# Design and Implementation of a 4-Bar linkage Gripper

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3 (a) (b) Figure 2.(a) Square FSR (b) Round FSR Figure 3. (a) Atmega 16 Xboard, (b) DC Motor, and (c) Worm gear and worm wheel An Atmega 16 Board manufactured by Extreme Electronics, Inc. is used to control the actuation required. Figure 3 shows the items used. The design of the gripper has been made taking into some restrictions as long fingers require high torque, and short fingers impose restrictions on object dimensions. Hence bars are selected as per suitable dimensions for the construction of the gripper. A deformable complaint rubber material is used at the face of the fingers that come in contact with the workpiece, so as to decrease the pressure to apply on the object, increase interface friction, and avoid deformation from the uneven application of force. The gripper designed does not fully encompass the object. Figure 4 is the photographic view of the 4-bar linkage gripper. Figure 4. 4-bar linkage gripper arrangement 2. Governing Equation The primary aim of the gripper mechanism is to convert input power into required motion and force to grasp and retain an object. Figure 5 represents the free body diagram of the proposed Four Bar Linkage Gripper from where Equation 1 has been deduced. 63 Page

4 T= (1) Figure 5. Free body diagram of the 4-bar linkage gripper Equation 1 can be regarded as the governing equation of the proposed robotic gripper. The key points regarding this equation is that in this equation, the weights of the various parts of the gripper are taken as negligible. However, only the weights of the moving parts of the gripper need to be taken into consideration. Weights of rigid parts do not affect the equation this equation will be applicable in both cases of Horizontal and vertical gripping of the object. For both cases, calculations are the same. In the experimental studies, horizontal gripping is used for gripping of the object. In both positions (Horizontal and vertical) of the gripper, the deformations (Bending and Elongation) of the links are taken to be negligible. Variables in this equation are m, T, θ & µ o µ -> The frictional coefficient between the gripping surface and the object, µ, can be calculated experimentally using Sine bar. o m -> The mass of the gripped object, m, can be obtained experimentally using Digital Balance. o θ -> Calculation of the angle, θ, can be done as follows, θ = sin -1 ((M+2L1-K)/2r) o T -> The torque required for gripping the object, can be calculated from the governing equation using formula, T = mg cosθ (L+L ) / (2μrL) IV. Force Sensor Calibration The experiment was set up as shown in Figure 6. Different weights are used for calibrating force sensor taking into consideration the maximum force that can be applied to the sensor as par its data sheet. The whole sensitive area should be subjected to the applied force. Both the square sensor and the circular sensor were calibrated for proper working. Figure 6.Arrangement of FSR Calibration circuit 64 Page

5 Figure 7. Circuit arrangement for FSR Calibration For converting force into voltage signal, the FSR device is tied to a resistor in a voltage divider configuration as shown in Figure 7. In the configuration shown, output voltage decreases with increasing force. Measuring resistor, R, is chosen to maximize the desired range of force sensitivity and to limit current. The output is described by Equation 2: Vo = Vcc (R / (R + FSR) (2) The interrelation between weight and voltage for both models of FSR is shown in Figure 8. Figure 8. Graph showing relation between mass of object and voltage Figure 9. Flow chart of the control system 65 Page

6 V. Robotic Gripper Control System To build the proposed controller system, one needs to get information about the system characteristics for use in experimental work. Hence, input/output variables of the system are measured and processed. The input variable to the system is the weight of the object which is used to calculate the required force to be applied on the object that is F app. The deformable compliant rubber material covering the contact area of the fingers is important to allow a wide range of force control for solid objects as well as decreasing the pressure on the object and increasing the friction. Hence, one needs to calibrate the variation of the applied force F app by the gripper finger at different input forces. After calibration of the force sensor, the input is fed to the controller system where it uses the data for further processing. The control system includes the FSR at the end of the robotic fingers and the control board. The FSR feeds the amount of force that is being applied to grip the object and also acts as a feed back system preventing excessive application of force. The Control system stops the actuation as soon as the required force to be given is reached and thereby prevents the object from getting deformed. VI. Experimental Analysis Experimental work was carried out to verify the performance of the gripper. Every part of the gripper was verified from design to manufacturing to control aspects. The mechanical system performance of the gripper was tested and required refinements were performed. Sensors were calibrated and their necessary drive circuits were built. Figure 9 shows the flow chart that describes the experimental strategy and proposed algorithm. VII. Conclusion In this paper, a robotic gripper design and its implementation for the purpose of grasping soft deformable objects is presented. The designed gripper has been found to be efficient. The advantage of using 4- bar linkage gripper is that a single motor is used for its actuation, and also its workspace requirement is less. A new control algorithm is proposed to adjust the motion of fingers of the gripper for grasping the object without the risk of crushing or dropping the object. The gripper is also programmed to determine slip of object by using slip sensors. The gripper designed is simple, economical, and able to handle a wide range of objects through easy control. References [1] D.T. Pham, and S.H. Yeo, Strategies for gripper design and selection in robotic assembly, International Journal of Production Research 29(2). 1991, [2] Y. Koren, U. Heisel, F. Jovane, T. Moriwaki, G. Protschow, G. Ulsoy, and H.V. Brussel, Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems, Annals of the CIRP, 48(2), 1999, [3] J. Butterfass, M. Grebenstein, H. Liu, and G. Hirzinger, DLR-Hand 11: next generation of a dexterous robot hand, Robotics and Automation 1, 2001, [4] J. Kerr, and B. Roth, Analysis of multi-fingered hands, The International Journal of Robotics Research, 4(4), 1986, [5] D.T. Pham, and E. Tacgin, An expert system for selection of robot grippers, Expert Systems with Applications, 5(3&4), 1992, Page

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