THE NATIONAL BEE KEEPING TRAINING AND EXTENSION MANUAL

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1 THE REPUBLIC OF UGANDA Minisry of Educaion and Spors MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE, ANIMAL INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES THE NATIONAL BEE KEEPING TRAINING AND EXTENSION MANUAL FARM INCOME ENHANCEMENT AND FOREST CONSERVATION PROJECT APICULTURE PROMOTION SUB COMPONENT Funded by:the AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK AND GOVERNMENT OF UGANDA March 2012

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3 The Naional Bee Keeping Training and Exension Manual Funded by:- THE AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK AND GOVERNMENT OF UGANDA

4 Edied by: 1. Ms. Kangave Alice, 2. Mr. Buele Cosmas Alfred, 3. Mr. Onzoma Apollo, and 4. Mr. Kao Agapius ii Naional Bee keeping raining and exension manual, 2012

5 TABLE OF CONTENTS Ediors ii Table of Conens iii Lis of Figures iv Lis of ables v Foreword vi Acknowledgemens vii Lis of Acronyms viii Inroducion ix CHAPTER ONE: THE HONEYBEE AND ITS IMPORTANCE Module 1: Bee Biology and Behaviour Module 2: The Imporance of Beekeeping Module 3: Pollinaion CHAPTER TWO: MANAGEMENT OF THE HONEYBEE Module 4: Beekeeping Sysems Module 5: Beekeeping Equipmen Module 6: Making Beekeeping Equipmen Module 7: Apiary Managemen Module 8: The Floral Calendar and Beekeeping Module 9: Bee Sings and Managemen Module 10: Hive Inspecion Module 11: Populaing he Hive Module 12: Caching a Swarm Module 13: Transferring Bees Module 14: Dividing and Uniing Colonies Module 15: Feeding of Bees Module 16: Bee Pess, Predaors and Diseases Module 17: Making Bio-Pesicides CHAPTER THREE: HIVE PRODUCTS AND PROCESSING Module 18: Hive Producs Module 19: Qualiy Honey Harvesing Module 20: Processing Honey Module 21: Beeswax CHAPTER FOUR: EXPLANATION OF COMMON BEEKEEPING TERMS APPENDICES Appendix 1: Appendix 2: References: Naional Bee keeping raining and exension manual, 2012 iii

6 LIST OF FIGURES Fig. 1: The honeybee cases in a colony Fig. 2: Diagram of he lifecycle of he honey bee Fig. 3: Peanu-shaped queen cell Fig. 4: Queen cells Fig. 5: Pebbly exured drone cells Fig. 6: The worker bee visiing a flower, helping o pollinae he plan Fig. 7: Measuremens for woven baske hive Fig. 8: Woven baske hive Fig. 9: The log hive Fig. 10: Clay hives Fig. 11: Picure of Johnson hive Fig. 12: KTB hive showing how he comb aaches o he bar inside he hive Fig. 13: A op bar lifed from a KTB hive Fig. 14: A KTB hive being opened Fig. 15: Cacher box for a KTB hive Fig. 16: Langsroh hive showing he differen pars of he hive Fig. 17: Langsroh hive Fig. 18: Langsroh hive- brood chamber, empy frame, honey chamber, combed frame, queen excluder, cover Fig. 19: Cacher box for a Langsroh Fig. 20: Frame brick hive Fig. 21: Bee smokers Fig. 22: Bee sui Fig. 23: Sof laex gloves Fig. 24: Bee brushes Fig. 25: Hive openers Fig. 26: Knife Fig. 27: Airigh bucke (food grade) Fig. 28: Food grade drum Fig. 29: Honey Refracomeer Fig. 30 (a): Sraining cloh Fig. 30 (b): Sraining cloh ied around a bucke ready for sraining honey Fig. 31: Cenrifuge exracor Fig. 32: Honey seling ank Fig. 33: Honey press Fig. 34: Honey jars Fig. 35: Bee house Fig. 36: Dimensions for he body of a Kenyan Top Bar hive Fig. 37: Top bar measuremens Fig. 38: Langsroh hive dimensions Fig. 39: Solar wax exracor Fig. 40: Bee veil Fig. 41: Dimensions of bee veil Fig. 42: Bee veil pars Fig. 43: Bee veil plan Fig. 44: Overall plan Fig. 45: Measuremens of bee glove Fig. 46: Measuremens and making of a bee smoker iv Naional Bee keeping raining and exension manual, 2012

