The significant selected landforms that will be presented include the carbonatic spur of San Leo, karst on messinian gypsum, and the historical landslide of Maiolo. Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
95 Submarine Geomorphosites in the Marine Parks of Sardinia Paolo ORRÙ 1, Valeria PANIZZA 2 and Antonio ULZEGA 1 1 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Cagliari 2 Laboratorio di Geografia, Università degli Studi di Sassari The National Marine Parks and the Marine Protected Areas of Sardinia have defined a system of submarine geomorphosites; similar elements cannot be found in other Mediterranean Marine Parks, where the biological themes are generally underlined. In this framework a valid example is given by the Marine Park of Ras Mohamed in the Red Sea (Egyptian Sinai), where submarine itineraries put in value the forms related to karstic processes that have acted on coral formations during the glacial-eustatic variations of the sea level. The mapping of the submarine forms starts with a geophysical study, side scan sonar, subbottom profiler and multibeam records, with following underwater geomorphologic surveys. Four geomorphosites are here presented: Parco Nazionale dell Arcipelago di La Maddalena, "Secca dei Monaci", a group of residual granite reliefs under the form of isolated tor on a sandy plain of the upper continental shelf. Area Marina Protetta of Capo Caccia-Punta Giglio, "Grotta dei Cervi", karstic cave with entrance at the basis of the cliff at -20 m, containing a bone breccia with Pleistocene deers and dogs. Area Marina Protetta of Tavolara-Capo Coda Cavallo, "Secca di Porto Istana", sandy-pebbly beach-rock at -23 m, ancient coastline of the Versilian transgression. Area Marina Protetta of Capo Carbonara, "Caduta dei Variglioni", fault wall in granite with tafoni and other sub aerial erosion forms. References Orrù P. and Pillai S., 1999 Carta Geomorfologica del settore marino costiero Capo Caccia Porto Conte Punta Giglio (Sardegna Nord- occidentale) 1: Ente Gestore - Area Marina Protetta di Capo Caccia Amm. Com. di Alghero Dip. Scienze della Terra Cagliari. Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
96 74 P. ORRU et alii Orrù P. and Ulzega A., Rilevamento geomorfologico costiero sottomarino applicato alla definizione delle risorse ambientali (Golfo di Orosei, Sardegna orientale). Mem. Soc. Geol. It., 37, Orrù P. and Ulzega A., Riserva marina di Tavolara - Capo Coda Cavallo. Carta Geomorfologica Marina e Continentale. 1: Ed. STEF Cagliari. Orrù P., Cocco A. and Panizza V., 1996 Rilevamento geomorfologico subacqueo del settore compreso tra Capo Boi e Punta Is Cappuccinus (Sardegna sudorientale). Mem. Descr. Carta Geologica d Italia, LII, 94, Orrù P., Pintus C. and Ulzega A., 1999 Carta Geomorfologica dei fondi marini (Parco Nazionale dell Arcipelago della Maddalena Sardegna Nord orientale) 1: Ministero dell Ambiente Istituto Centrale per la Ricerca Applicata al Mare Comando Generale delle Capitanerie di Porto Ente Parco. CIRCAM Cagliari.
97 Proposal for conservation and protection of the Quaternary coastal Geomorphological Sites in Western Salento (Southern Italy) Giovanni PALMENTOLA 1 and Maurizio LAZZARI 2 1 Università degli Studi di Bari - Dipartimento di Geologia e Geofisica 2 C.N.R.- Istituto Sperimentale per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali - Sezione di Studi Federiciani di Potenza The present work is inserted in a wider research project inherent the quaternary evolution of the Salento coasts. It is indicated a situation of the western Salento, along the Ionian border, particularly rich of characteristic quaternary coastal geomorphological emergencies. This sector has been studied from some years through a detail geomorphological and geological survey. In particular, the geomorphological analysis permitted to individualize some interesting geomorphological sites, that for their peculiarity are candidated to the role of referring geosites for the coastal geomorphological field. In particular, in this work it is proposed a thematic geomorphological itinerary along an edge of the coastal zone between the built-up area of Gallipoli and the breaking-mountain ( La montagna spaccata ). It is characterized from sandy dune belts outcropping in the hinterland of the bay to north of Gallipoli and from other shoreface small edges correlated to them, located long the cliff of the prominence of the breaking mountain, cut in the mesozoic limestones (Melissano Formation). The first holocenic dune belt, that testified last versilian regression and formed between 6500 and 5000 years B.P. (Dini et alii, 2000), is located at 2 m above s.l., semi-diagenetic and recognizable for the diffuse presence of pulmonate gastropods (Helix s.p.). Locally it covers the Calcarenites with Strombus bubonius Lamark and is covered and flanked from subactual dune line. A second more ancient dune line is present in the immediate hinterland at 8-10 m above s.l., and is laterally linked with a gravely and calcarenitic shoreface in erosive contact on the Mesozoic calcareous substratum. A third wider and well-preserved dune line, observable in correspondence of an open quarry and long a railway cutting, is located at 20 m above s.l. and is laterally correlated with a well-cemented calcarenite shoreface deposit, outcropping in correspondence of a road cutting to north of Gallipoli. The deposit is covered with a slope continental sediment, constituted of bedded Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
98 76 G. PALMENTOLA and M. LAZZARI calcareous breccias alternating with a dark-pink silty-sandy deposit. These shorefaces and the correlated dune lines are referred to the same number of Tyrrhenian sea level positions, marked also from evident and several Lithofaga holes indicating the more or less long stationary periods of the sea level. A fourth older dune line is located around 35 m above s.l. with edges degraded for erosive action and laterally linked with a diagenetic gravely and calcarenite shoreface deposit referring, for the altitude level to which is located, to an interval included between the post-sicilian ( Panchina Superiore del Salento Unit, sensu D Alessandro et alii, 2000) and the Tyrrhenian age. The itinerary ends to the top of a sea abrasion surface at 80 m above s.l. where is it possible observe small residual deposits of panchina, with macrofossil bivalves, referring to lower Pleistocene and generally to the Calcareniti del Salento Formation. The geomorphological sites described are important because conserve rare evidences of important geological events succession in a small area; today the sites are subjected to modifications and obliterations for the anthropic aggression, degraded and mining activity (active quarries in the sands of the line-dunes), road layouts, urbanizations and other anthropic interventions. Their inserting in a catalogue bound to Census and Valorization of the Italian Geotopes to submit to active protection would help the conservation and utilization for scientific and didactic aims.
99 Dendrogeomorphology: a 4D-analysis instrument for the valuing of the Geomorphosites in the Alpine environment Manuela PELFINI and Maurizio SANTILLI Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Milano Nowadays dendrogeomorphology is an instrument commonly used to date geomorphological events and to identify any possible cycles, return times and trends. Many geomorphological processes are connected to or depend on climate: climatic changes can therefore modify their intensity or replace a process with another one. This can cause the instability of the above-described system with a consequent modification of landforms or their burial due to drastic events (landslides, glacial advances, etc.). The forms of the landscape high up in the mountain constitute peculiar sites of geomorphological value, often changeable in time, to be enhanced and preserved. Glaciers, that just for their sensibility to the climatic changes modify their shape and dimension rapidly from a geological point of view, are a prize example. Establishing the value of geomorphosites in a hinge environment, as the Alpine one, is necessary but also complex. At this point dendrochronology could be of use allowing dating landforms hence quantifiable through the three geometric dimensions. Notably dendrogeomorphology allows the dating of a succession of events which may have occurred in a certain area (ex. avalanche cone, debris flow fan) damaging repeatedly the arboreal vegetation. The tree morphology itself allows identifying the processes responsible for the modifications of the tree habitus. Examples are given by spruce which in unfavourable climatic conditions assumes the krummholtz shape ( bush ), while today, due to the climatic warming, is taking an erected habitus, and by the candelabra, sabre or harp forms etc, which are the result of damages caused by avalanches; the dating of the events through the dating of scars and reaction wood allows to reconstruct the preferential paths, the event intensity, the modifications of the avalanche course, etc. Data collected can therefore be correlated with the thermo-pluviometric data in order to highlight the development of the phenomenon in the course of time. It follows that a geomorphosite, in this case an alpine alluvial fan with a particular value both from the landscape Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
100 78 M. PELFINI and M. SANTILLI and from the scientific point of view, can be observed also through the vegetation growing on it which, thanks to its morphologic characteristics, allows to deduce the modelling processes. An in process proposal for the valuing of the geomorphosite is the creation of a path broken down in several valleys allowing an integrated reading of the landscape, where the landforms that constitute some of the main geomorphosites are also enhanced by the tree morphology and the tree-ring sequences. Several fixed stops with possible panels can be associated with stem sections or reproductions showing the vegetational response to the climatic and environmental changes of the surroundings. The aim is not only to make people appreciate the geomorphosites, but also the processes responsible for its modelling, and the vegetation response to the same variables that can modify the site itself.
