Room for wolf comeback in the Netherlands

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Room for wolf comeback in the Netherlands"

Transcription

1 Room for wolf comeback in the Netherlands A spatial analysis on the possibilities of settlement of wolves from European populations in the Netherlands G. Lelieveld 06 May 2012

2 Room for wolf comeback in the Netherlands A spatial analysis on the possibilities of settlement of wolves from European populations in the Netherlands Glenn Lelieveld 06 May 2012 Internship for MSc Ecology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam Supervised by Roeland Vermeulen (FREE Nature) and Alfred Wagtendonk (IVM, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam) Abstract Cumulative effects of climate change, pollution, over-harvesting, fragmentation, degradation and loss of habitat threaten biodiversity globally. In Europe, centuries long over-harvesting and persecution of large herbivores and carnivores resulted in local extinctions of large carnivores. At the end of the 20 th century, legal protection resulted in stabilization and even increase of the European wolf populations. Now, the public debate forms a challenge in the recovery of wolf (Canis lupus) populations on the mainland of Europe. In West European countries, it is unclear where wolves can live after centuries of man manipulating the natural environment. To facilitate nature managers and policy makers to prepare for avoiding conflicts, it is important to know where wolves will settle in the Netherlands and what routes wolves will take to the Netherlands. Based on presence of artificial surfaces, water bodies, human population density, road density and prey distribution and abundance, a habitat suitability model and a cost-distance analysis were done. Prey species were identified as all large ungulates occurring in the Netherlands: roe deer, red deer, fallow deer and wild boar. Although the Netherlands is a dense populated country with high road density, wolves will still be able to find areas with low human disturbance and prey, mostly in the northeast of the Netherlands. There is room for at least 14 wolf packs. Although the French wolf population is less isolated, wolves from France and Germany will most likely migrate to the Netherlands via north and south of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region. In a nearby area in the Netherlands a wolf was sighted in the summer of However, the large degree of plasticity that wolves show cannot be modelled. The areas where wolves can live according to this research should be seen as areas where wolves are most likely to settle first. To account for the left out parameters, the scenario is conservative. Therefore, the suitability for 14 wolf packs should be considered as an ecological minimum based on the parameters used in this study. In addition, when wolves settle in the Netherlands, the parameters of the habitat suitability analysis have to be refined.

3 Contents 1 Introduction Materials and methods Data collection Data quality Data preparation Data analysis Results Habitat suitability Migration routes Discussion Conclusion References Appendices... I Appendix I... I Appendix II... II Appendix III... III Appendix IV... IV Appendix V... V 3

4 1 Introduction Cumulative effects of climate change, pollution, over-harvesting, fragmentation, degradation and loss of habitat threaten biodiversity globally. (Pimm et al., 1995). In Europe, centuries-long over-harvesting and persecution of large herbivores and carnivores resulted in local, regional and global extinctions of large mammals, like auroch (Bos primigenius), tarpan (Equus ferus ferus), lynx (Lynx lynx), brown bear (Ursus arctos) and wolf (Canis lupus) (Berger et al., 2001; Szafer, 1968; Van Vuure, 2002; Vereshchagin and Baryshnikov, 1984). At the end of the 20 th century, legal protection and increasing ungulate populations resulted in stabilization and even increase of the European top predators (Franchimon et al., 2007; LCIE, 2004; Trouwborst, 2010). Especially relict wolf populations in the Italian Apennines and in Eastern Europe have increased in number and range rapidly (Breitenmoser, 1998). These populations are responsible for the return of wolves in the Alps, France and Germany (Randi, 2003). The German wolf population is estimated at 100 to 120 individuals in 2011 (KWL, 2012), the French wolf population is estimated at 180 to 200 individuals in 2009 (ONCFS, 2012). The wolves in the Alps are from the Italian, Balkan or the Carpathian wolf populations (NABU, 2012). The recolonizing wolves are juveniles of one or two years setting out to start new wolf packs in previously used or new patches (Huck et al., 2011). The choice for settling in new patches is classically determined by habitat quality and distance (Pulliam, 1988). This is also the case for wolves, but still some wolves migrate over large distances (Fabbri et al., 2007). In 2009, a one-year old radio-collared wolf named Alan dispersed 1500 kilometres from his home range near Nochten, Germany to Lithuania (Friedrich, 2010). In Scandinavia, large distance migrations of Russian wolves are held responsible for the survival of the population (Ellegren et al., 1996). Wolves use a wide range of habitats; low elevation forested areas with low levels of human interference are preferred (Fuller et al., 2003; Jedrzejewski et al., 2004; Kaartinen et al., 2005; Mladenoff et al., 2009; Wagner et al., 2012), although wolves do not avoid populated areas (Reinhardt and Kluth, 2007; Whittington et al., 2005). West-European wolf territories range from 100 to 300 square kilometre, averaging around 150 and 200 square kilometre (Jedrzejewski et al., 2007; Nowak et al., 2008). Wolf abundance and territory size are strongly influenced by prey availability (Jedrzejewski et al., 2002). Wolves in North American and tundra ecosystems have one or two prey species, in Europe wolves have multispecies prey communities, consisting of up to six species of ungulates (Fritts and Mech, 1981; Gasaway et al., 1992; Gasaway et al., 1983; Messier, 1991; Okarma, 1995). In the temperate and continental regions of Europe wolves specialize on one or two prey species, depending on the local circumstances such as densities of ungulate species (Barja, 2009; Jedrzejewski et al., 2000; Nowak et al., 2005; Nowak et al., 2011; Wagner et al., 2012). In forested areas, like the Bialowieza Primeval Forest, red deer are most abundant in wolf diet (Jedrzejewski et al., 2000), whereas in more open areas, roe deer were the most important food source (Barja, 2009; Nowak et al., 2005; Nowak et al., 2011; Wagner et al., 2012). Preference for a certain prey species influences the effects wolves have on ecosystems (Berger and Smith, 2005; Mech and Boitani, 2003; Paquet and Carbyn, 2003; Smith et al., 2003). Licht et al. (2010) summarized effects of wolves on ecosystems and society as: - limiting, and possibly regulating, the growth and abundance of prey populations; - removing weak, injured, or otherwise less-fit prey and alter sex and age ratios; - influencing prey behaviour, movement patterns, distribution, and habitat use; - creating a trophic cascade affecting the composition, structure, and functioning of plant communities, which in turn affects habitat availability for animals; - creating a trophic cascade affecting other biotic and abiotic resources, including water, soil, and geomorphology, which in turn affects habitat availability for other species; 4