7 Fig. 47: Floral calendar Fig. 48: Comb Fig. 49: Caching a swarm Fig. 50: Transferring bees Fig. 51: Dividing a colony Fig. 52: Opening an old weak colony for uniing wih a swarm Fig. 53: The appearance of queen cells and queen cups Fig. 54: Farmers selling honey-wine a a show Fig. 55: Hoima Naural Honey on display Fig. 56: A pollen rap Fig. 57: Uncapping fork Fig. 58: Differen ypes of honey press and locally made boling conainers Fig. 59: A skech and picure of a honey cenrifuge exracor Fig. 60: Meling wax Fig. 61: Wax exracion using a sack and a drum Fig. 62: Wax exracion wih cloh and sicks Fig. 63: Skech of a solar wax exracor LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Lifespan of bees Table 2: An example of a hive/colony record shee Table 3: Visiors Book Table 4: Cash Book Table 5: Floral calendar Table 6: Forms of honey and how hey are made Naional Bee keeping raining and exension manual, 2012 v

8 FOREWORD I is everybody s concern o see ha he rural communiies generae susainable incomes as soon as possible. Livesock producion and markeing offers an opion. Ou of he various livesock enerprises, namely, poulry, fisheries, cale, piggery, ec beekeeping enerprise offers one of he bes opions for he rural communiies and commercial farmers because of is minimal requiremens for land, machinery and equipmen, labor and capial invesmen. In Uganda, honey producion poenial is enormous, esimaed a 500,000 meric ones per year. This poenial is no ye fully exploied. The basic knowledge and skills needed o exploi he honey producion poenial are lacking among he echnocras and farmers. Over he years, several sakeholders including Governmen Minisries, Deparmens and Agencies have been carrying ou raining of farmers in heir own ways wihou sandard guide and uniformiy. Some of he guides/manuals used by he sakeholders are subsandard. This pracice has for long undermined effors o increase producion and enforce compliance o sandards. This manual has herefore been developed o provide he basic sandards for raining beekeepers all over Uganda. I is my sincere hope ha rainers, exension workers, farmers and sudens will find his manual very valuable. Okaasai S. Opolo For: PERMANENT SECRETARY vi Naional Bee keeping raining and exension manual, 2012

