KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA NATION RELIGION KING MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, YOUTH AND SPORT FLOOD ASSESSMENT REPORT ON IMPACTS AND DAMAGES ON EDUCATION SECTOR

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1 Final Draft KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA NATION RELIGION KING MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, YOUTH AND SPORT FLOOD ASSESSMENT REPORT ON IMPACTS AND DAMAGES ON EDUCATION SECTOR DECEMBER

2 Contents ****** FOREWORD*****... 3 ***** ACKNOWLEDGMENTS*****... 4 Introduction Methodology and Process Selected areas Objective of the study Methodology and process Assessment Results Vulnerable Schools Damages and losses to school, water supply and sanitation, and furniture Impact and Damage on study Materials Impact, damage and loss on the study quality and processes ANNEX

3 ****** FOREWORD***** 3

4 ***** ACKNOWLEDGMENTS***** 4

5 Introduction Since the early 2000s, Cambodia has been gradually threatened by many natural disasters including flood, storm, drought, and human and animal epidemics. Many main sectors were found the most vulnerable to damage and losses such as agriculture, health, infrastructure, water resource, education, tourism, and natural resource which they are all the potential mainstay to foster the economic growth (NCDM NAP, 2013). Eighty per cent of Cambodian people are living in rural area which their livings are dependent on the ascribed sectors (CSES, 2004). Education sector is one of the sectors harmfully affected by natural disaster such as flood, storm, and epidemic. In the last recent years, the disasters have caused the incredible damages and losses to education sector. For example, flood 2000 resulted in damages of at least 1,000 schools equal to 18% of the country-wide schools, and even 500,000 students were also impacted (ADPC, 2008). Flood and Typhoon Ketsana hit Cambodia in 2009 caused severe damage and loss to education sector, affecting 1,169 schools that required estimated budget for the school building repair and reconstruction needs, as well as for furniture and clean water system restore of USD 24,000,000 million (Cambodia PDNA, 2010). Flood 2011 affected 1,397 schools in 13 provinces, equal to 440, 000 students. Seven per cent of affected schools did not start new academic year on time against the national curriculum schedule. 1,280 schools in 18 provinces and municipalities were reported of damage and loss in flood 2013 (NCDM, 2013). To receive a detail information of impact, damage and loss on education sector by flood 2013, the technical working group on education of NGOs including United Nations International Children's Fund (UNICEF), Save the Children, Finn Church Aid, Plan International Cambodia, World Vision Cambodia, and Child Rights Foundation have set a joint initiative to support the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport to do an assessment on impacts, damage and loss in flood 2013 in schools located in 8 provinces like Kampong Thom, Banteay Meanchey, Prey Veng, Kampong Chhnang, Battambang, Kampong Cham, Kandal and Kratie provinces where are identified as the most affected areas. The results of the assessment will be fundamental information for MoEYS and stakeholders in order to have any intervention for recovery and reconstruction on schools building, equipment, furniture, materials to ensure the affected schools to resume normal studying and teaching after flood, especially for developing strategic plan, policies and setting up activity plans to undertake in relevant to disaster risk reduction on education for long term. 5

6 1- Methodology and Process 2.1- Selected areas The assessment was undertaken along the 134 affected schools including 113 primary schools, 17 lower secondary schools, and 4 upper secondary schools in 8 provinces such as Kampong Thom, Banteay Meanchey, Prey Veng, Kampong Chhnang, Battambang, Kampong Cham, Kandal and Kratie provinces (NCDM, 2013). The assessment was done to study on: (1)- School infrastructure and building integrity, furniture, and clean water system (2)- Learning Materials and documents (3)- Learning and teaching process and its quality 2.2- Objective of the study The purpose of the assessment is to study on the impact and damage of the 03 stated points above caused by flood in Based on the assessment, framework for repair and reconstruction is made in order to enable the learning and teaching activity to re-proceed normally as it was. In addition, the assessment will provide essentially primary information to Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport (MoEYS) to set up long-term strategic plan, policy and activity plan on disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation Methodology and process The assessment was led by MoEYS with technical working group from five educational departments including construction, planning, curriculum development, primary education, and department of general secondary education. The assessment was technically facilitated by Department of Curriculum Development in partnership with Save the Children, and national consultant to compile the assessment report with financial support from Finn Church Aid (FCA) and Save the Children. The assessment questionnaires were jointly developed by working group of MoEYS with technical assistances from UNICEF, Save the Children, Finn Church Aid, Plan International Cambodia, World Vision Cambodia, and Child Rights Foundation. It was designed to study on 03 areas including 1)-school infrastructure and building integrity, school furniture and clean water system, 2)- learning materials and documents, 3)-Learning and teaching process and its quality. The most severe flooded schools and areas by flood 2013 were identified as target sites for the assessment, and the selection of areas was even based on reports from NCDM, MoEYS and provincial department of education, youth and sport. 6

