1 Training Module for Practitioners: Sub-module 1: Fundamentals of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation Topic 1.3: DRR and CCA
2 Colophon CATALYST Online Training Module for Practitioners These teaching materials are part of the CATALYST Training Module on Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation Title Authors in alphabetical order Sub module 1: The Fundamentals of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation Topic 1.3: Disaster Risk Management and Climate Change Adaptation Fons Jaspers Learning objective To develop an understanding of the link between DRM, DRR and CCA and their respective additional value in mainstreaming CCA and the role the practitioner at intermediate level can play to close the gap between modelers, policy and communities on CCA. With funding from The European Union s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/ ) under grant agreement no (CATALYST). Materials adapted from When using these materials, include the following citation: Where specified, slides have been adapted from IPCC (2012), Hellmuth et al. 2011, Mitchel and van Aalst (2008), TorqAid & FDC (2011). Basic material is from ADPC, Integrating Disaster Risk Management into Climate Change Adaptation. Jaspers, A.M.J., (2013) Introduction to Climate Change Adaptation CATALYST Online Training Module for Practitioners. Version 2.0.
3 Topic 1.3 DRR and CCA Objectives topic 1.3 DRR and CCA: understanding the link between Disaster Risk Management (DRM), Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) and their respective additional value; understanding of the role the practitioner at intermediate level can play to close the gap between modellers, policy and communities on CCA; Linkages: This topic 1.3 DRR for CCA builds on the topic 1.1 on Disaster Risk Reduction and topic 1.2 on Climate Change Adaptation
4 Managing risks of extreme events Climate change influences variability in weather and extreme climate events When a climate event strikes a community, the likelihood of a disaster depends on its exposure and vulnerability. Development includes a potential for adaptation, for risk management and for mitigation of climate change. Sub-module 1; Topic 3: DRR and CCA Source: IPCC SREX (2012))
5 Risk Management Cycle The management of risk can be seen as a boundless loop involving several overlapping and closely integrated phases: Prevention, Protection and Review are more continuous activities with focus on DRR/ CCA study, pilots, policy and investments. Figure: Schematic representation of the risk management cycle (from J.Mysiak, FEEM) Preparedness, Response and Recovery are closer related to disaster events with focus on the disaster management part of DRM
6 Integration CC information in DRR cycle Results of climate studies (grey cycle) support policy decisions (white cycle) which are specific for the steps in the outer blue DRR cycle. Specialized information from science, policy and the field require interaction, communication, regulations and finances at all levels. A review is considered in each cycle. (source figure: Hellmuth et al. 2011)
7 Climate risk and adaptation in DRR Topic 1: Sub-Topic 2: Climate Change Adaptation
8 The practitioner works... For communities, (sub) national agencies and...ngo s On development, DRR, CCA and managing remainding risks Together with DRR and CCA focal points of departments, communities at-risk, civil society organisations, research, private business and media. By using appropriate current and future risk information as well as local information Adapted from : ADPC To affect changes in: knowledge, behaviour and technical capacity, political commitment, policies, programs and budget, institutional arrangements, management tools and systems Sub-module 1; Topic 3: DRR and CCA
9 Practitioners potential for mainstreaming CCA Source: IPCC (2012).
10 Opportunities for CCA practitioners Adapated from: ADPC At strategic level between community and (inter)national organisations with an holistic view on development. Relevant experience and skills towards climate risks, measures and spatial planning, community organisation and understanding of policies and strategies. Communities are already used to disaster preparedness and may already experience climate change
11 Barriers for CCA practitioner Adapted from : ADPC Priorities of the community are mainly short term and development oriented. Understanding of climate change-related information needs local translation and training. Information needed to feed Climate Change modelling requires specific training and funding. CCA and DRR still seem operating parallel but separate institutions and their budgets at district level are not necessarily in line with community priorities
12 Practitioners influence on CCA policymaking How can the practitioner operate effectively in CCA? New climate change policy promotes CCA as an integral part of DRR and vice versa Policy goals, objectives and measures are evidence-based and risk-sensitive In the implementation of strategies and frameworks in to action, the CCA and DRR policy objectives can be recognized Evaluation and feedback maintain their policy relevance in spite a constantly changing risk situation Derived from: ADPC
13 Practitioners contrubution to CC adaptation strategy 1 How the practitioner can contribute? Derived from ADPC Sector vulnerability studies include impacts of extreme events: interpret future climate projections in terms of possible consequences, help stakeholders to identify and prioritize risks in present and future using participatory risk assessment Disaster risk issues are addressed in adaptation objectives : assist by considering objectives with short- and longterm actions and guide deliberations to set acceptable levels of risks