5 - creating carrion that provides food for other species and cycles nutrients; - affecting the abundance, distribution, and behaviour of other animals through interspecific interactions; - increasing ecotourism and benefit local economies; - enhancing visitor experiences; - providing opportunities for scientific research. The impacts of above-mentioned effects can be large as wolves live more dense and are distributed more widespread than other large carnivores like lynx and brown bear (Herfindal et al., 2005; Mech and Tracy, 2004; Nowak et al., 2008; Stoen et al., 2006). In the wake of the recovery of wolves in Europe and North-America, this also leads to a rise in traditional conflicts between wolf and man, by loss of livestock and population decrease of game species (Baker et al., 2008; Enserink and Vogel, 2006; Mech, 1970; ONCFS, 2008; Reinhardt and Kluth, 2007). In some situations this led to culling of wolves to calm the public debate, despite legal protection (BBC, 2010; ONCFS, 2008). The most important motives to control large carnivore populations is fear (Linnell et al., 2002) and strong local socio-economic interests (Bjerke and Kaltenborn, 1999). In accordance with European legislation, national authorities use wolf management plans to avoid conflicts (NABU, 2012; ONCFS, 2008). The plans frequently include zoning strategies based on current and potential distribution of wolves. In the USA, Italy, Switzerland, Poland and Romania the potential distribution of wolves was modelled by use of habitat suitability models (Corsi et al., 1999; Glenz et al., 2001; Jedrzejewski et al., 2008; Jedrzejewski et al., 2004; Kaartinen et al., 2005; Maanen et al., 2006; Marucco et al., 2011; Massolo and Meriggi, 1998; Mladenoff et al., 1995; Mladenoff et al., 1999). These studies base the potential distribution of wolves on forest cover, road density, prey availability and human population density. As the niche breadth of wolves still is unknown, the parameters are determined on the present habitat use of wolves instead of its ecological potential (Mech, 1970; Pilot et al., 2010; Randi, 2011). Even as wolf populations are expanding in North America and Europe, present wolf distribution is still affected by historical persecution and long-term prey reduction (Fernandez and de Azua, 2010; Mladenoff et al., 2009; Mladenoff et al., 1999). Now wolves have been sighted several times in Belgium and the Netherlands (Maanen et al., 2006), there is debate whether these densely populated countries still have potential habitat for wolves. In this study, I examined which areas in the Netherlands are habitable for wolves considering human disturbance factors and prey abundance, and identified migration routes for wolves from West-European populations to the Netherlands considering human disturbance factors. The research questions in this study were: - What are ecologically suitable areas for wolves to live in the Netherlands? - Where are the ecologically suitable migration routes for wolves from West-European populations to the Netherlands? In this study, I defined ecological suitability as areas or routes that meet the prerequisites wolves need from their environment. This environment can be both natural and cultural, and is characterized by deleterious factors, such as presence of urban areas, water bodies, human population density and road density, and by beneficial factors, such as prey distribution and abundance. To answer the first research question I used a habitat suitability model with as parameters land use, human population density, road density and prey density. As ungulates are the most important prey species, I used prey densities of the four ungulates species occurring in the Netherlands; roe deer, red deer, fallow deer and wild boar. The second research question was answered by using a cost-distance analysis with the German and French populations as sources and the results of the first research question as the sink population. The parameters in the cost-distance analysis were land use, human population density and road density. Prey 5

6 availability was left out with the assumptions that wolves migrate primarily in areas that support at least a low density of prey and that wolves can effectively hunt prey in these areas. Both the habitat suitability model and the cost-distance analysis were executed in the geographical information system ArcGIS with the use of the Spatial Analyst package, both of ESRI. 6

7 2 Materials and methods 2.1 Data collection Data on spatial parameters contributing to dispersion and settlement of wolves were acquired via various organizations; see Table 1 for an overview on the sources and the characteristics of the used data. Table 1 Overview on the sources and characteristics of the used data Dataset Title Maker Year Acquired via Type Resolution Landuse (EU) CORINE 2006 European Environment Agency Raster 250 meter Landuse (NL) LGN4 Alterra (WUR) 2000 Institute for Environmental Studies of the VU, Amsterdam Raster 25 meter Human population Global Population Database LandScan 2009 Institute for Environmental Studies of the VU, Amsterdam Raster 30 arcsecond cell Road map (EU) Europe roads ESRI 2005 ESRI Data & Maps Polyline 1: Road map (NL) Topografische kaart Top10Vector Topografische Dienst Kadaster 2003 Institute for Environmental Studies of the VU, Amsterdam Polygon 1: Prey data (NL) Prey observations since 1905 Zoogdiervereniging 2011 Zoogdiervereniging Point 1000 meter Wolf data (DE) Aktuelle Rudelterritorien Wildbiologisches Büro LUPUS Document Wolf data (FR) Les données du Réseau Loup Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage 2011 Quoi de neuf? no 24 Document 2.2 Data quality All spatial data used in this study came from third parties. It was therefore essential to assess the quality of the data to generate trust worthy outcomes with the analyses. As most data originated from authorities and have been used for some time, the important data quality factors for this study were the completeness and temporal accuracy. The Dutch prey dataset of the Zoogdiervereniging had some shortcomings. It is mostly based on volunteers passing on sightings. This is very cost-friendly, but is not as complete as when professionals would assess the population size and ranges. The second best solution would be a dynamic model of all prey species for the Netherlands. Dekker et al. (2010) made a model for wild boar (see also Appendix I), but this is not yet done for the other prey species. To prevent a deviation in the estimation of wild ungulate numbers per area, the modelled range of the wild boar was not used. 2.3 Data preparation Prior to the spatial analysis calculations, the raw data was converted into two databases, one for each of the study areas, the Netherlands and West Europe. The databases contain the same general data, though in a different extent and resolution. All data was summarized in the attribute table of one layer per database Dataset the Netherlands The LGN4 land use dataset was converted into a polygon grid with a 1 by 1-kilometre cell size. This layer was supplemented with a sample of the LandScan global population dataset as the human population density variable. Road density was added after intersecting the roads with the above-mentioned grid and calculating the length of the road sections. 7

8 All prey species counts per point in the period between 2000 and 2010 were generalized into a biomass value per point. Biomass as a function of the weight of wild boars, roe deer, red deer and fallow deer in the Netherlands was calculated as: biomass = N wild boars * 80 + N roe deer * 25 + N red deer * N fallow deer * 77.5, with N as number of individuals per point (Jedrzejewski et al., 2008; McElligott et al., 2001; Pettorelli et al., 2002). To correct for point counts, the biomass value was then extrapolated using a neighbourhood analysis, the focal statistics analysis, which calculated the maximum value in an annulus with an outer radius of 5 kilometres Dataset Europe Likewise as the data preparation for the habitat suitability, the CORINE land use dataset was converted into a polygon grid with a 5 by 5-kilometre cell size. This layer was supplemented with a sample of the LandScan global population dataset. Road density was added after intersecting the roads with the above-mentioned grid and calculating the length of the road sections divided by 25 to have a density per square kilometre. 2.4 Data analysis Habitat suitability The prepared habitat suitability dataset was summarised in one variable Suitability. A one by one kilometre cell was suitable (henceforth called prime area ) if it had less than 10 people living there, less than 400 meters road, at least 25 kilograms of biomass and the land use was neither water nor urban areas. These settings based on the characteristics of the Lausitz area in Germany and literature (Jedrzejewski et al., 2008; Jedrzejewski et al., 2004; Kaartinen et al., 2005). To allow patches to connect in one wolf territory, the prime wolf areas were extrapolated using a Euclidean distance metric with a maximum distance of 10 kilometres. This is the maximum distance wolves tend to visit outside of their home ranges (Merrill and Mech, 2003) and was visualized in four range classes (1, 2, 4 and 10 kilometre). These classes do not represent the suitability of the cells, but the distance to a prime area. In a fragmented landscape as that of the Netherlands, two scenarios were made assuming the wolves use the prime areas and an additional area surrounding it as territory. The distance of the two scenarios were based on the minimum additional space the cell sizes allow. In the first scenario wolf territories had to be in the prime area and a one-kilometre range, in the second scenario the range was set at two kilometres. The resulting patches of prime area with a certain range were assessed on size. Wolf territories in this study were assumed to be 225 square kilometres, which is larger than territory sizes found in Polish studies (Jedrzejewski et al., 2007; Nowak et al., 2008). As territory size is most primarily a function of prey density (Nowak et al., 2008), this compensates for the absence of accurate prey density data. The sensitivity of the model was analysed on changes in the threshold values of human population density and road density. In total 14 runs were done, based on seven different parameter values and the two scenarios (prime areas + 1 or 2 km buffer). The original threshold value of < 10 people & < 400 meters road per km 2 was set at 100%. The other parameter values were -50%, -30%, -10%, +10%, +30% and +50% compared to the 100%, resulting in a range from <5 people and <200 meters road per km 2 to <15 people and <600 meters road per km Migration routes Using the potential habitat of the first scenario (prime areas and a one-kilometre range) as a sink population and the German and French populations as source populations, a cost-distance analysis modelled the most suitable migration routes to the Netherlands. To compromise for the lack of literature on wolf migration, two 8