9 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We are very much graeful o he African Developmen Bank (ADB) and Governmen of Uganda (GoU) for funding he FIEFOC Projec which has produced his very imporan Naional Beekeeping Training and Exension Manual. For sure his manual will guide eachers, rainers, sudens, farmers and beekeepers. We appreciae and acknowledge he following people who provided lieraure wihou which his manual would no have been produced:- Mr. Kao Agapius, Enomologis, Mukono, DLG; Mr. Ayo George, DEO, Lira DLG; Mr. Rubaihayo John, DEO, Kabarole DLG; Mr. Mugume Amos, DAO, Kabarole DLG; Mr. Bagonza Adolf, Kabarole Beekeepers Associaion, Kabarole Disric; Mr. Ayauhaire Asaph, Wes Honeys Uganda, Mbarara Disric; Mr. Kanyike Charles, DEO, Nakasongola DLG; Mr. Palanda Rober Obumai, Assisan Enomologis, Adjumani DLG; Mr. Ochoun Emirious, Privae Service Provider, Nebbi Disric; Mr. Lule Henry, DEO, Luwero DLG; Mr. Kefa John, Moyo Beekeepers Associaion, Moyo Disric; Mr. Amafua Morpha, Privae Service Provider, Yumbe Disric; Mr. Kawawa Rashid, DEO, Yumbe DLG; Mr. Cema Philliam, DEO, Arua DLG; Ms. Kesubi Nice Alex, BNU, Arua Disric; Babua Fred, Arua Moyo Nebbi Beekeepers Associaion, Arua Disric; Mr. Khauka Edmond, Beemaser, Mbale DLG; Mr. Ogwoli Geoffrey, DEO, Sironko DLG; Mr. Kisaali Bosco, Privae Service Provider, Sironko Disric; Nyangas Simon, Privae Service Provider, Kapchorwa Disric; Mr. Oluka Michael, DEO, Bukedea DLG; Mr. Esima Mike, Privae Service Provider, Soroi Disric; Mr. Kwikiriza Jibril, Ag. DEO, Masindi DLG; Mr. Mugisha Daudi, Assisan Enomologis, Hoima DLG; Mr. Kasangaki Parice, DEO, Kibaale DLG; Mr. Kasereka J. Muranga, Rwenzori Mounains Developmen Organizaion (REMODA), Kasese Disric; Mr. Besekya Hilary, Tropical Bee Care Cenre, Bushenyi Disric; Mr. Tumuhimbise Gordon, DEO, Bushenyi DLG; Mrs. Margare Rose Ogaba, Kigum Women Beekeepers Associaion (KWOBA); Kaddu John (2012) Bee keeping equipmen manufacurer and rainer Kampala, Uganda. Thanks o all he people who paricipaed acively in consrucive discussions during workshops organized, bu no menioned here. Las bu no leas, grea hanks o Mrs. Kangave Alice, Principal Enomologis Producive Insecs/Manager Apiculure Promoion Sub Componen of FIEFOC Projec, DLH&E, MAAIF Hqrs; Mr. Buele Cosmas Alfred, Senior Enomologis Apiculure, DLH&E, MAAIF Hqrs; and Mr. Onzoma Apollo, Senior Training Officer, HRD, MAAIF Hqrs for having compiled he lieraure and views provided, and ediing. Dr. Nicholas Kaua COMMISSIONER, LIVESTOCK HEALTH AND ENTOMOLOGY Naional Bee keeping raining and exension manual, 2012 vii

10 Lis of Acronyms ADB - African Developmen Bank BNU - Bee Naural Uganda Ld BQV - Black Queen Virus disease DAO - Disric Agriculural Officer DEO - Disric Enomology Officer DLG - Disric Local Governmen DLH&E - Deparmen of Livesock Healh and Enomology FIEFOC - Farm Income Enhancemen and Fores Conservaion Projec FIG - Figure GoU - Governmen of Uganda HIV/AIDS - Human Immune Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Hqrs - Headquarers HRD - Human Resource Deparmen Hrs - Hours KBA - Kabarole Beekeeper s Associaion KTB - Kenya Top Bar beehives KWOBA - Kigum Women Beekeepers Associaion MAAIF - Minisry of Agriculure, Animal Indusry and Fisheries MBA - Moyo Beekeeper s Associaion NAC - Naional Apiculure Cenre NGO - Non-Governmenal Organizaion PE - Principal Enomologis PSP - Privae Service Provider REMODA - Rwenzori Mounains Developmen Organizaion SE - Senior Enomologis STO - Senior Training Officer TVs - Televisions viii Naional Bee keeping raining and exension manual, 2012

11 INTRODUCTION Over he years several privae service providers, NGOs, Projecs, Governmen agencies and deparmens have been carrying ou raining of farmers in beekeeping in heir own ways wihou uniformiy. In oher words here have been many differen raining manuals/guides being used by he differen sakeholders in he apiculure indusry, some of which are sub-sandard. This pracice has for long undermined effors o enforce compliance o code of pracice, sandard operaing procedures and qualiy sandards in apiculure indusry, hence he need for harmonizaion and uniformiy. The African Developmen Bank and he Governmen of Uganda hrough he Farm Income Enhancemen and Fores Conservaion (FIEFOC) Projec, under Apiculure Promoion sub-componen embarked on a series of inervenions which include among ohers, sandardizaion of he naional raining documen. The projec herefore provided funds o develop a naional beekeeping raining and exension manual as a sraegy o promoe compliance o sandards in beekeeping indusry in Uganda. The process of developing he naional bee keeping raining and exension manual had sages and sared in February 2009 wih field rips organized for collecion of lieraure from various regions and disrics (see appendix 1). This was followed wih a 2 day rerea, organized for seleced enomologiss and privae service providers a Ulrika Gues House, Kisubi, 7h - 8h May 2009 (see appendix 2). The aim of he rerea was o consolidae and analyse he lieraure colleced and come up wih sandard modular raining manual for use hroughou Uganda. The firs draf manual was produced and several consulaive workshops followed o finalize i. The manual is caegorized ino four(4) broad chapers, namely: (1) The Honeybee and is imporanc (2) Managemen of he Honeybee (3) Hive Producs and processing, and (4) Explanaion of common beekeeping erms. This Naional Beekeeping Training and Exension Manual have been developed o sreamline and harmonize he beekeeping raining and exension for he sakeholders involved in he Indusry. I will laer be ranslaed ino major languages of Uganda in order o promoe is usage and adopion. Naional Bee keeping raining and exension manual, 2012 ix