7 The working group was divided into eight teams that each team consists of different people from the five departments respectively, and one team was assigned to assess the damage and loss in one province. One summary report was asked from all the teams respectively. 2- Assessment Results 3.1- Vulnerable Schools (List of schools to be attachment 1) 3.2- Damages and losses to school, water supply and sanitation, and furniture Impact and Damage In the assessment, impacts and damages to school building, furniture and water supply system were identified as cracked walls, collapsed floor and building structure, broken door structure, garden, ladder and yard broke, and concrete yard around building collapsed. School building became too old to repair, table and chair for students and teacher broken and lost, water wells and water store basin, and latrine broken and unable to use. Some schools were partially affected on its buildings which are still able to use, numbering 65 buildings requiring the immediate repair on the buildings while 76 buildings were completely destroyed on the buildings which safety and availability to use are not ensured for students and teachers at all (see table 1). Buildings to repair and replace 7

8 All the damages were caused by strong flood current, and storm effects occurring in parallel, and even with poor quality of school structure and building integrity, and tree nearby falling over the school and buildings. Needs With impacts by flood 2013, based on the assessment, the number of school enrolment this year 2013 is decreased. Nonetheless, it was found that the affected schools are still facing shortages of classrooms because the buildings were affected and even acutely old and about to collapse so that students and teachers were informed not to study and teach in the buildings anymore. Based on the assessment reports in 134 schools of 8 provinces, there are 65 schools required to take rapid repair on the existing buildings for students to study in their new academic year 2013, while there are 76 Schools with buildings to have reconstruction works on it as they are raggedly old, not safe at all. To ensure short and long term safety to students and teachers, and even for their capacity resilient to any hazards in the future, requirements for repair and recovery are identified as below: 1- Repair and recovery for short term (0-6 months) Repair and recovery refers to the repair of any school building s parts which are affected by any disasters like flood and storm so far including repair on damaged walls, floor, door, window, building integrity, garden, school yard, roof, and concrete school yard around school building. There are 65 buildings required to repair that were estimated in the amount of US$ 519,

9 Repair and recovery refers to repair of school furniture that the estimated cost for the repair amounts to USD 84,678; clean water wells cost amounts to USD 52,400 and the latrines cost amounts to USD 119,900. 9

10 2- Reconstruction (1-2 years) Reconstruction refers to replacement of school buildings which are considered as old structure not-repairable and not safe for teaching and studying. The number of buildings that will need replacement for the studied 134 flood affected schools is 76 buildings with the estimated cost of USD 5,542,

11 Table 1: Impact and damage, and repair and reconstruction needs Type of school Number Buildi ng Repair Cost (USD) Reconstruction Build ing Cost (USD) Furnitur e (USD) Wells (USD) Latrines (USD) Primary , ,949,360 69,918 48,700 96,000 Lower Secondary Upper Secondary , ,000 10,830 3,600 11, , ,000 3, ,200 Total , ,542,360 84,678 52, ,900 Grand-total USD 6,318,800 Source: MoEYS s TTM, Impact and Damage on study Materials Impact and Damage Damage and loss on materials and equipment refers to complete damage and loss of existing materials in school by flood which were severely flooded, and wet unable for use anymore. The flood-damaged materials are all subject textbooks, and at all levels of grade book. The materials were kept in school class or library. Therefore, when the buildings were flooded, the materials were not brought out before flood comes due to lack of transportation means, no place to keep them temporarily. When the water ebbed, the materials were found completely wet and rotten unable for any use at all. As a result of this, both the students, teachers and educational staffs are insufficient of the materials to study and teach. Needs Damage and loss to education materials are found as a big challenge that requires much attention to deal with it as soon as possible because it will affect learning and teaching quality. Based on the assessment, framework for repair and reconstruction is identified as below: 11

12 1- Recovery and Repair for short term (0-6 months) Provide all kinds of damaged and lost books to affected schools. The number of damaged books is 26,692 books with the estimated cost for buying the materials is USD 33, Provide educational equipment most relevant which cost is estimated at USD 5, Recovery and Repair for long term (1-2 years) Repair or reconstruct flood-affected buildings to keep all education materials and equipment to ensure that they will be safe no loss and at minor impact in the event of future floods or storms or other natural disasters. Produce and continue supporting the necessary equipment and materials to students and teachers. Total cost: USD 10,000. Table 2: Damage and loss on education materials by flood 2013 No. Types of book Primary Number Cost ($) Lower Secondary 12 Upper Secondary Number Cost ($) Number Cost ($) Total cost ($) 1 Sciences ,028 2 Social Studies ,557 3 Drawing Book ,916