9 different scenarios were made. The different costs of two scenarios were based on the cumulative cost of road density, population density and land use (Marucco et al., 2011; Whittington et al., 2005). The first scenario assumes wolves are almost as strict in their suitability for migration as for habitat. The second scenario assumes that unfavourable land use and population densities hinder wolves only slightly and that major roads prove relatively more challenging. Table 2 and Table 3Table 3 below show the detailed cost for the two scenarios per factor per cell. Table 2 Detailed cost per factor per cell for the first scenario of the cost-distance analysis. Road length is in meters per 25 square kilometres, population density is number of inhabitants per 25 square kilometres. Cost Road length Population density Land use Forest, shrubs Agricultural land, open areas, wetlands > 5000 > 1500 Urban areas, water surfaces Table 3 Detailed cost per factor per cell for the second scenario of the cost-distance analysis. Road length is in meters per 25 square kilometres, population density is number of inhabitants per 25 square kilometres. Cost Road length Population density Land use Forest, shrubs Agricultural land, open areas, wetlands > 5000 > 3000 Urban areas, water surfaces 9

10 3 Results 3.1 Habitat suitability Ecological suitable areas for wolves in the Netherlands considering human disturbance and prey abundance were analysed with a habitat suitability analysis. This analysis, as shown in Figure 1 and in large in Appendix II, gives an impression on where ranging wolves in the Netherlands can find suitable areas and the connectivity between the prime areas, indicated by the different ranges. The map clearly shows that although the Netherlands is a dense populated country with high road density, wolves will still be able to find areas with low human disturbance and prey, in total 3524 square kilometre was identified as prime wolf area. Some of these prime areas will be difficult for wolves to reach, e.g. the Wadden Sea islands, and most of the prime areas are fragmented. The largest areas with the least fragmentation seem to lie in the central to northeastern parts of the Netherlands. These areas are also the least dense populated areas of the Netherlands. Figure 1 Distribution of prime areas and the classes of distance to nearest prime areas The habitat suitability analysis was executed for two possible scenarios of the distribution of wolf territories. The scenarios consist of the prime areas and a one-kilometre range, as shown in Figure 2 (and in large in Appendix III), and prime areas and a two-kilometre range, as shown in Figure 3 (and in large in Appendix IV). When these areas were analysed for potential territories of at least 225 square kilometre, the total area suitable for permanent presence of wolves is in the first scenario approximately 3750 square kilometre, which is large enough for 16 wolf packs. In the second scenario, the analysed area resulted in an area of approximately square kilometres, which is suitable for 44 wolf packs. Both scenarios show the same pattern of distribution of suitable areas: the coastline is not suitable, the Veluwe is suitable for multiple wolf packs and the largest suitable area is in the northeastern part of the Netherlands. In the second scenario, the southeast of the Netherlands has potential wolf habitat as well. 10

11 Figure 2 Distribution of potential wolf territories ( 225 km 2 ), based on prime areas and a one kilometre range Figure 3 Distribution of potential wolf territories ( 225 km 2 ), based on prime areas and a two kilometre range In the sensitivity analysis, I focussed on the change of suitable areas as prime area and the territory areas in the two scenarios and the influence of this on the amount of wolf packs. Figure 4 shows that the size of prime areas and scenario 1 territories increase more or less linearly with a higher threshold value, whereas the size of scenario 2 territories seems to top off. It also shows that at a threshold of <5 people and <200 meter road per square kilometre, the territories in scenario 1 is half the size of the normal threshold, whereas scenario 2 is affected less strongly Suitable area in km Prime area Scenario 1 Scenario Power of the parameter in % Figure 4 The change of suitable areas as prime area and the territory areas in the two scenarios at different strengths of the parameter. The normal parameter value of <10 people and <400 meter road per square kilometre was set at 100%. Figure 5 The effect of change in suitable territory area of the scenarios on the maximum number of wolf packs. The solid lines correspond with the assumption of 225 km 2 per wolf pack. For every solid line, the upper dashed line corresponds with assuming 200 km 2 per wolf territory and the lower dashed line with assuming 300 km 2 per wolf territory. 11

12 3.2 Migration routes The two scenarios of migration routes for wolves from West-European populations to the Netherlands, analysed by a cost-distance analysis, are shown in Figure 6 below and in Figure 7 on the next page. The colours in the maps indicate the costs of the routes between the sources and sink populations, considering human population density, land use and road density. As mentioned in chapter 2.4.2, the first scenario assumes wolves are almost as strict in their suitability for migration as for habitat, whereas the second scenario assumes that unfavourable land use and population densities hinder wolves only slightly and that major roads prove relatively more challenging. Both maps show that wolves from the French wolf population experience less costs to migrate than German wolfs. For example, the cost for French wolves to follow the river Rhine up north to the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region is comparable to the cost of German wolves migrating to the Czech Republic. That French wolves have better possibilities to migrate is confirmed by frequent sightings of wolves in the Vosges Mountains (Lichtfield, 2009). The path of the least resistance to the Netherlands would lead French wolves first to the north of the Rhine- Ruhr metropolitan region and then west to the Arnhem-Nijmegen region in the Netherlands. On three occasions in the late summer of 2011 several people stated to have seen a wolf in this region (Maanen, 2011). Wolves migrating from the German population will encounter more resistance due to unfavourable land use, almost exclusively agricultural lands and urban areas, in the west of Germany. Ü Figure 6 Analysis of wolf migration routes based on the first scenario by cost-distance analysis with the wolf populations in Germany and France as source (both indicated with a wolf and cub) and modelled wolf range in the Netherlands as sink population (all three areas in dark green). In red are the areas most difficult to reach for wolves. 12

13 Figure 7 Analysis of wolf migration routes by cost-distance analysis based on the second scenario with the wolf populations in Germany and France as source (both indicated with a wolf and cub) and modelled wolf range in the Netherlands as sink population (all three areas in dark green). In red are the areas most difficult to reach for wolves. 13

14 4 Discussion This study examined which areas in the Netherlands are habitable for wolves considering human disturbance factors and prey abundance. The habitat suitability analysis showed that the Netherlands has ecological potential for a wolf population. This corresponds with experiences in Poland, Germany and France of wolves having no difficulties living in cultural landscapes (Jedrzejewski et al., 2008). Telemetry study of the one year old wolf Alan showed that he had no problem avoiding humans when migrating from Germany to Belarus (Friedrich, 2010; Linnartz, 2012). However, the large degree of plasticity that wolves show was not incorporated in the model. The areas where wolves can live according to this research should be seen as areas where wolves are most likely to settle first. The habitat suitability analysis gives a prediction based on a few parameters. Left out parameters are chance of mortality by collision with vehicles based on traffic intensity, speed and knowledge of roads with high risk of collision with other large animals. Traffic is one of the major factors of wolf mortality (Blanco and Cortes, 2007; Gazzola et al., 2005; Mech, 2006a). Other factors influencing the settlement and migration of wolves can be local and temporal effects of wildlife crossings, fences, steep canals, other landscape elements and hunting and tourism activities (Melis et al., 2009). To account for the left out parameters, the first scenario is conservative. Therefore, the resulting suitability for 16 wolf packs should be considered as an ecological minimum based on the parameters and cell size used in this study. From the dispute between prone wolf scientists (Mech, 2006b, c; Mladenoff et al., 2006) it can be concluded that the accuracy of the predictive capacities of the habitat suitability model is vital. When investigating a species with high plasticity and high dispersal capabilities, the model needs fine-tuning to the characteristics the wolf population shows in the local setting (Chetkiewicz et al., 2006). As (Jedrzejewski et al., 2008) stated in the Polish study, In a real world, two similar patches of optimal habitat may have very different likelihoods of being occupied by a species due to their different connectivity to other patches and to the source population. The migration routes from source populations in Germany and France to the suitable habitats in the Netherlands was investigated in this study by cost-distance analysis. The suitable migration area in the Alps is in accordance with the habitat suitability model of the Alps (as shown in Appendix V) (Marucco et al., 2011). However, the analysis is done with large cell sizes and based on a few parameters. This implies that small-scale obstructions have not been taken into account. In addition, this type of analysis is sensitive to the settings of the parameters and the visualization, even though this effect was minimized as much as possible by performing two different scenarios. Therefore, the cost-distance analysis still gives an indication which areas are less accessible for wolves and which routes will be easier to migrate. The areas where wolves settle and migrate are not solely ecologically based. A small wolf population or even a single wolf can form a conflict when considering the viewpoints of the cattle-breeders. Society s attitude to wolves can be a problem, especially in West Europe where wolves recover after having long been exterminated. Here the level of human fear and intolerance of wolves is markedly higher than in regions where man and wolf have been coexisting for a long time (Linnell et al., 2003). It is in the best interest of the public and the wolves that conflicts are avoided by taking early action. 14