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13 CHAPTER ONE THE HONEY BEE AND ITS IMPORTANCE MODULE 1: BEE BIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOUR INTRODUCTION There are various ypes of bees which include he singless bees, soliary bees, honey bees. This manual focuses on honey bees. Honey Bees belong o he animal kingdom, Phylum Arhropoda, Order Hymenopera, class Inseca, Super family Apoidea, family Apidae, genus Apis. The genus Apis is divided ino several species and sub-species/ races bu he 5 main species are: Apis dorsaa (he gian honeybee), Apis laboriosa (he darker gian honeybee), Apis florea (he dwarf honeybee), Apis cerana and Apis mellifera. Research needs o be done o ascerain he major species available in Uganda. Honey bees are social insecs ha live in colonies of 10,000 o 60,000 bees. A colony consiss of a queen (ferile female), a few hundred drones (males) and housands of workers (serile females). They pollinae flowering plans and crops. They also produce honey, beeswax and oher bee producs of very high economic value. Learning objecives By he end of he session, paricipans will be able o:- 1) Idenify he differen cases of honey bee colony. 2) Sae he roles played by he differen cases in a honey bee colony. 3) Explain he life cycle of he differen bee cases. Targe Paricipans: Beekeepers, exension service providers, individuals and organizaions/insiuions. Suggesed Number of Paricipans: A maximum of 30 persons Duraion: 2 hours. Maerials Flip char and masking ape or chalkboard, marker pens or chalk, noebooks and pens, bees and/or picures of bees, TVs, Projecors, generaors, films abou bees and hand ous. Mehods Lecure Brainsorming Group discussion Field exercise o idenify he differen cases in a bee colony Seps: Sep 1 Wrie he ile Bee biology and behavior on he chalkboard or flip char Naional Bee keeping raining and exension manual,

14 Sep 2 Engage he paricipans o brainsorm on he meaning of bee biology and behavior. Sep 3 Explain bee biology and behavior o he paricipans Sep 4 Allocae he paricipans in 3 groups and assign hem he following asks: Group 1: Group 2: Group 3: Sep 5 Discuss he roles played by he differen cases in a bee colony Describe he life cycle of differen honey bee cases Discuss he behavior of he bee in differen seasons of he year In plenary, paricipans presen findings, he rainer clarifies, summarizes and gives ou he hand ous. HAND OUT: Bee Biology and Behaviour There are various ypes of bees which include he singless bees, soliary bees, honey bees. This manual focuses on honey bees. Honey Bees belong o he animal kingdom, Phylum Arhropoda, Order Hymenopera, class Inseca, Super family Apoidea, family Apidae, genus Apis. The genus Apis is divided ino several species and sub-species/ races bu he 5 main species are: Apis dorsaa (he gian honeybee), Apis laboriosa (he darker gian honeybee), Apis florea (he dwarf honeybee), Apis cerana and Apis mellifera. Research needs o be done o ascerain he major species available in Uganda. 1. Cases in a bee colony Honey Bees are social insecs ha live in colonies of abou 10,000 o 60,000 bees. A colony consiss of a queen (ferile female), a few hundred drones (males) and housands of workers (serile females). They pollinae flowering plans and crops. Bees: Fig.1: The honeybee cases in a colony Queen bee The Queen bee is a reproducive female. There is only one queen in he hive and her job is o lay eggs and produce queen subsance (pheromones). When a new queen sars life, she maes only once wih drones ouside he hive. A good queen lays beween 1,500-2,000 eggs per day bu afer wo years she lays fewer 2 Naional Bee keeping raining and exension manual, 2012