101 Glaciers, a changeable cultural property Manuela PELFINI and Claudio SMIRAGLIA Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Milano During the last years the definition of cultural property has overcome the traditional artistic or historical meaning to embrace also the natural one. Hence the "natural cultural" property is thought of as an element of the landscape or as a landscape in its complexity able to enrich our humanitas. Among the landscape features definable as "natural cultural property", or geomorphosites are surely among the most directly beneficial as well as being the most spectacular. The selection and hierarchical classification of this property are based on the well-known scientific, cultural, socioeconomic and scenic characteristics (Panizza, 1988; Panizza, 1992). Hence we intend to verify to what extent this approach is applicable (characteristics and relative valence) and the possibility of a particular morphological element, itself characterized by rapid changes, especially under the present climate - glaciers - of passing from the concept of "property" to the one of "resource". If we take into consideration only the alpine glaciers and start from their scientific characteristics and valence, we can see how all the theorization to value the geomorphological property of "glaciers" must be weighed up in a particular way (the inclusion of "glaciers" themselves in a strictly geomorphological environment and not in a hydrological one should also be discussed). With regard to the "model of geomorphological evolution" and the "educational exemplariness" it's clear that the conceptual reference must concern only the stage (rapidly evolving) at which the glacier is, also with relation to the geomorphological influence as it is clearly indicated in the classifications still used (valley, cirque, slope and gully glaciers, etc.) These two aspects could be summed up in the concept of "classicism", which is to say the correspondence of a natural element with a sometimes predetermined formal and geometrical canon ("this glacier is the classic example of a cirque system ), hence merge with the concept of "conservation state" of the element. "The paleomorphological evidence" aspect is instead very indirect and must be transformed into a "paleoclimatological" feature, while the "ecological valence" becomes extremely important (just think of the larches growing on the Miage glacier or of the ice worms). Another fundamental aspect, as in any type of hierarchy, is "rarity", obviously free from any consideration on the conservation state (the Calderone Glacier, the Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
102 80 M. PELFINI and C. SMIRAGLIA only glacier on the Apennines, should not arouse much interest in the Alpine chain, where it would be associated with hundreds of similar glaciers in the same evolutionary conditions). The attribute "cultural", contrary to what people may think, can come into prominence when value is given to the "glaciers" property; just think of the traces left by historical events, especially the recent ones (for example the first world war) well visible, particularly during this retreating phase on the surface of the Adamello and Marmolada glaciers, or on the pictorial representation dating back to the end of the seventeenth century on the Swiss glaciers or again on work by Ruskin or Tyndall. The attribute "socioeconomic" is often undervalued, too; the use of the traditional (irrigation, cooling) or the more modern (energetic and above all tourist) glacial mass, allows us without doubt to consider "glaciers" as a resource, too (for example, just think how the Stelvio glaciers have been used for summer skiing and the great dependence of this activity on the morphological conditions of the glacial surfaces). Finally the attribute "scenic" must be absolutely given to the geomorphological property of "glaciers". Since the end of the eighteenth century "panoramic points" have spread, from where people can admire the mountain landscape scenes, and where the glacier represents the most charming and attracting element (just think of the Gornergrat and of the glaciers of Monte Rosa, the Kleine Scheidegg and the glaciers of Jungfrau). Maybe this is the kind of attribute which is undergoing the most sensible variations during the present climatic phase, to stress the vulnerability of an element of the landscape which can be without doubt defined as a "cultural property" and a "site of geomorphological value".
103 Inventory of the geopaleontological heritage in protected areas of the Campania Apennines Daniela RUBERTI 1, Marco VIGLIOTTI 1, Giuseppe SIRNA 2 and Maurizio MUSELLI 1 1 Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli (Caserta) 2 Roma Geopaleontological sites from protected areas of the Campania Apennines have been recognized and listed. They have been selected in order to promote the geological knowledge not only among specialists. Studies have focused on sectors in which fossiliferous horizons occur rich in rudists. These organisms were widespread in shallow marine settings during the Cretaceous time and become extinct at the end of that period. A computerised database of the selected geopaleontological sites have been created on the base of the Italian Geological Survey indications. The inventory have been published in an interactive CD-ROM. Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
104 Marine and karstic landforms along the coast from Polignano a Mare to Monopoli (Apulia, Southern Italy) Gianluca SELLERI, Ilaria MARACCHIONE and Antonella MARSICO Dipartimento di Geologia e Geofisica, Università degli Studi di Bari The Apulia region is one of the Italian regions with the more coast length and it is characterized by a wide variety of coastal landscapes. Currently, in some places (Manfredonia Gulf, Taranto, Brindisi) the high environmental and naturalistic valence of this landscape is compromised by human activities. The coast between the cities of Polignano a Mare and Monopoli is an example of landscape with a high value with elevated degree of vulnerability related to the costal erosion risk; in this area a geomorphological survey has been carried out with the aim to make an inventory of the more important morphologic evidences. In the study area the mesozoic limestones of the Apula Platform outcrop and a transgressive Plio- Pleistocenic calcarenites deposit lays on it. The coasts are mostly low and rockies at the north of Polignano and with cliffs in the southern part. The cliffs are locally interrupted by pocket beaches with seasonal continuance and there are, on their foot, abrasion platforms which are placed between the medium level of high and low tide (wave cut). Two orders of notchs have been found, the first one at the mean sea level and the older, dated probably to the olocenic climatic optimum, at 3 meters above sea level. Along the coast are present many caves of variable dimensions which are originated by the effect of both karst process and sea action. The more famous are Rondinelle Cave, Colombi s Cave and Palezzese Cave. On the colluvial free surfaces many water pits are present; those of greater dimensions, that originate for the coalescence of smaller shapes, are locally called swimming pool. The inner feature of coastal zone is characterized by a series of shelves in a flight of steps which are shaped by the sea during the Upper Pleistocene; these shelves are cut by small straight river valleys originated by "sapping" phenomena. Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
105 G. SELLERI et alii 83 In the area between Torre Incine and the Scoglio dell Eremita rows of embricate blocks have been observed placed here from exceptional sea events. The research allowed to recognize traces of the main recent phases of landscape evolution caused by sea and subaerial erosion which took place in the central part of the Apulian region. In the studied coastal environment it is possible to point out the strait tie existing between the geologic and morphologic land features and the human activities. The ancient built up area of Polignano a Mare is placed sheer above the cliff which here reachs the maximum height. The village is crossed from a deep valley (Lama Monachile) which offers to the visitors the suggestion of an old and particular landscape. The cliff natural downfall phenomena and the progressive deepening of caves, at the foot of the cliff, assume a high value of risk related to the vulnerability of this landscape which has the higher urban development just in correspondence of the coast.