15 5 Conclusion This study examined which areas in the Netherlands are habitable for wolves considering human disturbance and prey abundance, and identified migration routes for wolves from West-European populations to the Netherlands considering human disturbance. The Netherlands has ecological suitable habitats for at least 16 wolf packs, mostly in the northeastern part of the country. Analysis of possible migration routes showed that wolves will most likely enter the Netherlands in the south-east. Therefore, an increase in wolf sightings is expected in the east of the Netherlands, followed by permanent recolonization of wolves in the Netherlands. What we should do until wolves recolonize the Netherlands is prepare for when they do. With confirmed wolf sightings in Belgium, the Netherlands is one of the last countries in West Europe to have recolonization of wolves. Therefore it is worthwhile to pay attention to the countries that have had to deal with recolonizing wolves for some years. By use of action plans, their governments successfully strive to take measures beneficial to the species, nature and society. 15

16 References Baker, P.J., Boitani, L., Harris, S., Saunders, G. and White, P.C.L.: 2008, 'Terrestrial carnivores and human food production: impact and management', Mammal Rev 38, Barja, I.: 2009, 'Prey and prey-age preference by the Iberian wolf Canis lupus signatus in a multiple-prey ecosystem', Wildlife Biol 15, BBC: 2010, 'Sweden culls its resurgent wolves', BBC News. Berger, J. and Smith, D.W.: 2005, 'Restoring functionality in Yellowstone with recovering carnivores: Gains and uncertainties', in J.C. Ray, K.H. Redford, R.S. Steneck and J. Berger (eds.), Large Carnivores and the Conservation of Biodiversity, Island Press, pp Berger, J., Swenson, J.E. and Persson, I.L.: 2001, 'Recolonizing carnivores and naive prey: Conservation lessons from Pleistocene extinctions', Science 291, Bjerke, T. and Kaltenborn, B.P.: 1999, 'The relationship of ecocentric and anthropocentric motives to attitudes toward large carnivores', J Environ Psychol 19, Blanco, J.C. and Cortes, Y.: 2007, 'Dispersal patterns, social structure and mortality of wolves living in agricultural habitats in Spain', J Zool 273, Breitenmoser, U.: 1998, 'Large predators in the Alps: The fall and rise of man's competitors', Biol Conserv 83, Chetkiewicz, C.L.B., Clair, C.C.S. and Boyce, M.S.: 2006, 'Corridors for conservation: Integrating pattern and process', Annu Rev Ecol Evol S 37, Corsi, F., Dupre, E. and Boitani, L.: 1999, 'A large-scale model of wolf distribution in Italy for conservation planning', Conserv Biol 13, Dekker, J., Vreugdenhil, S., Groot Bruinerink, G. and Linnartz, L.: 2010, 'Kansenkaart wild zwijn met toelichting en stappen', p. 2. Ellegren, H., Savolainen, P. and Rosen, B.: 1996, 'The genetical history of an isolated population of the endangered grey wolf Canis lupus: A study of nuclear and mitochondrial polymorphisms', Philos T Roy Soc B 351, Enserink, M. and Vogel, G.: 2006, 'Wildlife conservation - The carnivore comeback', Science 314, Fabbri, E., Miquel, C., Lucchini, V., Santini, A., Caniglia, R., Duchamp, C., Weber, J.M., Lequette, B., Marucco, F., Boitani, L., Fumagalli, L., Taberlet, P. and Randi, E.: 2007, 'From the Apennines to the Alps: colonization genetics of the naturally expanding Italian wolf (Canis lupus) population', Mol Ecol 16, Fernandez, J.M. and de Azua, N.R.: 2010, 'Historical dynamics of a declining wolf population: persecution vs. prey reduction', Eur J Wildlife Res 56, Franchimon, W.M., De Haas, M.F.P., Lunenburg, I.C.A., Renard, M., Sietses, D.J., Van de Wiel, G.L.W. and Cromsigt, J.P.G.M.: 2007, 'Status report 2007 of the large herbivores of the Palaearctic', in G.L.W. Van de Wiel (ed.), Large Herbivre Foundation, Voorschoten, the Netherlands, p Friedrich, R.: 2010, 'Wolves in Germany', Goethe-Institut e. V. Fritts, S.H. and Mech, L.D.: 1981, 'Dynamics, Movements, and Feeding Ecology of a Newly Protected Wolf Population in Northwestern Minnesota', Wildlife Monogr, Fuller, T.K., Mech, L.D. and Cochrane, J.F.: 2003, 'Wolf population dynamics', in L.D. Mech and L. Boitani (eds.), Wolves. Behavior, ecology, and conservation, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp Gasaway, W.C., Boertje, R.D., Grangaard, D.V., Kelleyhouse, D.G., Stephenson, R.O. and Larsen, D.G.: 1992, 'The Role of Predation in Limiting Moose at Low-Densities in Alaska and Yukon and Implications for Conservation', Wildlife Monogr, Gasaway, W.C., Stephenson, R.O., Davis, J.L., Shepherd, P.E.K. and Burris, O.E.: 1983, 'Interrelationships of Wolves, Prey, and Man in Interior Alaska', Wildlife Monogr, Gazzola, A., Bertelli, I., Avanzinelli, E., Tolosano, A., Bertotto, P. and Apollonio, M.: 2005, 'Predation by wolves (Canis lupus) on wild and domestic ungulates of the western Alps, Italy', J Zool 266, Glenz, C., Massolo, A., Kuonen, D. and Schlaepfer, R.: 2001, 'A wolf habitat suitability prediction study in Valais (Switzerland)', Landscape Urban Plan 55, Herfindal, I., Linnell, J.D.C., Odden, J., Nilsen, E.B. and Andersen, R.: 2005, 'Prey density, environmental productivity and home-range size in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx)', J Zool 265, Huck, M., Jedrzejewski, W., Borowik, T., Jedrzejewska, B., Nowak, S. and Myslajek, R.W.: 2011, 'Analyses of least cost paths for determining effects of habitat types on landscape permeability: wolves in Poland', Acta Theriol 56, Jedrzejewski, W., Jedrzejewska, B., Okarma, H., Schmidt, K., Zub, K. and Musiani, M.: 2000, 'Prey selection and predation by wolves in Bialowieza Primeval Forest, Poland', J Mammal 81, Jedrzejewski, W., Jedrzejewska, B., Zawadzka, B., Borowik, T., Nowak, S. and Myszajek, R.W.: 2008, 'Habitat suitability model for Polish wolves based on long-term national census', Anim Conserv 11, Jedrzejewski, W., Niedzialkowska, M., Nowak, S. and Jedrzejewska, B.: 2004, 'Habitat variables associated with wolf (Canis lupus) distribution and abundance in northern Poland', Divers Distrib 10,