14 Practitioners contribution to CC adaptation strategy 2 How the practitioner can contribute? Disaster risk is appropriately considered throughout adaptation strategy development : participate in workshops or meetings and help to identify and develop: impacts, adaptation needs and priorities, suitable measures, sufficient resources and track risk components in overall achievements. Continuous changing risk situation is ensured in evaluation and feedback : Participation in consultation workshops for review of needs, priorities and resources and check on DRR criteria track mechanism. Derived from: ADPC
15 Continuing Project spiral Figure: Project Management Cycle proposed by TorqAid & FDC (2011)
16 Practitioners contribution to the adaptation project cycle 1 Adapted from : ADPC How can practitioners achieve the following project outcomes? Projects addressing local vulnerabilities and risk management are among the adaptation goals : help obtain disaster risk information and the interpretation of risk relevant considerations Uncertainties due to climate change and extreme climate events are considered in appraisal and formulation of projects : help develop site-specific hazard and vulnerability considerations for impact study and adaptation needs
17 Practitioners contribution to the adaptation project cycle 2 How can practitioners achieve the following project outcomes? A project focal team or focal point to identify, assess and monitor the implementation is installed so that relevant disaster risk information enters into regular base-line scans : guide processes towards a community-based organisation on a continual basis In an evaluation the adaptation option demonstrates the relevance and importance of managing climate-related disaster risk : participate in evaluation processes and focus attention on effectiveness of measures on risk and the actual application of DRR measures Adapted from: ADPC. 2013
18 Exercise: climate proofing Climate proofing means taking actions to protect systems or investments against climate impacts (Parry, 2007). The objective of this exercise is to understand the role practitioners play in climate proofing by linking science-based and communitybased information against a historical perspective. The assignment : make a plan of activities for assessing future risk and relevant adaptation measurs for a community you know? An example of such an exercise in rural communities in Rajasthan, India is given in the following slides.
19 Example: climate proofing 1 A field survey was set-up in the Udaipur district, Rajasthan, India, to assess the possible influence climate change could have on the sustainable development of local communities. Practitioners from a local NGO Sevamandir obtained access to local climate data over the last 33 years and were provided with downscaled climate projections for the area until For a selected number of villages two visits were programmed for an intensive exchange of information and to generate ideas towards a climate adaptation plan specific for the local situation.
20 Example: Climate proofing 2 During 1 st team visit effects, trends and impacts of climate change on all aspects of community life were discussed. Drought hazard was identified as main thread: temperature rise, more annual variation and irregularity in the rainfall were the main effects of climate change. Based on that the community members prepared an excursion for the 2 nd visit at hotspots in their area and formulated feasible adaptation measures.
21 Example: Climate proofing 3 The team meanwhile consulted district agencies and available data checking local experiences with climate data to reduce uncertainties. During the 2 nd visit the consequences of future climates were visualized and compared with actual practices.
22 Example: Climate proofing 4 Possible scenarios were discussed in groups to formulate desirable adaptive measures for integration in their annual programs: 1. store available water in retention basins and groundwater; 2. use more local crop varieties and a wider selection seeds; 3. use more organic manure to improve water retention; 4. cattle in stables to protect environment and 5. introduce new crops for the market. Main barrier was that the core labor force leaves the area temporarily to earn additional income, leaving children and elderly people behind.
23 Discussion Questions Why it is important to integrate climate change adaptation with disaster risk management? Why is the practitioner operating at intermediate level- essential as focus point for CCA? Which issues the practitioner needs to pay attention to for effective integration of CCA at both the community and the sub-national level?
24 References ADPC, Integrating Disaster Risk Management into Climate Change Adaptation. Disaster Risk Management Practitioner s Handbook Series. Bangkok. Earl, S., Carden, F., & Smutylo, T. (2001). Outcome mapping: Building learning and reflection into development programs. Ottawa, ON, Canada: International Development Research Centre. Retrieved from FAO Drought impact mitigation and prevention in the Limpopo River Basin. Rome. Retrieve from: Hellmuth M.E., Mason S.J., Vaughan C., van Aalst M.K. and Choularton R. (eds) A Better Climate for Disaster Risk Management. International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI), Columbia University, New York, USA. [Online]. Retrieved from: International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation. Cambridge University Press. Jaspers, A., Maat H., Shah, R, Capacity building Climate proofing Udaipur, Alterra, Wageningen Mitchel, T and van Aalst Convergence of Climate Change reduction and Climate Change Adaptation. United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR), Hyogo UNISDR Framework for Action Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters. Geneva. TorqAid & FDC TorqAid Diagrammatic Framework for Disaster Risk Management. [Online] Retrieved from: UNISDR Global Assessment report on Disaster Risk Reduction, Geneva