106 Geomorphological Sites in Albania and their geotourist values Afat SERJANI 1, Hamdi BESHKU 2 and Ndoc VUKSAJ 1 1 Geological Research Institute, Blloku Vasil Shanto, Tirana - Albania 2 Geological Survey of Albania, Rruga e Kavajes, Nr. 153, Tirana - Albania Due to its geological position Albania is a very rich country with natural wealths. As result of geological evolution of eastern Alpine Belt and neotectonic, erosional, glacial, karst processes in Albania there are formed a lot of different kinds of geomorphologic sites of geoscientific, didacticeducational, tourist and geotourist values. Albania is characterized by a typically alpine accidental mountain relief. The average altitude is 708 m., i.e., twice more than high average of European Continent. Some genetically types of relief such as: structural-erosional, karstic, river-erosional, erosional-denudated, glacial, and sea coast there are formed. Geomorphological development, various kinds of rocks, climate changes and continuous action of the atmospheric agents have influenced to the formation of different aesthetic kinds of landscapes. The very dense river net with a common tendency from east to west caused the formation of many erosional sites. The large surface of carbonate rocks of about 6600 km2 and evaporite ones favored formation of karstic plateaus and fields, holes, depressions, caves. Glacial events have their traces as well, especially on the surface of Albanian Alps, Korabi, Lura, Nemerçka mountains where are formed many glacial lakes, circuses, moraines, lagoons often with geomonumental values. Albania is characterized by beautiful natural landscapes of river beds, canyons, gorges and valleys such as: Kelcyra, Mezhgorani, Poçemi and Kremenara in Vjosa river, landscapes of Shkumbini, Devolli, Osumi, Mati and Drinos rivers, and picturesque complex of Buna and Drini rivers which can be watched from Rozafa Castle. The most important geotourist values of Albania there are linked with geomorphological sites associated by outstanding aesthetic natural landscapes, and in the most cases by cold water springs. In some cases as in Lura, Llogara, Thethi, Boga, Dardha, Valbona, Belshi they represent national or local forest parks and since the long time in the past there are used as tourist and recreative spots. The same we can say about Ohri, Shkodra, Prespa lakes and about some glacial picturesque landscapes of about 800- Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
107 A. SERJANI et alii m above the sea level. Amongst their geotourist values they are useful as climate-curative and sporting places. Special geotourist values possess Ksamili islands south of Saranda and Ionian Riviera, Vlora cold water spring and beach, Kelcyra gorge with Black Eye spring, cave and classical didactical Vjosa river terraces, Blue Eyes artesian spring-river and Bistrica lake, Divjaka-Karavasta and Lezha lagoons of special ecological importance, complex of Gurra canyons, waterfalls and erosion towers in Kurveleshi Highland, Gerdeci, Çorovoda, Benja, Klosi canyons, Shkopeti gorge, etc. As conclusion, Albania is one of the Mediterranean countries with a high potencial for development of tourist and geotourist industry.
108 A Geosites' network as a tool for the environmental management in the territory of Ostuni (Brindisi, South Italy) Donato SOLDANI 1, Oronzo SIMONE 2, Paolo SANSÒ 3 and Giuseppe MASTRONUZZI 2 1 Sigea Puglia, External Collaborator Dip. di Geologia e Geofisica, Università degli Studi di Bari 2 Dipartimento di Geologia e Geofisica, Università degli Studi di Bari 3 Dipartimento di Scienze dei Materiali, Università degli Studi di Lecce The outcrops and the forms of the landscape in the territory of Ostuni, near Brindisi in Apulia, constitute a key of reading of the active geologic processes in the whole Apulia region during the Upper Cretaceous, the middle-upper Pleistocene and the Holocene. Scientific studies carried out by different authors have underlined the geomorphologic, geologic and palaeontologic significance of this area, pointing in evidence the presence of numerous sites particularly helpful for the reconstruction of the physical landscape evolution. Six sites have been selected: four of them of prominent geologicstratigraphic interest concern the cretaceous succession; from them it is, moreover, possible to appreciate the geomorphologic characters of the south-western Murge escarpment and the seaward marine terraces succession. One of the selected sites has linear development along the lame (interpreted as sapping valley) and it has geomorphologic and palaeontologic relevance. The last one interests the whole bay of Torre Canne Torre St. Leonardo, the Holocene dune-belts and the swamp areas, and the Upper Pleistocene dune-belt. The distinctive elements of the breakthroughs and the geomorphologic features, as well as their extension and preservation, permit that such elements of the physical landscape can constitute scientific-didactic examples. The realization of geologic paths would allow a better perception of the geologic landscape from the community and it would allow to the popularization of topics related to Earth Sciences, highlighting the contribution of these disciplines in the use of the environmental heritage, as well in the correct management of territory. The restoration and protection of the sites would constitute an economic resource for this area, which have a deeply-rooted tourist and naturalistic bent, already famous for the Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
109 D. SOLDANI et alii 87 presence of important archaeological sites. The net of geosites represent, in such sense, an added value and it usefully contribute to the ecocompatible development of the territory, still more if integrated in the proposed project of the Parco Interprovinciale degli Ulivi.
110 Theoretical relationships between geomorphological tourist offer and anthropic impacts Nicolas SUMMERMATTER, Jean-Pierre PRALONG and Emmanuel REYNARD Institute of Geography, University of Lausanne Switzerland The relationships between geomorphology and tourism define three ways of researching. First of all, we can consider the impacts of geomorphological processes on the tourist and recreational activities. This field of survey implies the understanding of potential hazards and following risks that can concern a particular landscape with a certain value (scenic, scientific, cultural or economic). Secondly, it is possible to study the impacts of tourist activities and development on geomorphological processes, with special emphasis on soil erosion, slope instability or landform destruction. Finally, geomorphology can be considered as element of the tourist offer: on the one hand, valorisation of protected zones and didactic landscapes; on the other hand, landscape utilisation without care of its patrimonial value. Thus, in the field of geomorphological tourism, the variety of impacts on geomorphology and landscape will be understood through the diversity of the tourist offer (modality and degree) based on the use of landforms. Comprehension of the tourist offer is necessary for explaining environmental impacts, consecutive of tourist and economic development. Our reflection asks some (1) direct and (2) indirect questions: (1) Which impacts on landscape do tourist and recreational activities have? Does the primary offer of tourist activities create more impacts than the secondary offer? (2) Are there differences in the valorisation of geomorphological assets between soft and hard tourism, which may explain the variety of impacts on landforms? In each case, are the impacts always negative (in terms of degradation) for the geomorphological sites? To answer these questions, a theoretical framework involving all the components interested in the problematic (tourist offer, natural risks and anthropological impacts) is developed. Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
111 N. SUMMERMATTER et alii 89 Then, a conceptual model connecting tourist offer and impacts is proposed. The onset of this model is the existence of landforms, expression of the memory of Earth s history. By human considerations and perception, landforms are considered, or not considered, as geomorphological assets and become landscapes with a certain scientific, scenic, cultural or economic value. Landscapes exploited or not in different manners may be the basis for tourist project conception and realisation. These activities need exploitation and management strategies. Finally, tourist projects create or not geomorphological impacts or risks which can transform the original geomorphological sites. These anthropological events will be recorded as Earth history memory, as well. Thus, a method for studying the geomorphological impacts due to economic and tourist development is proposed. Two case studies in the areas of Sierre-Crans-Montana (Valais, Switzerland) and Chamonix-Mont- Blanc (Haute-Savoie, France) are presented as application examples. Finally, theoretical and practical proposals for mitigating the human impacts on morphology and increasing valorisation of geomorphological sites are proposed.