17 Jedrzejewski, W., Schmidt, K., Theuerkauf, J., Jedrzejewska, B. and Kowalczyk, R.: 2007, 'Territory size of wolves Canis lupus: linking local (Bialowieza Primeval Forest, Poland) and Holarctic-scale patterns', Ecography 30, Jedrzejewski, W., Schmidt, K., Theuerkauf, J., Jedrzejewska, B., Selva, N., Zub, K. and Szymura, L.: 2002, 'Kill rates and predation by wolves on ungulate populations in Bialowieza Primeval Forest (Poland)', Ecology 83, Kaartinen, S., Kojola, I. and Colpaert, A.: 2005, 'Finnish wolves avoid roads and settlements', Ann Zool Fenn 42, KWL: 2012, 'Kontaktburo Wolfsregion Lausitz', Kontaktburo Wolfsregion Lausitz. LCIE: 2004, 'Status and Trends for Large Carnivores in Europe', UNEP-WCMC - "Biodiversity Trends and Threats in Europe", Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe. Licht, D.S., Millspaugh, J.J., Kunkel, K.E., Kochanny, C.O. and Peterson, R.O.: 2010, 'Using Small Populations of Wolves for Ecosystem Restoration and Stewardship', Bioscience 60, Lichtfield, J.: 2009, 'Guess who's coming for dinner? Wolf tracks spotted in central France', The Independant. Linnartz, L.: 2012, 'Rondzwervende solitaire wolven', ARK Natuurontwikeling, FREE Nature & Zoogdiervereniging. Linnell, J.D.C., Loe, J., Okarma, H., Blanco, J.C., Andersone-Lilley, Z., Valdmann, H., Balciauskas, L., Promberger, C., Brainerd, S.M., Wabakken, P., Kojola, I., Andersen, R., Liberg, O., Sand, H., Solberg, E.J., Pedersen, H.C., Boitani, L. and Breitenmoser, U.: 2002, 'The fear of wolves: a review of wolf attacks on humans', Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim, Norway. Linnell, J.D.C., Solberg, E.J., Brainerd, S.M., Liberg, O., Sand, H., Wabakken, P. and Kojola, I.: 2003, 'Is the fear of wolves justified? A fennoscandian perspective', Acta Zoologica Lituanica 13, 7. Maanen, E.: 2011, 'Wolves marching further west!'. Maanen, E., Predoiu, G., Klaver, R., Soulé, M., Popa, M., Ionescu, O., Jurj, R., Negus, S., Ionescu, G. and Altenburg, W.: 2006, '"Safeguarding the Romanian Carpathian Ecological Network. A vision for large carnivores and biodiversity in Eastern Europe"', A&W ecological consultants, Veenwouden, the Netherlands. Marucco, F., Boitani, L., Pletscher, D.H. and Schwartz, M.K.: 2011, 'Bridging the gaps between non-invasive genetic sampling and population parameter estimation', Eur J Wildlife Res 57, Massolo, A. and Meriggi, A.: 1998, 'Factors affecting habitat occupancy by wolves in northern Apennines (northern Italy): a model of habitat suitability', Ecography 21, McElligott, A.G., Gammell, M.P., Harty, H.C., Paini, D.R., Murphy, D.T., Walsh, J.T. and Hayden, T.J.: 2001, 'Sexual size dimorphism in fallow deer (Dama dama): do larger, heavier males gain greater mating success?', Behav Ecol Sociobiol 49, Mech, L.D.: 1970, The wolf: the ecology and behavior of an endangered species, Natural History Press, New York, NY, 384 pp. Mech, L.D.: 2006a, 'Estimated age structure of wolves in northeastern Minnesota', J Wildlife Manage 70, Mech, L.D.: 2006b, 'Mladenoff et al. rebut lacks supportive data', Wildlife Soc B 34, Mech, L.D.: 2006c, 'Prediction failure of a wolf landscape model', Wildlife Soc B 34, Mech, L.D. and Boitani, L.: 2003, Wolves : behavior, ecology, and conservation, Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago [u.a.]. Mech, L.D. and Tracy, S.: 2004, 'Record high Wolf, Canis lupus, pack density', Can Field Nat 118, Melis, C., Jedrzejewska, B., Apollonio, M., Barton, K.A., Jedrzejewski, W., Linnell, J.D.C., Kojola, I., Kusak, J., Adamic, M., Ciuti, S., Delehan, I., Dykyy, I., Krapinec, K., Mattioli, L., Sagaydak, A., Samchuk, N., Schmidt, K., Shkvyrya, M., Sidorovich, V.E., Zawadzka, B. and Zhyla, S.: 2009, 'Predation has a greater impact in less productive environments: variation in roe deer, Capreolus capreolus, population density across Europe', Global Ecol Biogeogr 18, Merrill, S.B. and Mech, L.D.: 2003, 'The usefulness of GPS telemetry to study wolf circadian and social activity', Wildlife Soc B 31, Messier, F.: 1991, 'The Significance of Limiting and Regulating Factors on the Demography of Moose and White- Tailed Deer', J Anim Ecol 60, Mladenoff, D.J., Clayton, M.K., Pratt, S.D., Sickley, T.A. and Wydeven, A.P.: 2009, 'Change in Occupied Wolf Habitat in the Northern Great Lakes Region', Recovery of Gray Wolves in the Great Lakes Region of the United States, Mladenoff, D.J., Clayton, M.K., Sickley, T.A. and Wydeven, A.P.: 2006, 'L. D. Mech critique of our work lacks scientific validity', Wildlife Soc B 34, Mladenoff, D.J., Sickley, T.A., Haight, R.G. and Wydeven, A.P.: 1995, 'A Regional Landscape Analysis and Prediction of Favorable Gray Wolf Habitat in the Northern Great-Lakes Region', Conserv Biol 9, Mladenoff, D.J., Sickley, T.A. and Wydeven, A.P.: 1999, 'Predicting gray wolf landscape recolonization: Logistic regression models vs. new field data', Ecol Appl 9, NABU: 2012, 'Wilkommen Wolf'. Nowak, S., Myslajek, R.W. and Jedrzejewska, B.: 2005, 'Patterns of wolf Canis lupus predation on wild and domestic ungulates in the Western Carpathian Mountains (S Poland)', Acta Theriol 50, Nowak, S., Myslajek, R.W. and Jedrzejewska, B.: 2008, 'Density and demography of wolf, Canis lupus population in the western-most part of the Polish Carpathian Mountains, ', Folia Zool 57, Nowak, S., Myslajek, R.W., Klosinska, A. and Gabrys, G.: 2011, 'Diet and prey selection of wolves (Canis lupus) recolonising Western and Central Poland', Mamm Biol 76,

18 Okarma, H.: 1995, 'The trophic ecology of wolves and their predatory role in ungulate communities of forest ecosystems in Europe', Acta Theriol 40, ONCFS: 2008, ' National Wolf Action Plan, in the French context of substantsial and traditional livestock farming', Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage. ONCFS: 2012, 'Wolf in France in the context of an important and traditional livestock farming', Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage. Paquet, P.C. and Carbyn, L.N.: 2003, 'Gray Wolf', in B.C. Thompson and J.A. Chapman (eds.), Wild Mammals of North America: Biology, Management, and Conservation. 2nd ed., John Hopkins University Press. Pettorelli, N., Gaillard, J.M., Van Laere, G., Duncan, P., Kjellander, P., Liberg, O., Delorme, D. and Maillard, D.: 2002, 'Variations in adult body mass in roe deer: the effects of population density at birth and of habitat quality', P Roy Soc Lond B Bio 269, Pilot, M., Branicki, W., Jedrzejewski, W., Goszczynski, J., Jedrzejewska, B., Dykyy, I., Shkvyrya, M. and Tsingarska, E.: 2010, 'Phylogeographic history of grey wolves in Europe', Bmc Evol Biol 10. Pimm, S.L., Russell, G.J., Gittleman, J.L. and Brooks, T.M.: 1995, 'The Future of Biodiversity', Science 269, Pulliam, H.R.: 1988, 'Sources, Sinks, and Population Regulation', Am Nat 132, Randi, E.: 2003, 'Conservation genetics of carnivores in Italy', Cr Biol 326, Supplement 1, Randi, E.: 2011, 'Genetics and conservation of wolves Canis lupus in Europe', Mammal Rev 41, Reinhardt, I. and Kluth, G.: 2007, 'Leben mit Wölfen : Leitfaden für den Umgang mit einer konfliktträchtigen Tierart in Deutschland', Bundesamt für Naturschutz, Bonn. Smith, D.W., Peterson, R.O. and Houston, D.B.: 2003, 'Yellowstone after Wolves', Bioscience 53, Stoen, O.G., Zedrosser, A., Saebo, S. and Swenson, J.E.: 2006, 'Inversely density-dependent natal dispersal in brown bears Ursus arctos', Oecologia 148, Szafer, W.: 1968, 'The Ure-ox, extinct in Europe since the seventeenth century: an early attempt at conservation that failed', Biol Conserv 1, Trouwborst, A.: 2010, 'Managing the Carnivore Comeback: International and EU Species Protection Law and the Return of Lynx, Wolf and Bear to Western Europe', J Environ Law 22, Van Vuure, T.: 2002, 'History, morphology and ecology of the Aurochs (Bos taurus primigenius)', Lutra 44, 1. Vereshchagin, N.K. and Baryshnikov, G.T.: 1984, 'Quaternary mammalian extinctions in northern Eurasia', in P.S. Martin and R.G. Klein (eds.), Quaternary Extinctions, University of Arizone Press, Tuscon, Arizona, pp Wagner, C., Holzapfel, M., Kluth, G., Reinhardt, I. and Ansorge, H.: 2012, 'Wolf (Canis lupus) feeding habits during the first eight years of its occurrence in Germany', Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde 77, Whittington, J., St Clair, C.C. and Mercer, G.: 2005, 'Spatial responses of wolves to roads and trails in mountain valleys', Ecol Appl 15,