15 eggs. She lives for hree o five years. I is very difficul o find he queen bu she can be recognized by her long and slender body and shor wings. She is fed by he young workers and is bigger han he oher occupans due o massive feeding especially wih royal jelly. She has a sing ha is only used agains rival queens. Her pheromones or scens serve o conrol he oher bees and harmonize he colony s behaviour. The Queen bee can be marked on he dorsal surface of he abdomen for easy idenificaion and o avoid being crushed accidenally during hive manipulaions. Drones The Drones are males and are bigger han he workers. They develop from unferilized eggs and heir major ask is o mae wih he queen. They are singless, very large eyes which are used o spo he Queen during maing. Drones look large and square and make a loud buzzing noise when hey fly. Drones are dependen on he workers for food because heir proboscis is shor and canno collec food for hem. There can be abou 200 o 500 drones in a hive bu in ime of food shorage he workers chase he drones ou of he hive o die. Their lifespan is usually no more han 2 monhs. The Workers Mos of he bees in he hive are workers- hey are all serile females. The worker bees change asks according o age. Young worker bees clean he hive, feed boh young and he Queen and make he beeswax combs. They conrol he emperaure of he hive by flapping heir wings and also guard he hive. Older workers scou for food and collec he pollen, necar, waer and propolis. They have a sing plus special glands and organs o help hem o defend he colony agains enemies. The workers are also responsible for he honey formaion process. The lifespan of a worker bee is 7-8 weeks during he main flowering season when hey work hard. They can live longer during dorman periods. 2. Life cycle of a bee Each bee in he course of is life passes hrough 4 sage meamorphosis: Egg Larva Pupa Adul. During he developmen sages, he eggs, larvae and pupae are known as brood. Fig.2: Diagram of he life cycle of he honeybee The egg laid by he queen looks like a small grain of rice or hair ni. Wheher an egg will develop ino a queen, drone or worker depends on he ype of cell i is laid in (i is very imporan o learn he difference beween capped brood and capped honey capped brood is usually dark brown and capped honey is usually whie or creamy in colour). The egg develops ino larva, which looks like a whie maggo. All larvae are fed on royal jelly for he firs Naional Bee keeping raining and exension manual, 2012

16 hree days afer which larvae for workers and drones are fed on pollen (bee bread) and honey pu ino he cell by he nurse bees (younger worker bees). The queen feeds on royal jelly hroughou he life. Fig.3: Peanu-shaped queen cell Fig.4: Queen cells Fig.5: Pebbly exured drone cells The larvae are sealed wih a wax capping in he comb afer six days where hey urn ino pupae and laer emerge as adul bees as shown in he able below. Table 1: Life span of bees Case Egg Larvae Pupae Toal days Worker Queen Drone Communicaion in bees Bees communicae wih one anoher in a number of ways such as drumming fee, flapping wings like a dance and use of pheromones. The dance performed by he scou bees is one way he bees inform each oher of he locaion of food and how far away i is. There are several ypes of dances performed by he bees, bu he main ones are he round dance and he waggle dance. The round dance is performed by bees ha forage less han approximaely 100 meres from he hive. Waggle dance is performed o locae food source beyond 100 meres from he hive. The scou bees also perform a characerisic dance o locae he new found home o which bees inend o swarm. Naional Bee keeping raining and exension manual, 2012