112 Geosites and geological mapping: a starting point to make geology popular for tourists Gianluca TOMMASI 1, Enrico CASOLARI 2 and Alberto CARTON 3 1 Servizio Geologico provincia Autonoma di Trento, Trento 2 Libero professionista Arco, Trento 3 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Pavia The Geological Survey of the Autonomous Province of Trento (Italy) is carrying out the survey of nine geological sheets of the new Geological map of Italy at the 1:50,000 scale (CARG Project). Some of these have already been completed, although the long and complex process which leads to the final publication of the sheets is still in progress. Nevertheless, the State s geological maps do not satisfy the multiple needs of the users, especially if they are to be used for other than scientific purposes. On the one hand the need for more detailed mapping is felt, in order to support the planning of civil works, interventions on the territory and risk analyses (for this purpose the Geological Survey of the Autonomous Province of Trento is publishing its own series of 1:25,000 scale geological maps furnished with explanatory notes); on the other hand there is a strong demand for translating the geological knowledge acquired through field survey into more explicit popular initiatives. These needs come from the education world, tourist operators and civic, cultural and trekking and climbing organisations (which would like to further develop mountain activities not only for competitive sport purposes but also for cultural and scientific ones). Indeed, tourism is eagerly looking for new initiatives in order to satisfy a demand which is no longer based on a single theme. In order to experiment popularising geology for tourists, a census of the sites of geological interest in the Brenta Dolomites has been started. This activity has been accompanied by the review and simplification of the CARG geological mapping and by the census of panoramic points and outcrops located along a well developed footpath network accompanied by a related photographic documentation. The database thus produced can be used for numerous possible products: - a set of geological itineraries, defined by selecting the most representative routes; Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
113 G. TOMMASI et alii 91 - a CD or a web site capable of identifying geosites on interactive maps as well as footpaths with panoramic views and refreshment sites, with relative information and pictures. It will therefore be possible to provide tourists with a tool for collecting the available geological information on any itinerary, making them capable of creating a sort of modulated guide on a particular selected route as they go along; - a geological-tourist map. This study, which is now in its final phase, has led to the implementation of a database for geosites, footpaths and panoramic points which in future could be applied also to other areas supported by good geological mapping. In the near future, the census of geosites will be extended to other areas of the Trento Province, allowing new initiatives of improvement, protection and conservation to be enterprised, together with a popularisation of the geological knowledge along itineraries which have been well run thanks to the consolidated tourist tradition of this region but which, up to now, have not been geologically emphasised.
114 Preliminary study on Geomorphological Sites: scenic components and scientific approach, the case of the National Park of Serra Geral (SC Brazil) Jairo VALDATI Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra - Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia Scholarship Capes Brasilia / Brasil When we refer to the plateau it does spring to mind the south brazilian scenary: nationally, the plateau are naturally cold, the fields and forest of the Araucaria (pines), apart from the Iguaçu cascades which are internationally famous. The morphological characteristics of the plateau, together with those of the climate of the region favour the development of the vegetation which have peculiar characteristics, for example, the Nebular forest, which is mainly on the borders of the plateau. For the preservation of the samples of the formation of the vegetation and species, rather than the geological and geomorphological aspects, a conservation party has been created. Among the national park studied are national park of Sao Joaquim, national park of Aparados da Serra and the national park of Serra Geral, the last one still in the process of formation. The national park of Aparados da Serra has been created in the 1959 with an area of ha, while the national park of Serra Geral was created in 1992 with an area of ha, both cover an area of ha which form a great part of the south of the state of Santa Catarina at the north east of the state of the Rio Grande do Sul, at the south of Brazil. The main reason for the creation of the national park of the Serra Geral was to expand the area for the preservation of the environment, mainly on the borders of the plateau formed of scarp and canyons which are part of the main scenic environment of the park. The scarps represent the borders of the east of the plateau in a vertical shape with an inclination of approximately 40 and an altitude of 300 to1000m, which constitute the formation of the geological surface of the Serra Geral. The denudation of these areas is a continuo process of this parts, which is favoured by the orographic rain of the major declines which causes landslides. Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
115 J. VALDATI 93 The studies done in these zones proved that they are important as a scientific component, in other words, they produce a didactic example of geomorphologic which is characteristic of the plateau of south Brazil, mainly for meteorological-climatic conditions which develops the geomorphological process.
117 Excursion Guide
119 The Mud Volcanoes of Salse di Nirano The mud volcanoes (aka macalubas ) of Salse di Nirano are the most important and best developed pseudo-volcanic phenomenon found not only in the territory of Modena but in the whole of Italy (Ferrari and Vianello, 1985). They are situated on the bottom of a wide, sub-circular depression covering a surface of about 10 ha where the Plio-Pleistocene Argille Grigio-azzurre Formation crops out at an altitude of 208 to 220 m a.s.l. Many mud erupting bodies of various size and shape are found in the area. The caldera-like shape of this small valley may result from progressive ground subsidence owing to the continuous depletion of mud which, once ejected, flows into an underlying stream. All this mud volcano field is extremely active and mud emissions are more or less intense according to seasonal water availability. The arrangement of the erupting bodies along two contiguous alignments points to the existence of a considerable joint and fault system in the area (Bonazzi and Tosatti, 1999). The Nirano mud volcanoes have always aroused great interest in travellers. They were first described by Pliny the Elder in his monumental work Naturalis Historia, written around 60 AD, but only in the late 19th century was their real nature recognised, thanks to the accurate observations of the famous naturalist abbot Antonio Stoppani (1876) who laid down a complete and scientifically correct description of the phenomenon. These mud emissions are in fact caused by the presence in the subsoil of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons which come to the surface through ground discontinuities, pushing up salty water and mud. At present, the Nirano mud volcanoes are found over a surface of about 55,000 m2. Following the introduction of strict protection norms, the geomorphological situation of these mud volcanoes is in constant evolution, since with the passing of time new vents open and form new mud cones or pools, whereas others cease their activity. The materials emitted by these vents are gases, liquids and solids. The gaseous phase, made up primarily of methane (87-96%) and secondarily of hydrogen sulphide, is the main conveyor of the liquid and solid components to the surface. The liquid phase is mainly constituted by superficial groundwater and vadose water, although deeper water is sometimes mixed with them. Occasionally the emission of water and fluid mud is accompanied by bituminous matter, clearly visible owing to the formation of concentric brown-blackish rings or iridescent films on the surface of the mud pools and craters. The solid phase is made up mainly of clayey materials Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