19 Appendices Appendix I Modeled population range of wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Netherlands Figure 8 Modeled population range of wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Netherlands in orange. Sightings of wild boars in the period are visualized in grey. (Dekker et al., 2010) I

20 Appendix II Distribution of prime wolf areas and suitability ranges Figure 9 Distribution of prime wolf areas and suitability ranges II

21 Appendix III Distribution of wolf territories as in scenario 1 Figure 10 Distribution of wolf territories consisting of all non-water and non-urban areas within one kilometre of prime areas III

Room for wolf comeback in the Netherlands

Room for wolf comeback in the Netherlands Room for wolf comeback in the Netherlands A spatial analysis on the possibilities of settlement of wolves from European populations in the Netherlands G. Lelieveld 07 March 2012 Intern at Institute for

More information

Density dependent matrix model for gray wolf population projection

Density dependent matrix model for gray wolf population projection Ecological Modelling 151 (2002) 271 278 www.elsevier.com/locate/ecolmodel Density dependent matrix model for gray wolf population projection David H. Miller a, *, Al L. Jensen a, James H. Hammill b a School

More information

Wolves in Poland. Back to Wolves and Humans Homepage

Wolves in Poland. Back to Wolves and Humans Homepage Back to Wolves and Humans Homepage Wolves in Poland Poland - one of the biggest countries of central Europe (312,685 km 2 ) is inhabited by almost 40 million people. Large wood complexes of pine, spruce,

More information

Computer simulation of wolf-removal strategies for animal damage control

Computer simulation of wolf-removal strategies for animal damage control SIMULATING WOLF-REMOVAL STRATEGIES 1 Computer simulation of wolf-removal strategies for animal damage control Robert G. Haight, Laurel E. Travis, Kevin Mimerfro, and L. David Mech Abstract Because of the

More information

LESSON 2 Carrying Capacity: What is a Viable Population? A Lesson on Numbers and Space

LESSON 2 Carrying Capacity: What is a Viable Population? A Lesson on Numbers and Space Ï MATH LESSON 2 Carrying Capacity: What is a Viable Population? A Lesson on Numbers and Space Objectives: Students will: list at least 3 components which determine the carrying capacity of an area for

More information

Lesson Overview. Biodiversity. Lesson Overview. 6.3 Biodiversity

Lesson Overview. Biodiversity. Lesson Overview. 6.3 Biodiversity Lesson Overview 6.3 6.3 Objectives Define biodiversity and explain its value. Identify current threats to biodiversity. Describe how biodiversity can be preserved. THINK ABOUT IT From multicolored coral

More information

The wolf conflict in Norway: An economic, political and social conflict

The wolf conflict in Norway: An economic, political and social conflict The wolf conflict in Norway: An economic, political and social conflict By Hanna Lodberg-Holm The wolf (canis lupus) is an apex predator and a very adaptable species that have persisted in a large variety

More information

Establishing large-scale trans-boundaries MPA networks: the OSPAR example in North-East Atlantic

Establishing large-scale trans-boundaries MPA networks: the OSPAR example in North-East Atlantic Establishing large-scale trans-boundaries MPA networks: the OSPAR example in North-East Atlantic Introduction A pledge to establish a representative network of marine and coastal protected areas by 2012

More information

HUNTing for Sustainability - a summary of research findings from Sweden

HUNTing for Sustainability - a summary of research findings from Sweden Foto Camilla Næss/NINA HUNTing for Sustainability - a summary of research findings from Sweden HUNTing for Sustainability - a summary of research findings from Sweden Camilla Sandström The HUNTing for

More information

Bison and Banff National Park

Bison and Banff National Park Banff National Park parkscanada.gc.ca Parc national Banff parcscanada.gc.ca Bison and Banff National Park BISON RESTORATION IN BANFF NATIONAL PARK - FAQ Q. If free roaming bison haven t been in Banff National

More information

Guiding Principles for the Management of Hoofed Game in Austria s National Parks

Guiding Principles for the Management of Hoofed Game in Austria s National Parks Guiding Principles for the Management of Hoofed Game in Austria s National Parks Preamble Based on the objectives and visions of the Austrian National Park Strategy the present Guiding Principles for the

More information

Conferência Internacional Estrutura Ecológica Nacional - Conceitos e Delimitação

Conferência Internacional Estrutura Ecológica Nacional - Conceitos e Delimitação Conferência Internacional Estrutura Ecológica Nacional - Conceitos e Delimitação The Green Network plan in Estonia: implementation lessons learned Kalev Sepp Estonian University of Life Sciences Centro

More information

tundra desert coniferous forest deciduous forest rainforest grassland aquatic biome habitat environment ecosystem species

tundra desert coniferous forest deciduous forest rainforest grassland aquatic biome habitat environment ecosystem species Science Unit 6: Vocabulary List One tundra desert coniferous forest deciduous forest rainforest grassland aquatic biome habitat environment ecosystem species The coldest of the biomes, located at the top

More information

Activity 3 Giant Panda Landscape Activity

Activity 3 Giant Panda Landscape Activity Activity 3 Giant Panda Landscape Activity Objective & Overview: Students will juggle land-use planning issues relating to giant pandas and their interdependence with bamboo and other habitat characteristics,

More information

Monitoring the Critically Endangered Bird Species (White-shouldered Ibis) in Western Siem Pang Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA)

Monitoring the Critically Endangered Bird Species (White-shouldered Ibis) in Western Siem Pang Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA) Monitoring the Critically Endangered Bird Species (White-shouldered Ibis) in Western Siem Pang Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA) Transboundary Biodiversity Landscapes (TBLs) Knowledge Meeting

More information

Green Infrastructure Case Study Template

Green Infrastructure Case Study Template Green Infrastructure Case Study Template The aim of the exercise is to provide information on how the elements of the Green Infrastructure Strategy are implemented at national level and to provide case

More information

Rocky Mountain Wolf Recovery 2009 Interagency Annual Report

Rocky Mountain Wolf Recovery 2009 Interagency Annual Report Rocky Mountain Wolf Recovery 2009 Interagency Annual Report A cooperative effort by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Nez Perce Tribe, National Park Service, Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks, Idaho Fish

More information

USAGE OF GIS IN WILDLIFE PASSAGE PLANNING IN ESTONIA. Lauri Klein Institute of Geography, University of Tartu Estonia

USAGE OF GIS IN WILDLIFE PASSAGE PLANNING IN ESTONIA. Lauri Klein Institute of Geography, University of Tartu Estonia USAGE OF GIS IN WILDLIFE PASSAGE PLANNING IN ESTONIA Lauri Klein Institute of Geography, University of Tartu Estonia Abstract Wildlife passages - underpasses or overpasses designed specifically for wild

More information

All members of the puma species carry their kittens the same way domestic cats do, and they can purr like housecats too.