17 The queen releases a subsance called a pheromone (someimes called queen subsance) which serves differen funcions. The pheromone enables her o idenify members of he colony, o inhibi ovary developmen in worker bees, o preven he workers from building queen cells, o help a swarm or colony o move as a cohesive uni, and o arac drones during maing flighs. The absence of he queen subsance (e.g. when he queen dies) produces opposie responses, i.e. worker bees begin o develop ovaries and o build queen cells, and a swarm searching for accommodaion will no cluser bu will divide ino smaller groups ha canno suppor he normal life of a bee colony. Colony decisions are aken by he collecive behaviour of bees wihin one colony sharing he same odour, allowing guard bees o deec inruders. MODULE 2: THE IMPORTANCE OF BEEKEEPING Inroducion Beekeeping is he science and ar of rearing bees. I is imporan o keep bees for he producion of honey, beeswax, propolis, pollen (bee bread), royal jelly and bee venom; for food, medicine and income. Beekeeping is also imporan for pollinaion and recreaional aciviies. Learning Objecives By he end of he session, paricipans will be able o:- 1. Undersand and appreciae he imporance of beekeeping in he sociey. 2. Describe he imporance of he various bee producs and services. Targe Paricipans: Beekeepers, exension service providers, individuals and organizaions / Insiuions Suggesed Number of Paricipans: A maximum of 30 persons Duraion: 2 hours. Maerials Flip char and masking ape or chalkboard, marker pens or chalk, noebooks and pens, bee producs and flowers and fruis/ heir picures, posers, TVs, Projecors, generaors, films abou bee producs and services, and hand ous. Mehods Lecures Brainsorming Group discussions Case sudies Seps: Sep 1 Wrie he ile THE IMPORTANCE OF BEEKEEPING on he chalkboard or flip char and inroduce i. Sep 2 Engage he paricipans o brainsorm on why i is imporan o keep bees. Naional Bee keeping raining and exension manual, 2012

18 Sep 3 Allocae he paricipans in 2 groups and assign hem he following asks:- Group 1: Discuss he imporance of beekeeping Group 2: Explain he imporance of each bee produc or service Sep 4 In plenary, paricipans presen findings, he rainer clarifies, summarizes and gives ou he hand ous. HAND OUT: The imporance of Beekeeping Beekeeping is he science and ar of keeping bees using bes pracices. Beekeeping is very imporan, for he producion of honey, beeswax, propolis, pollen (bee bread), royal jelly and bee venom; for food, medicine and income. Beekeeping is also imporan for pollinaion and recreaional aciviies. There are various reasons for keeping bees, namely:- 1. For culural purposes Honey is used for beverage brewing and occasionally served a imporan culural ceremonies such as weddings. I is also served o very imporan guess as sign of high regard. The Maji Maji rebellion used bees as a weapon o defend hemselves agains he colonialiss. Honey was used in Egyp as cosmeics and also for embalming he Egypians dead pharaohs. Honey was among he ihes and offerory given by he Jews o he Levies in heir culure. In some African culures honey is also used o pay dowry. 2. As source of food Honey is delicious and nuriious. I is an imporan food for many people in Uganda. I is consumed whole or mixed wih oher foods as supplemen. Among he Langi and Acholi, honey is mixed wih simsim and groundnu pase. Bee brood (larvae and pupae) have high nuriional value and are fed o malnourished children. Royal jelly and pollen are consumed for heir high proein value. 3. As source of medicine Bee producs such as bee venom, honey and propolis are used for reamen of many condiions following he anibioic naure of he producs. The condiions/diseases reaed using bee producs include somach upses, diarrhea, vomiing, wounds, burns, cough, measles, false eeh, oohaches and fungal infecions. I also helps o boos he immuniy of people living wih HIV/AIDS. 4. For income generaion The honeybee producs can be markeed locally or abroad o ge money, wih or wihou value addiion. Beekeeping indusry also provides incomes o various sakeholders in he value chain. These include bee farmers, arisans, pharmaceuical indusry, food, beverage indusry, honey dealers among ohers. 5. Pollinaion The honeybees provide pollinaion services, hereby playing a vial role in food producion and overall agriculural produciviy. Over 75% of all he crops in sub Saharan Africa benefi from pollinaion. Bees are considered he mos efficien pollinaors because hey have hairy bodies which easily pick up pollen grains as hey move abou in flowers. During a single day one bee may visi several hundred flowers. So bees are imporan o farmers. More bees means beer pollinaion and high yields. In oher counries pollinaion by bees is hired and feches addiional money o he beekeeper. 6. Conservaion of naural resources Beekeeping is a non desrucive aciviy ha could be employed in he conservaion of biodiversiy in proeced areas. Households living adjacen hese areas can suppor he conservaion effors of hese resources by esablishing apiaries wihin or a he boundary of hese proeced areas. Naional Bee keeping raining and exension manual, 2012