120 96 dragged upwards by gases and water through the Plio-Pleistocene argillaceous formation cropping out in the area. Variable amounts of mineral salts are found in the water, such as sodium and potassium chlorides, which appear as whitish and powdery very thin levels on the surface of the mud crust during the dry hot season. All the emission products of the mud volcanoes are definitely alkaline, with ph always exceeding 8.5. Various types of clay materials are pushed upwards by the gas; in some cases they are the final transformation product of other minerals, which have been subject to prolonged leaching action by the fluids characterising each mud volcano. The minerals identified by means of diffractometer analysis are: illite (53%), smectite (14%), interlaminated i/sm (14%), chlorite (11%), kaolinite (8%), whereas quartz and calcite are present in negligible amounts (Ferrari e Vianello, 1985). As previously stated, in the past few years measurements of helium and radon Rn-222 isotope, present in the emission gases, were carried out, in order to record possible correlations with local seismicity. In fact, according to old literature data (Pantanelli, 1895), the eruptive activity of the mud volcanoes of the northern Apennine margin seemed to be influenced by seismic tremors. Observations carried out since 1986 on the Nirano mud volcanoes, confirmed that the eruptive activity of these pseudo-volcanic bodies is actually influenced by the release of seismic energy from focuses located in the mid-apennine region. In particular, radon anomaly peaks were recorded almost systematically from some hours to some days before and after the main seismic shock in concomitance with medium-low intensity (3 to 4.5 magnitude) earthquakes (Gorgoni et al., 1988). The Nirano mud volcanoes are interesting also on account of the ecological changes induced by the deposition of sodium chloride. The herbaceous plants which colonise the clayey soil erupted by the mud cones are the best example of halophilous (i.e., salt lover ) vegetation in the province of Modena. A salt-rich environment can in fact produce changes and particular adaptations in plants, such as bluish colour, dwarfism and early fall of the leaves. All this can be observed in the Nirano valley, where the halophilous character of the soil is shown by the presence of a plant usually growing along the sea coasts: the graminaceous Puccinellia borreri, which here grows only in the areas most affected by the salty mud flows. Another fairly common halophyte is Atriplex hastatum (Bertolani Marchetti, 1953). The salt-rich environment decreases progressively away from the eruptive vents where water impoundments host a typical ditch reed of this area: Phragmites australis, together with the graminaceous plant Agropyron pungens (Ferrari and Speranza, 1976). Before the introduction of conservation norms, Man s interference in this area was very evident especially in constraining the natural diffusion of the
121 mud volcanoes. Indeed, for many years the mud cones were flattened in order to increase the surface available for farming. Furthermore, the most fluid mud was collected for therapeutic purposes (the nearby spa of Salvarola was supplied mainly with mud from these emissions). Finally, the area was also affected by the passage of numerous sheep and goat flocks which hindered the spontaneous growth of vegetation, especially in the midhigh sectors of the valley. The Region s decree which in 1982 instituted the Natural Reserve of the Salse di Nirano, clearly identifies the aims of this protected area, which are: 1) to safeguard and preserve the natural (geomorphological features, vegetation and wildlife) and environmental characteristics of the site; 2) to organise the territory for fruition with scientific, cultural, educational and recreational purposes; 3) to reconstruct the landscape unity of the whole area. The considerable reduction of anthropogenetic disturbances following the institution of the Reserve has allowed the increase of the eruptive phenomena which can now develop with no constraints. Even the environmental conditions of the surrounding areas are now upgraded, with a marked expansion of wild plants. In particular, the valley slopes which up to some 20 years ago were bare, with gully erosion and badland morphology, as witnessed by various photographs of the time, are now subject to the widespread growth of grass and shrubs, thus contributing to limit the intense erosion processes typical of this low-apennine belt, mainly made up of argillaceous formations. This fact, which is probably due to the abandonment of practices such as wood cutting and sheep farming, might demonstrate that the onset of badland morphology on these hills resulted not so much from climate changes but rather from deforestation and intense grazing. Giovanni TOSATTI 97 When Pliny the Elder described the eruption of a mud volcano in the district of Modena (was it one from Nirano? Or perhaps the extinct mud volcano near Sassuolo?) with the much exaggerated terms of crepitu maximo flamma fumoque perhaps he was already foretelling what was going to happen to him some years later. In fact, his scientific curiosity led him to observe from far too close a position, another much greater eruption, i.e. the famous Vesuvius eruption of 24 August 79 AD whose ashes eventually killed him. Also other scientists after him, especially in the 17 th and 19 th centuries, described the activity of the these mud volcanoes with the same fantastic
122 98 attributes of impressiveness and spectacularity. We don t know, though, if they ended up like Pliny. At the end of the 19 th century, also the abbot Antonio Stoppani described the Nirano mud volcanoes in his famous book Il Bel Paese, although in quite different terms: he compares them to molehills out of which noises similar to retching come out. Furthermore, he gives them the epithet of cesspool volcanoes Perhaps, knowing the story of Pliny, he wished to exorcise some sort of misfortune? But then he seemed to be looking for trouble when he threw into the crater of the mud volcano a sheet of paper on fire which, according to his description, produced crackling blazes! Mario PANIZZA
123 The Ophiolite of Pompeano The ophiolites of the Northern Apennines form isolated ridges, emerging from the surrounding landscape owing to selective erosion processes (morpho-selection), with more or less characteristic features (Bertacchini and Bonacini, 1993). These igneous rocks, which are associated with the argillaceous formations of the Ligurian Units (allochthonous), are fragments of the oceanic crust of the Tethys basin which was closed during the Alpine and Apennine orogenesis. The most spectacular outcrops are found in the Ligurian Apennines, whereas in the Modena district they are smaller, although frequent (Bertolani and Capedri, 1966). The Ophiolite of Pompeano, which is made up of dark green to blackish, massive or brecciated serpentinites, with clasts of different sizes deriving originally from tectonitic peridotites is located in the mid-valley of the River Rossenna, not far from the village of Serramazzoni. It stands out on the surrounding territory, which is mostly made up of clay shales (Basal Complexes), since it is less subject to the action of weathering and erosional agents. This ophiolite cliff has very steep slopes over 5 m high. On its top (596 m a.s.l.) the ruins of a castle from the 13 th century are still visible, although its state of conservation is rather poor. The underlying hamlet of Pompeano was partly built on the cropping out rock. A very interesting cave (the so-called Grotta Tassoni ) is present on the northern face of the outcrop; it probably originated along a tectonic discontinuity but was subsequently enlarged by slope movements. This cavity intercepts groundwater at the boundary between the ophiolite and the underlying clay shale, forming a small impoundment connected with a spring located just outside it (Capedri et al., 1999). A distinctly xerophilous botanical community is present on the area, with trees such as the Montpellier maple (Acer monspessulanum) and the laburnum (Laburnum anagyroides), and herbaceous plants such as Sedum maximum and Sempervivum tectorum. Cecilia GIUSTI, Mauro MARCHETTI and Giovanni TOSATTI The ophiolites, from the Greek ofis, snake and lithos, rock, rocks similar to snakes, or also green stones, are an association of intrusive and effusive igneous rocks (peridotites, serpentinites, gabbros, basalts and jaspers) which are found as fragments within sedimentary rocks. Typical of the Northern Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