All members of the puma species carry their kittens the same way domestic cats do, and they can purr like housecats too. Florida Panther In spite of many, many attempts, I have not been able to discover let alone photograph a majestic Florida panther in the wild. The tawny cat is an endangered species. The panthers I have

More information

Ecology - Exchange of energy and matter

Ecology - Exchange of energy and matter - Exchange of energy and matter You should be able to: (a) briefly describe the non-cyclical nature of energy flow (b) establish the relationship of the following in food webs: producer, consumer, herbivore,

More information

CAPS Landscape Metrics November 2011

CAPS Landscape Metrics November 2011 CAPS Landscape Metrics November 2011 This appendix describes the landscape metrics available in CAPS. These metrics are weighted and combined separately for each community, using the community model listed

More information

Habitat Loss. Key Stage 1 & 2. Aims and Objectives. What is a habitat? Find out more at

Habitat Loss. Key Stage 1 & 2. Aims and Objectives. What is a habitat? Find out more at Key Stage 1 & 2 Aims and Objectives Understand what a habitat is Understand the important role of plants and animals within a habitat Focus on issues that cause habitats to decline Establish how we can

More information

Fragmentation of land by urbanisation, transport infrastructure and agriculture

Fragmentation of land by urbanisation, transport infrastructure and agriculture Fragmentation of land by urbanisation, transport infrastructure and agriculture Background The survival of threatened species depends on populations which are large enough to maintain their genetic diversity

More information

Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in the Far North of Ontario: Background information in support of land use planning

Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in the Far North of Ontario: Background information in support of land use planning Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in the Far North of Ontario: Background information in support of land use planning The Far North Caribou Project (FNCP) was initiated in 2008 to support land

More information

ATTITUDES OF EUROPEANS TOWARDS BIODIVERSITY

ATTITUDES OF EUROPEANS TOWARDS BIODIVERSITY Special Eurobarometer ATTITUDES OF EUROPEANS TOWARDS BIODIVERSITY REPORT Fieldwork: May-June 0 Publication: October 0 This survey has been requested by the European Commission, Directorate-General for

More information

AFRICAN WILDLIFE CONFERENCE 2008 Zoo Dvur Králové a.s. May 6-11, 2008. - Conference Proceedings. www.zoodvurkralove.cz

AFRICAN WILDLIFE CONFERENCE 2008 Zoo Dvur Králové a.s. May 6-11, 2008. - Conference Proceedings. www.zoodvurkralove.cz AFRICAN WILDLIFE CONFERENCE 2008 Zoo Dvur Králové a.s. May 6-11, 2008 - Conference Proceedings www.zoodvurkralove.cz Cheetah Conservation Strategies in Namibia a Model for the Future By Laurie Marker Over

More information

A biological community is an assemblage of populations of various species living close enough for potential interaction

A biological community is an assemblage of populations of various species living close enough for potential interaction Ch 54 Community Ecology A biological community is an assemblage of populations of various species living close enough for potential interaction Ecologists call relationships between species in a community

More information

Bitterroot Mountain Lion Project Report January 2014

Bitterroot Mountain Lion Project Report January 2014 Bitterroot Mountain Lion Project Report January 2014 Background Wildlife managers need reliable methods to monitor mountain lion population abundance in order to manage harvest, minimize conflicts with

More information

Mallee emu-wren Stipiturus mallee

Mallee emu-wren Stipiturus mallee COMPLETE CASE STUDY 4.3 - TRENDS IN SIGNIFICANT SPECIES AND COMMUNITIES - SOUTH AUSTRALIA Mallee emu-wren Stipiturus mallee Description The mallee emu-wren is one of Australia s smallest birds, weighing

More information

(5) Wildlife Conservation and Management in Japan 5-1) Basic Policy and Strategy of Wildlife Conservation

(5) Wildlife Conservation and Management in Japan 5-1) Basic Policy and Strategy of Wildlife Conservation (5) Wildlife Conservation and Management in Japan 5-1) Basic Policy and Strategy of Wildlife Conservation a) Basic Concepts Wild animals and plants serve as the basic components of ecosystems, and their

More information

Assessing risks to ecosystems - a new global standard

Assessing risks to ecosystems - a new global standard Assessing risks to ecosystems - a new global standard IUCN Ecosystem Red List Working Group David Keith et al. Major scientific challenges I. What is an ecosystem? II. When is an ecosystem extinct? disappearance

More information

Technical Study and GIS Model for Migratory Deer Range Habitat. Butte County, California

Technical Study and GIS Model for Migratory Deer Range Habitat. Butte County, California Technical Study and GIS Model for Migratory Deer Range Habitat, California Prepared for: Design, Community & Environment And Prepared by: Please Cite this Document as: Gallaway Consulting, Inc. Sevier,

More information

Action Plan for the conservation of the wolves (Canis lupus) in Europe

Action Plan for the conservation of the wolves (Canis lupus) in Europe Strasbourg, 11 May 2000 T-PVS (2000) 23 [Bern\T-PVS 2000\tpvs23e_2000] CONVENTION ON THE CONSERVATION OF EUROPEAN WILDLIFE AND NATURAL HABITATS Group of Experts on Conservation of Large Carnivores Oslo,

More information

Wolf Reintroduction in the Adirondacks. Prepared for Sue Fisher Vaughn, Professor, WRT 333, Scientific and Technical Writing. Prepared by Erin Cyr

Wolf Reintroduction in the Adirondacks. Prepared for Sue Fisher Vaughn, Professor, WRT 333, Scientific and Technical Writing. Prepared by Erin Cyr Wolf Reintroduction in the Adirondacks Prepared for Sue Fisher Vaughn, Professor, WRT 333, Scientific and Technical Writing Prepared by Erin Cyr 10 December 2002 Abstract Descendants of the European settlers

More information

LESSON 1: EXPLORE THE ECOSYSTEM

LESSON 1: EXPLORE THE ECOSYSTEM LESSON 1: EXPLORE THE ECOSYSTEM LENGTH: 60 MINUTES GRADES/AGES: GRADES 3-7 Lesson Overview: Learn more about ecosystems and how an ecosystems species are interconnected through games and diagrams. Explore

More information

Species distributions

Species distributions Species distributions What determines the distribution and abundance of a species in space and time? Mapping and measuring the Range 3 types of range maps 1. Outline maps Display range as an irregular

More information

9.3.7 Advice December 2014

9.3.7 Advice December 2014 9.3.7 Advice December 2014 ECOREGION STOCK Widely distributed and migratory stocks European eel Advice for 2015 The status of eel remains critical and ICES advises that all anthropogenic mortality (e.g.

More information

BIODIVERSITY AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

BIODIVERSITY AND ECONOMIC GROWTH World Environment Day June 2010 111 BIODIVERSITY AND ECONOMIC GROWTH By: Shahid Saleem Biodiversity loss and other environmental problems that the world is facing today are the products of hundreds of

More information

The Role of Spatial Data in EU Agricultural Policy Analysis

The Role of Spatial Data in EU Agricultural Policy Analysis The Role of Spatial Data in EU Agricultural Policy Analysis Wolfgang Britz Institute for Food and Resource Economics, University Bonn Geospatial Open Source Hosting of Agriculture, Resource and Environmental

More information

Creating Chains and Webs to Model Ecological Relationships

Creating Chains and Webs to Model Ecological Relationships Creating Chains and Webs to Model Ecological Relationships Overview This hands-on activity supports the HHMI short film The Guide and the 2015 Holiday Lectures on Science: Patterns and Processes in Ecology.