13 4 Reading Book ,227 5 Mathematics ,768 6 Khmer language ,197 7 Geography History Moral Civic Home Economic Physics Chemistry Biology Earth and Environmental studies Economic សរ ប Source: MoEYS s TTM, Impact, damage and loss on the study quality and processes Impact and damage This section is to show about the overview of impacts on studying and teaching process in severely flooded school in The overview includes loss of study hour in flood season, school door closed, safety for students and teachers, studying and teaching process in flood season, and school drop-out of poor family s children. The assessment reported that disruptions by flood and storm always happen to schools where are located along the flooded areas. It was informed by school director and education staffs that generally 2 weeks to 1 month period flooding always happen to schools where locate in flooding areas. In some schools, loss of studying/teaching hours is always between 1-2 weeks long, equal to 5% of total national curriculum hour for preschool and secondary school, and 4% for primary school. This case was often found in schools located in areas where is affected by flash floods (mountain floods) such as 13

14 Battambang, Banteay Meanchey and Kampong Thom provinces. Some other schools were flooded for 2 weeks to 1 months which those schools are located in the areas where are affected by Mekong and Tonle Sap rivers (river floods) including Kratie, Kampong Cham, Kandal, Prey Veng and Kampong Chhnang provinces. Therefore, loss of studying hour is estimated at 10% of total national curriculum hour for pre-school and secondary school, and 8% for primary school during the flooding season. The loss of curriculum hour was resulted from closing schools that were flooded, and not being safe for students and teachers. Some cases were due to the worry about safety during travelling by boat back and forth of the schools. National Curriculum Hours impacted by floods Based on the assessment, it was told that among the 134 schools studied there were 74 schools developing disaster preparedness plan while other 60 schools did not. The reason of this was not mentioned in the assessment. Moreover, the assessment found that 125 of 134 schools students were equipped with knowledge on disaster risk reduction on some hazards like flood, storm, thunder, mine and epidemics. They were taught and oriented in the classrooms, at national anthem, in the community by using relevant materials and means like posters, leaflets, books, cultural performance, campaign, bulletins installed in schools and community they live. 9 schools were not. In the assessment, temporary learning sites were also said. Temporary learning sites (TLS) in the assessed schools were organized generally due to many challenges including resource shortages like materials, finance, and location for the TLS. The establishment 14

15 during flood requires much amount of materials and budget and safe places. These essential needs are considered as high requirements to ensure the students sustainable learning and knowledge development even if it is in flood period (INEE, 2010). The assessment reported that only 13 schools organized TLS equal to 34 sites with 2,258 students attended the class while the TLS in other 121 schools were not set up. The assessment informed that students and teachers safety during travelling back and forth between schools and home are considered low. They are highly vulnerable. This case was found for those schools locating in areas where are affected by Mekong and Tonle Sap rivers flood and its tributaries like Kratie, Kampong Cham, Kandal, Prey Veng and Kampong Chhnang provinces. During flood, students and teachers travel by boat in group to and fro of school and their home by even not using self-safeguard things like life jacket, life buoy, plastic container, and even with over-loaded boat. School dropout due to their family poverty was reported not so many students in some schools. This case happens to students whose family was poor before the flood impacts. Therefore, when floods came, their family burden became double. The school dropout is categorized into 2. First, it s short term dropout, and then they are back to school. Second, it is long term dropout that they have to follow their parents to leave out the village to hunt for profit anywhere outside far from the village. Exact number of this was not reported in the assessment. Needs The very often and serious occurrences of hazards in the present and future is saw as worried challenges to develop some sectors like education, agriculture, health, infrastructure, water resource, tourism, and natural resource (NCDM, NAP 2013). To reduce and ensure education sector quality at maximum, the following suitable frameworks should be considered. 1- Recovery and repair for short term (0-6 months) Schedule and timetable for academic vacation, new enrolment, openning new academic year, final lower secondary and upper secondary exams should be flexible and/or reviewed. The following graphic is a subject to seek for recommendations and approval from senior management line of Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport. Encourage and provide supports to teachers and students to use flood selfprevention items like life jacket, life buoy, plastic container, rain coat, and safe boat for travelling to schools. Total cost: USD 200,

16 Install early warning system on any hazards especially flood and storm in schools where is most vulnerable to any disaster hazards. Support the vulnerable schools to develop disaster risk reduction plan, and emergency preparedness and response plan on flood and storms. Total cost: USD 650, Recovery and repair for long term (1-2 years) Provide capacity building to students and education staffs on disaster risk reduction and emergency response to the schools where are vulnerable to flood, storm, drought, thunder ). Total cost: USD 800,000. Support the vulnerable schools to flood to construct temporary learning sites for students to study during flood season, or provide them safe transportation means to travel to and fro the school. Estimated cost: USD 1,000,000. Table 3: Recovery needs for education sector No. Activities Short term (0-6 months) Long term (1-2 years) (USD) (USD) 1 Repair and reconstruct buildings 519,462 5,542,360 2 Furniture (table and chairs) 84,678 3 Repair wells 52,400 4 Repair latrine 119,900 5 Buy materials and textbook 38, ,000 6 Buy use flood self-prevention items for students and teachers 200,000 7 Develop school DRR Plans 650,000 8 Capacity building to students and teachers 800,000 16

17 9 Construct temporary learning site 1,000,000 Total 1,665, ,352, Resource: MoEYS s TTM,

18 ANNEX 18

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