124 100 Apennines, they represent remnants of the oceanic crust of the Tethys basin which in the Mesozoic separated the African plate from the European one. There are numerous specific features which have contributed in transforming the ophiolites into objects of fantasy and superstition: their dark colour, sharp outline, heavy specific weight, higher resistance to erosion than the surrounding rocks, scanty or lacking vegetation cover and their impossibility to be exploited as farming land. Therefore, the devil s stones have been used also as amulets against the hazard of lightening and snakes or for protecting new born babies. The Savignano Venus a famous archaic female statuette, ascribed to the last Palaeolithic phase, made of a serpentine rock common in the Modena district seems to be connected to ancient magical-religious functions. The economic exploitation of the ophiolites goes back to the mid- Palaeolithic, when jasper was used for making weapons and tools and is further developed in Roman times through the opening of iron mines in the upper Nure valley and the important centre of Ferriere (Province of Piacenza), where the extraction of ore continued until the First World War. The chromatic nuances of some of them such as the red of basalts, the green of serpentines and the varicoloured breccias have justified their use as ornamental elements. The stability and difficult accessibility of the ophiolitic ridges favoured the presence of human settlements and strongholds, as they could be easily defended. This can be deduced from some local placenames: petrum (Pietramogolana) or saxum (Sassomorello); rauca or roca (Roccaprebalza, Roccamurata); or, finally, castrum after castle or fort (Sasso di Castro). Similarly, also the geological features and the absence of vegetation are found in various placenames: Monte Nero, Pietranera, Sassomorello, Sasso Tignoso, Monti Pelati. Milena BERTACCHINI, Paola CORATZA and Sandra PIACENTE
125 Lavacchio In the 11 th century Lavacchio used to be the site of a castle, which was built on a Miocene sandstone ridge rising above the surrounding mild slopes. This building was part of a set of small feuds with their own castles and watch towers, some of which are still present in the territory of Pavullo. They all depended on the important Montecuccoli family, who was directly invested by the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. The Montecuccolo castle, some kilometres to the west, is an important testimony of those ancient times. Instead, the Lavacchio castle was destroyed in the 15 th century and nowadays only its tower has survived, which up to ten years ago was only an abandoned ruin. During the 1980s, the fantasy of some artists created a series of paintings, sculptures and mosaics on the walls of the village houses and on an embankment. These works of art fit very well in the surrounding landscape, with figurative superpositions and illusions of continuity, or with scenic contrapositions and unconventional contrasts. From this artistic initiative a new social community was born in Lavacchio where the restored tower and its murals have become a symbol of rebirth and a new reason for social aggregation between old mountaineers, who have come back to their village from distant emigration countries, and young people, attracted here by a new creative enthusiasm. The restoration of the Lavacchio tower, as we can admire it, was due to the commitment of this community. Mario PANIZZA Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
126 The Sassi di Roccamalatina The Sassi di Roccamalatina (Sassi = rocky cliffs) are a group of very steep sandstone pinnacles over 70 m high. They make up one of the most outstanding geomorphological sites of the whole Emilia-Romagna Apennines and give character to the landscape of the mid-valley of the River Panaro. These cliffs are in fact observable also from a considerable distance, from the valley floor up to the areas of Pavullo and Serramazzoni on the opposite slope. A typical panoramic view can be admired from the hamlet of Rocca di Sotto, situated quite close to these rocky outcrops. The Sassi di Roccamalatina have been modelled on a quartz-feldspar rich, fine to coarse-grained, grey sandstone which assumes a yellowish colour following weathering processes. From the formational viewpoint, these sandstone outcrops belong to the epi-ligurian Units (Middle Eocene-Lower Messinian) which are considered as the product of the syntectonic terrigenous sedimentation on the Ligurian accretion prism during its progressive tectonic drift towards north-east (Bettelli et al., 1987). In particular, the epi-ligurian Units are here represented by the sandstones of the Anconella member (Aquitanian) of the Antognola Formation (Upper Oligocene-Lower Burdigalian), which unconformably overlie the Ligurian Units and mark the onset of a sedimentation occurring in turbiditicemipelagic environmental conditions (Bettelli and Bonazzi, 1979). These steep pinnacles, forming scarps, bluffs and large boulders, are in sharp contrast with the surrounding mild slopes which are made up of argillaceous formations (Ligurian Units) widely affected by landslides (earth flows-earth slides) and gully erosion. The Sassi di Roccamalatina are the result of selective erosion processes which isolated the more competent sandstone layers from the surrounding weaker argillaceous and marly formations. The east-dipping sub-vertical attitude of the sandstone strata has deeply controlled their morphogenesis, giving origin to morphostructural landforms, which have been subsequently affected by intense chemical-physical weathering and erosion. Owing to the widespread presence of joints and other discontinuities, these pinnacles have also been subject to gravitational evolution, taking place mainly in the form of rock falls. As a result of their perviousness, these rocks have a high amount of percolation water, thus giving origin to springs and favouring a well developed vegetation cover. Furthermore, the different degree of cementation of the sandstone layers, accompanied sometimes by a varying particle-size texture, has caused the Geomorphological Sites: research, assessment and improvement- Workshop Proceedings, Modena (Italy), June 2002 Edited by P. CORATZA and M. MARCHETTI 2002 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
127 formation of small cavities which occasionally show alveolate patterns. Some of these little caves were certainly modified by Man who used them as shelters or store rooms. In particular, at the southernmost margin of these outcrops, at the foot of the highest peak (the so-called Sasso della Croce) two cavities are present: from the shape they look like karst forms, but their origin is certainly due to other causes, such as more intense erosion along weaker rock levels (Bertacchini et al., 1999). The Sassi di Roccamalatina are situated inside a Regional Park which covers a surface of over 1,000 hectares, mostly included within the municipal territory of Guiglia and, to a lesser extent, of Marano sul Panaro. This park was established in 1988 with the main purpose of protecting these outstanding landmarks and the surrounding natural and historical environment (Provincia di Modena, 1994; Various Authors, 1996). Indeed, the originality of this park is given not only by the presence of the Sassi and by the numerous associated micro-environments but also by the harmonious balance of woods and farmland, as well as architectural elements and past and present human activities linked to popular tradition. Attention should also be drawn to other relevant aspects of the park, such as: flora, fauna and historical and architectural sites, which all contribute to the great interest of this environment. As for wildlife, the element of paramount interest is given by the birds of prey, whose habitat is among the rocky pinnacles. Worthy of note is the presence of the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), practically extinct in other areas of the Apennines, and of other predators such as the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), the buzzard (Buteo buteo) and the sparrow hawk (Accipiter nisus). Among nocturnal predators, the tawny owl (Strix aluco) and the barn owl (Tyto alba) are found. The vegetation is typical of the mid-mountain area, with oak woods associated with particular microclimatic conditions. Many parts of these woods show the ecological characteristics of mesophyll vegetation, even if in some dry soils and slopes the xerophilous woods thrive. The most widespread trees found in the mesophyll woods are: the common oak (Quercus robur), the hophornbeam (Ostrya carpinifolia), the flowering ash (Fraxinus ornus) and the opalus maple (Acer opalus). Among the xerophyll shrubs associated with the pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens) numerous specimens of heather (Erica arborea), juniper (Juniperus communis), broom (Spartium junceum) and Medicago arborea are present. An important tree in the park is the European chestnut (Castanea sativa), with several specimens over one-hundred-years old: since remote times it has been cultivated as a food source. 103