19 Farmers realizing ha vegeaion is a source of forage for bees will guard agains he desrucion and be encouraged o plan more plans for supplying pollen and necar. In he process many plans are conserved and proeced from desrucion. 7. Hobby Oher people keep bees as a hobby. 8. Api-Tourism and research Esablishmen of bee reserves for purposes of ouris aracion and research holds a big poenial for he fuure. 9. Apiherapy Bee producs are used in he reamen of many human ailmens. For example, bee venom is an imporan remedy for many ailmens such as Arhriis, Parkinson disease and oher diseases relaed o he nervous sysem. The venom can be obained hrough bee sings. 10. Beekeeping is a cheap underaking (i) (ii) (iii) Beekeeping does no involve mass feeding of bees because in mos cases he bees provide heir own food all year round. All he necessary inpus and echnologies required for beekeeping are available locally. Some may be wased if bees are no kep, e.g. pollen and necar from flowering plans. Honey and beeswax can be produced in semi-arid areas ha are unsuiable for any oher agriculural use. The beekeeper requires limied land o keep bees. MODULE 3: POLLINATION Inroducion Pollinaion is he ransfer of pollen grains from he anher o he sigma of he same flower or anoher flower of he same plan or anoher plan bu of he same species. In oher words, pollinaion is he mixing of he male and female pars of a flower. Pollinaion is a vial sep in he reproducion of flowering plans and is necessary for all seed and frui producion. Plans require pollen o be ransferred from one plan o anoher and many depend upon insecs o do his as hey forage. Bees play a vial role in food producion and overall agriculural produciviy, as pollinaors. Learning Objecives By he end of he session, paricipans will be able o:- 1. Define pollinaion 2. Undersand he imporance of pollinaion 3. Idenify and lis down bee forage plans in heir areas 4. Consruc a flowering calendar for heir local areas 5. Explain possible dangers o bees arising from spraying crops wih pesicides, during flowering sage. Targe Paricipans: Beekeepers, crop farmers, exension service providers, individuals and organizaions/insiuions Suggesed Number of Paricipans: A maximum of 30 persons Duraion: 2 hours. Naional Bee keeping raining and exension manual, 2012

20 Maerials Mehod STEPS Sep 1 Flip char and masking ape or chalkboard, marker pens or chalk, noebooks and pens, worker bee, flowers, picures, posers, video and hand ous. Lecures Brainsorming Group discussions Field exercise- observing bee forage plans and pollinaion Aciviy- flowering calendar Wrie he ile Pollinaion on he chalkboard or flip char and inroduce i. Sep 2 Engage he paricipans o brainsorm on why pollinaion is imporan. Sep 3 Allocae he paricipans in 2 groups and assign hem he following asks: Group 1: Group 2: Sep 4 Idenify and lis bee forage plans in heir areas. Explain he dangers of agriculural pesicide use on bees. In plenary, paricipans presen findings, he rainer clarifies and summarizes, gives ou he hand ous. Sep 5 Sep 6 Field exercise: walk wih he rainees around he local area o see how pollinaion akes place and o idenify bee forage plans in he area Consruc a flowering calendar for he local area HAND OUT: Pollinaion Plans require pollen o be ransferred from one plan o anoher o aid reproducion. This ransfer of pollen grains is called pollinaion. I can be ransfer from he anher o he sigma of he same flower or anoher flower of he same plan or anoher plan bu of he same species. In oher words, pollinaion is he mixing of he male and female pars of a flower. Pollinaion is herefore a vial sep in he reproducion of flowering plans and is necessary for all seed and frui producion. Over 75% of all he crops in sub Saharan Africa benefi from insec pollinaion. Oher agens of pollinaion are wind, animals, birds, waer, man and repiles Insecs including bees forage plans for food, hey visi many flowers a day in search of pollen and necar. Many flowering plans depend upon hese insecs for he pollen ransfer (pollinaion) as hey forage. Adequae insec pollinaion improves he qualiy of he crop; uneven, misshaped and small fruis are ofen indicaion ha pollinaion has been insufficien. Among he insecs, bees are considered he mos efficien pollinaors because hey have hairy bodies which easily pick up pollen grains as hey move abou in flowers. During a single day one bee may visi several hundred flowers. Furhermore, bees are consisen foragers and end o work one kind of flower a a ime. Naional Bee keeping raining and exension manual, 2012

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