128 Finally, important historical buildings are present in the park; among them, some famous tower-houses, which are a kind of fortified farmhouses, and the Romanesque church of Pieve di Trebbio should be mentioned (Schifani Corfini, 1992). Milena BERTACCHINI, Cecilia GIUSTI, Mauro MARCHETTI and Giovanni TOSATTI What are these rock steeples doing here, amidst the landslides and badlands of our Apennines? Which fancy orogeny decided to interrupt the mild monotony of these slopes so abruptly? Which peculiar allegories did they represent for the prehistoric inhabitants of this region? Which ancient legacies still condition the numerous anomalies found among these rock outcrops today? The etymology of the name poses disturbing questions: first of all, the name malatina, perhaps from male habitus, which from a late vulgar Latin term might mean having a wicked look. (This derivation is preferred to the more common one of male tinea = noxious harvest bug ). The travellers from the River Panaro valley floor clambering up towards the villages of Benedello or Pavullo, could see in the distance these enigmatic and unusual rock spires. Those who had the chance to go closer during the day were scared by the birds of prey, such as the peregrine falcon, which swooped down from here for their raids, whereas those that wandered around by night were frightened by the nocturnal birds and bats which silently flew through the darkness. And who knows how many other creatures used to hide in the various Holes found at the bottom of these steep rocks? Moreover, what sort of enchantment made the blueberry, the heather and the helichrysum grow together with the beech tree? An Etruscan votive bronze statuette, found nearby and now exhibited in the Archaeological Museum of Modena, was perhaps meant to exorcise these spells and fears. As a further protection from strange or evil influences, the romanesque church of Pieve di Trebbio was built nearby; its bygone authority and prestige are witnessed by the architectonic refinement of its decorations and archive records. The oddities of the site are not confined to the past, though. In modern time an eye-sore restaurant was built here, causing a striking impact on the natural and aesthetic beauty of the landscape. Ironically, this ugly building was given the name of "Faro" (the Lighthouse), perhaps to warn unlikely sailors of the danger of these frightening cliffs! Mario PANIZZA
129 105 References of the excursion guide Bertacchini M. and Bonacini P., 1993 Le Ofioliti dell Emilia-Romagna: aspetti geologici e storici. Atti Soc. Nat. Mat. di Modena, 124, Bertacchini M., Giusti C., Marchetti M., Pellegrini M. and Rossi A., 1999 I Sassi di Roccamalatina. In: Various Authors I Beni Geologici della Provincia di Modena, Artioli Ed., Modena, 24. Bertolani M. and Capedri S., 1966 Le ofioliti nelle province di Modena e Reggio Emilia. Atti Soc. Nat. Mat. di Modena, 97, Bertolani Marchetti D., Il popolamento vegetale nelle stazioni salse della Valle Padana. Webbia, 9(2), Bettelli G. and Bonazzi U., La geologia del territorio di Guiglia e Zocca (Appennino modenese). Mem. Sc. Geol., 32, Bettelli G., Bonazzi U., Fazzini P., Gasperi G., Gelmini R. and Panini F., Nota illustrativa alla carta geologica schematica dell Appennino modenese e delle aree limitrofe. Mem. Soc. Geol. It., 39, Bonazzi U. and Tosatti G., Le Salse di Nirano. In: Various Authors I Beni Geologici della Provincia di Modena, Artioli Ed., Modena, 40. Capedri S., Giusti C., Lugli S., Marchetti M. and Rossi A., 1999 L Ofiolite di Pompeano. In: Various Authors I Beni Geologici della Provincia di Modena, Artioli Ed., Modena, 109. Ferrari C. and Speranza M., La vegetazione delle Salse di Nirano (Appennino Emiliano) con carta della vegetazione 1:750. Notiz. Fitosociol., 12, Ferrari C. and Vianello G., Le Salse dell Emilia-Romagna. Regione Emilia-Romagna, Collana Assess. Ambiente, pp Gorgoni C., Bonori O., Lombardi S., Martinelli G. and Sighinolfi G.P., Radon and helium anomalies in mud volcanoes from the northern Apennines (Italy) - a tool for earthquake prediction. Geochemical Journal, 22, Pantanelli D., 1895 L Appennino modenese. Ed. Cappelli, pp. 35. Pliny the Elder, 60 AD - Historia Mundi Naturalis. Book II-85. Provincia di Modena, 1994 Piano Territoriale del Parco dei Sassi di Roccamalatina. Regione Emilia-Romagna, Bologna. Schifani Corfini E., 1992 Guiglia. In: L. Longagnani, A. Manicardi and E. Schifani Corfini (Eds.) Le Case le Pietre le Storie, Itinerari nei Comuni della Provincia di Modena, Grafiche Zanini, Anzola Emilia, Stoppani A., Il Bel Paese. Milano. Various Authors, 1996 Parco Regionale Sassi di Roccamalatina. Regione Emilia-Romagna, Giunti, Bologna.
131 List of participants
133 Monica AUTERI, Geologist Massimo BARBIERI, Dip. Scienze Terra, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italia Valentina BASSAN, Ufficio Difesa del Suolo, Provincia di Venezia, Italia Milena BERTACCHINI, Dip. Scienze Terra, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italia Monica BINI, Dip. Scienze Terra e Geologico-Ambientali, Università di Bologna, Italia Paolo BONI, Dip. Scienze Terra, Università di Pavia, Italia Lisa BORGATTI, Dip. Scienze Terra, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italia Gerardo BRANCUCCI, Dip. POLIS, Università di Genova, Italia Alberto CARTON, Dip. Scienze Terra, Università di Pavia, Italia Doriano CASTALDINI, Dip. Scienze Terra, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italia Paolo CIAVOLA, Dip. Scienze Terra, Università di Ferrara, Italia Paola CORATZA, Dip. Scienze Terra, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italia Alessandro CORSINI, Dip. Scienze Terra, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italia Alberto COSTAMAGNA, Dip. Scienze Terra, Università di Torino, Italia Stefano CRESTA, Agenzia Regionale Parchi del Lazio, Italia Carlo D'AGATA, Dip. Scienze Terra, Università di Milano, Italia Felice DI GREGORIO, Dip. Scienze Terra, Università di Cagliari, Italia Guglielmina DIOLAIUTI, Dip. Scienze Terra, Università di Milano, Italia FARABOLLINI, Dip. Scienze Terra, Università di Camerino, Italia Marco FIRPO, Dip. per lo studio del territorio e delle sue risorse, Università di Genova, Italia Céline FUCHS, Institute of Geography, University of Lausanne, Switzerland
134 Alessandro GHINOI, Dip. Scienze Terra, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italia Marco GIARDINO, Dip. Scienze Terra, Università di Torino, Italia Cecilia GIUSTI, Dip. Scienze Terra, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italia Lucilia GREGORI, Università di Perugia, Italia Mirko IOTTI, Naturalist Lamberto LAURETI, Dip. Scienze Terra, Università di Pavia, Italia Maurizio LAZZARI, CNR-IBA, Sezione Studi Federiciani di Potenza, Italia Jiun-Chuan LIN, Department of Geography, National Taiwan University, Taiwan Franco MANTOVANI, Dip. Scienze Terra, Università di Ferrara, Italia M. Ilaria MARACCHIONE, Dip. di Geologia e Geografia, Università di Bari, Italia Mauro MARCHETTI, Dip. Scienze Terra, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italia Antonella MARSICO, Dip. di Geologia e Geografia, Università di Bari, Italia Raniero MASSOLI-NOVELLI, SIGEA Società Italiana di Geologia Ambientale, Italia Francesca MAZZINO, Dip. POLIS, Università di Genova, Italia Laura MELELLI, Università di Perugia, Italia Olivia NESCI, Istituto di Geologia, Università di Urbino, Italia Josan NICOLAE, University of Oradea, Romania Guido PALIAGA, Dip. POLIS, Università di Genova, Italia Giovanni PALMENTOLA, Dip. di Geologia e Geografia, Università di Bari, Italia Mario PANIZZA, Dip. Scienze Terra, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italia
135 Valeria PANIZZA, Laboratorio di Geografia, Università di Sassari, Italia Manuela PELFINI, Dip. Scienze Terra, Università di Milano, Italia Luisa PELLEGRINI, Dip. Scienze Terra, Università di Pavia, Italia Maurizio PELLEGRINI, Dip. Scienze Terra, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italia Sandra PIACENTE, Dip. Scienze Terra, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italia Mauro PICCAZZO, Dip. per lo Studio del Territorio e delle sue Risorse, Università di Genova, Italia GianCarlo POLI Regione Emilia-Romagna, Italia Emmanuel REYNARD, Institute of Geography, University of Lausanne, Switzerland Daniela RUBERTI, Dip. Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Università di Napoli, Italia Daniele SAVELLI, Istituto di Geologia, Università di Urbino, Italia Gianni SCALELLA, Professional Geologist - Via Vezzelli, Montegiorgio (AP), Italia Gianluca SELLERI, Dip. di Geologia e Geografia, Università di Bari, Italia Roberto SEPPI, Museo Tridentino di Scienze Naturali, Italia Afat SERJANI, Geological Research Institute, Blloku Vasil Shanto, Tirana - Albania, Italia Enrique SERRANO CAÑADAS, Dep.Geografía Universidad de Valladolid, Spain Claudio SMIRAGLIA, Dip. Scienze della Terra, Università di Milano, Italia Mauro SOLDATI, Dip. Scienze della Terra, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italia Nistor STELIAN, University of Oradea, Romania
136 Nicolas SUMMERMATTER, Istitute of Geography, University of Lausanne, Switzerland ch Giovanni TOSATTI,, Dip. Scienze della Terra, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italia Pier Luigi VERCESI, Dip. Scienze della Terra, Università di Pavia, Italia MARCO VIGLIOTTI, Dip. Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Università di Napoli, Italia Ndoc VUKSAJ, Geological Research Institute, Blloku Vasil Shanto, Tirana, Albania Francesco Zarlenga, ENEA-Cr- Casaccia-CLIM, Roma, Italia
139 INVITED LECTURES Gerardo BRANCUCCI, Anna Elisa MANIGLIO CALCAGNO and Francesca MAZZINO The Geosites role in the landscape European convention... 1 Felice DI GREGORIO and Antonio ULZEGA The state of the knowledge in the conservation and the valorisation of Geomorphological Sites in Sardinia Mario PANIZZA and Sandra PIACENTE Geomorphosites: a bidge between scientific research, cultural integration and artistic suggestion Emmanuel REYNARD Institutional Resource Regime (IRR) - A tool for managing the protection and exploitation of Geomorphological Sites Enrique SERRANO CAÑADAS Geomorphology, natural heritage and protected areas: lines of research in Spain ABSTRACTS Marco AVANZINI, Alberto CARTON, Roberto SEPPI and Riccardo TOMASONI First census of geosites in the Province of Trento Milena BERTACCHINI, Paola CORATZA and Sandra PIACENTE An experimental data sheet for the inventory of Geomorphosites proposed by COFIN 2001 Research Group "Geosites in the Italian landscape: research, assessment and improvement". 36 Milena BERTACCHINI, Paola CORATZA and Sandra PIACENTE Cultural Landscape between Geology and Literature in the 20 th century:in Emilia-Romagna A poetical itinerary amidst the Geosites of Emilia Romagna.. 37 Monica BINI Antro del Corchia within an integrated naturalistic itinerary in the Apuan Alps.. 38 Paolo BONI, Alberto CARTON, Lamberto LAURETI, Luisa PELLEGRINI, Pieruigi VERCESI and Francesco ZUCCA Census of Geosites in Lombardy... 40
140 Gerardo BRANCUCCI and Myriam D'ANDREA National project: Protection of the Italian geological heritage - The testing card for the Geosites inventory 42 Lorenzo CARNEVALI and Olivia NESCI Marchean landscape: reading exercises Luigi CAROBENE, Marco FIRPO and Cristiano QUEIROLO Relics of low marine terraces along the Ligurian coast between Varazze and Cogoleto (Passeggiata Europa): a proposed Geosite Alberto CARTON, Paolo BONI, Luisa PELLEGRINI, Roberto SEPPI and Francesco ZUCCA A pre-geosite bibliography: a proposal for improvement 47 Doriano CASTALDINI, Paola CORATZA and Mirko IOTTI Inventory of the lakes of the high Emilia-Romagna Apennines (Northern Italy) 49 Paola CORATZA and Cecilia GIUSTI A method for the evaluation of impacts on scientific quality of Geomorphosites.. 51 Alberto COSTAMAGNA The inventory of Geomorphological Geosites in the framework of landscape management and tourist improvement 53 Jo DE WAELE, Felice DI GREGORIO, Roberto FOLLESA and Giuseppe PIRAS Geosites and landscape evolution of the Tacchi: an example from central-east Sardinia 55 Guglielmina DIOLAIUTI, Carlo D AGATA, Manuela PELFINI and Claudio SMIRAGLIA Geomorphosites in glacialized areas: routes in the upper Valtellina for the valuing of the high mountain environment 57 Piero FARABOLLINI, Marco MATERAZZI and Gianni SCALELLA Mud volcanoes in central-southern Marche (Italy): proposals for their bounding, enhancing, preservation and protection from extinction.. 59 Marco GIARDINO, Giovanni MORTARA and Gabriella DE RENZO Geosites in the Turin s Province (NW-Italy): scientific research and exploitation perspectives 61
141 Lucilla GREGORI, Laura MELELLI, Silvia RAPICETTA and Andrea TARAMELLI Principal Geomorphosites in Umbria Region. 63 Nicolae JOSAN, Dorina ILIEŞ and Stelian NISTOR Geomorphological sites in the mountain area of Bihor county (Romania). 64 Lamberto LAURETI The Geomorphological Sites of the Grigne Mountain (Lombardy) Maurizio LAZZARI Conservation and valorization of the geomorphologicalenvironmental heritage of the Pollino National Park (Southern Italy) Jiun-Chuan LIN Developing a Strategy for Coastal Landscape Conservation in Taiwan Giuseppe MASTRONUZZI, Yves QUINIF, Paolo SANSÒ and Gianluca SELLERI Marine/continental series in Grotta del Diavolo (Leuca, Apulia, Italy): a key for the reconstruction of coastal environmental changes during the Middle-Upper Pleistocene.. 70 Olivia NESCI, Daniele SAVELLI, Antonio DILIGENTI and Diego MARINANGELI Geomorphological sites in the Marche region area: examples from carbonatic ridges and Montefeltro sheet.. 72 Paolo ORRÙ, Valeria PANIZZA and Antonio ULZEGA Submarine Geomorphosites in the Marine Parks of Sardinia Giovanni PALMENTOLA and Maurizio LAZZARI Proposal for conservation and protection of the Quaternary coastal Geomorphological Sites in Western Salento (Southern Italy) Manuela PELFINI and Maurizio SANTILLI Dendrogeomorphology: a 4D-analysis instrument for the valuing of the Geomorphosites in the Alpine environment 77 Manuela PELFINI and Claudio SMIRAGLIA Glaciers, a changeable cultural property. 79
142 Daniela RUBERTI, Marco VIGLIOTTI, Giuseppe SIRNA and Maurizio MUSELLI Inventory of the geopaleontological heritage in protected areas of the Campania Apennines.. 81 Gianluca SELLERI, Ilaria MARACCHIONE and Antonella MARSICO Marine and karstic landforms along the coast from Polignano a Mare to Monopoli (Apulia, Southern Italy). 82 Afat SERJANI, Hamdi BESHKU and Ndoc VUKSAJ Geomorphological Sites in Albania and their geotourist values.. 84 Donato SOLDANI, Oronzo SIMONE, Paolo SANSÒ and Giuseppe MASTRONUZZI A Geosites' network as a tool for the environmental management in the territory of Ostuni (Brindisi, South Italy).. 86 Nicolas SUMMERMATTER, Jean-Pierre PRALONG and Emmanuel REYNARD Theoretical relationships between geomorphological tourist offer and anthropic impacts 88 Gianluca TOMMASI, Enrico CASOLARI and Alberto CARTON Geosites and geological mapping: a starting point to make geology popular for tourists. 90 Jairo VALDATI Preliminary study on Geomorphological Sites: scenic components and scientific approach, the case of the National Park of Serra Geral (SC Brazil).. 92 EXURSION GUIDE The Mud Volcanoes of Salse di Nirano 95 The Ophiolite of Pompeano Lavacchio The Sassi di Roccamalatina 102 References of the excursion guide. 105 LIST OF PARTECIPANTS.. 107
144 Printed in Italy by LEGOPRINT S.p.A. - Lavis (Tn) June 2002
148 I.A.G. International Association of Geomorphologists Associazione Italiana di Geografia Fisica e Geomorfologia Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia Comune di Modena Provincia di Modena Servizio Valorizzazione e Tutela del Paesaggio della Regione Emilia Romagna Regione Emilia Romagna Franco Cosimo Panini Editore Consorzio dei Lambruschi Modenesi Parmigiano Reggiano ISBN
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