More information

Current and probable past wildlife fatality hotspots on the Thousand Islands Parkway, Ontario, Canada

Current and probable past wildlife fatality hotspots on the Thousand Islands Parkway, Ontario, Canada Current and probable past wildlife fatality hotspots on the Thousand Islands Parkway, Ontario, Canada E. Eberhardt 1, S. Mitchell 2, and L. Fahrig 3 1 Parks Canada, Ecological Integrity Branch, National

More information

The structure of the expanded brown bear population at the edge of the Finnish range

The structure of the expanded brown bear population at the edge of the Finnish range Ann. Zool. Fennici 43: 258 262 ISSN 3-455X Helsinki 28 June 6 Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board 6 The structure of the expanded brown bear population at the edge of the Finnish range Ilpo

More information

National Inventory of Landscapes in Sweden

National Inventory of Landscapes in Sweden Key messages Approaching the landscape perspective in monitoring experiences in the Swedish NILS program Johan Svensson, Future Forest Monitoring, 091112 Landscape level approaches are necessary to deal

More information

Environmental Science

Environmental Science Environmental Science UNIT I: Introduction to Environmental Science The student will demonstrate the ability to use scientific skills necessary to identify and analyze environmental issues. a. Define environmental

More information

Protected Area Categories and Management Objectives

Protected Area Categories and Management Objectives Protected Area Categories and Management Objectives A protected area is defined as: An area of land and/or sea especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity, and of natural

More information

Population Ecology. Life History Traits as Evolutionary Adaptations

Population Ecology. Life History Traits as Evolutionary Adaptations Population Ecology An Overview of Population Ecology Population ecology is the study of factors that affect population: Density Growth A population is a group of individuals of a single species that occupy

More information

Habitat Corridors & Landscape Connectivity: Clarifying the Terminology

Habitat Corridors & Landscape Connectivity: Clarifying the Terminology A PROJECT OF THE WILD FOUNDATION Habitat Corridors & Landscape Connectivity: Clarifying the Terminology By: Katie Meiklejohn, Rob Ament & Gary Tabor Over the past twenty years, conserving landscape connectivity

More information

AP biology self study guide for unit 9: Population & community ecology and. Unit 10: Ecosystems, the biosphere, and conservation

AP biology self study guide for unit 9: Population & community ecology and. Unit 10: Ecosystems, the biosphere, and conservation AP biology self study guide for unit 9: Population & community ecology and Unit 10: Ecosystems, the biosphere, and conservation Enduring understanding 2.A: Growth, reproduction and maintenance of the organization

More information

Economic and Social Council

Economic and Social Council United Nations Economic and Social Council ECE/EB.AIR/WG.1/2013/10 Distr.: General 30 July 2013 English only Economic Commission for Europe Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary

More information

Biodiversity Concepts

Biodiversity Concepts Biodiversity Concepts WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY? Biodiversity is the variety of life on Earth. For any kind of animal or plant each individual is not exactly the same as any other; nor are species or ecosystems.

More information

Patterns of Bat Fatality at Wind Development Facilities. Edward B. Arnett, Bat Conservation International

Patterns of Bat Fatality at Wind Development Facilities. Edward B. Arnett, Bat Conservation International Patterns of Bat Fatality at Wind Development Facilities Edward B. Arnett, Bat Conservation International Biological Diversity: over 1,100 species identified >one-quarter of the world s mammals Broad and

More information

Introduction to Wildlife Conservation & Management Principals

Introduction to Wildlife Conservation & Management Principals Introduction to Wildlife Conservation & Management Principals Key Topics Wildlife Conservation Management & Conservation Principles Wildlife Conservation Concept of wildlife conservation has been around

More information

Erie Tamale Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity

Erie Tamale Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity Status and Trends of Global Biodiversity: Third Edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook Erie Tamale Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity Scope of the Presentation Status and trends

More information

Ecology Module B, Anchor 4

Ecology Module B, Anchor 4 Ecology Module B, Anchor 4 Key Concepts: - The biological influences on organisms are called biotic factors. The physical components of an ecosystem are called abiotic factors. - Primary producers are

More information

R o b A m e n t S e n i o r C o n s e r v a t i o n i s t. D e c e m b e r

R o b A m e n t S e n i o r C o n s e r v a t i o n i s t. D e c e m b e r The Obama Administration s Progress on Federal Policies for Wildlife Corridor and Ecological Connectivity Conservation January 2009 through December 2012 R o b A m e n t S e n i o r C o n s e r v a t i

More information

Attitudes towards an endangered brown bear population outside its core area in central Italy

Attitudes towards an endangered brown bear population outside its core area in central Italy Attitudes towards an endangered brown bear population outside its core area in central Italy Luciana Carotenuto1, Lucilla Carnevali2, Jenny Glikman3, 4, Ivana Pizzol2 1. Riserva Naturale Montagne della

More information

Objectives. Raster Data Discrete Classes. Spatial Information in Natural Resources FANR 3800. Review the raster data model

Objectives. Raster Data Discrete Classes. Spatial Information in Natural Resources FANR 3800. Review the raster data model Spatial Information in Natural Resources FANR 3800 Raster Analysis Objectives Review the raster data model Understand how raster analysis fundamentally differs from vector analysis Become familiar with

More information

Recovery and Mitigation Activities Fence Removal Under the Texas Conservation Plan for the Dunes Sagebrush Lizard

Recovery and Mitigation Activities Fence Removal Under the Texas Conservation Plan for the Dunes Sagebrush Lizard Recovery and Mitigation Activities Fence Removal Under the Texas Conservation Plan for the Dunes Sagebrush Lizard Introduction Recovery Awards and Mitigation Credits can be used to mitigate any surface

More information

~I can identify modern day countries that were affected by ancient Rome. ~I can compare and contrast the geography of Rome and Greece.

~I can identify modern day countries that were affected by ancient Rome. ~I can compare and contrast the geography of Rome and Greece. Objective: I can examine and analyze thematic maps to learn about the physical geography of ancient Rome and how it influenced the development of Roman civilization. ~I can identify modern day countries

More information

ENERGY FLOWS IN ECOSYSTEMS, FOOD CHAINS

ENERGY FLOWS IN ECOSYSTEMS, FOOD CHAINS 1 LECTURE 3 & 4: MAY 7, 2014 ENERGY FLOWS AND ECOSYSTEMS ENERGY FLOWS IN ECOSYSTEMS, FOOD CHAINS Text Reference: Dearden and Mitchell (2012), Ch. 2, pp. 49-80 Geography/Environmental Studies 1120 T. Randall,

More information

Required and Recommended Supporting Information for IUCN Red List Assessments

Required and Recommended Supporting Information for IUCN Red List Assessments Required and Recommended Supporting Information for IUCN Red List Assessments This is Annex 1 of the Rules of Procedure IUCN Red List Assessment Process 2013-2016 as approved by the IUCN SSC Steering Committee

More information

Winter wolf seminars in the Beskidy Mountains

Winter wolf seminars in the Beskidy Mountains Winter wolf seminars in the Beskidy Mountains This winter Association for Nature "WOLF" are organising wolf seminars on the following dates: 9-13 January, 2006 20-24 February, 2006 6-10 March, 2006 The

More information

NATURAL RESOURCES DEGREES AND CERTIFICATES. Environmental Conservation A.S. Degree (formerly Natural Resources)

NATURAL RESOURCES DEGREES AND CERTIFICATES. Environmental Conservation A.S. Degree (formerly Natural Resources) Area: Science and Engineering Dean: Dr. Rina Roy Phone: (916) 484-8107 Counseling: (916) 484-8572 DEGREES AND CERTIFICATES Environmental Conservation A.S. Degree (formerly Natural Resources) Environmental

More information

Guidelines for Population Level Management Plans for Large Carnivores Contract nr. 070501/2005/424162/MAR/B2

Guidelines for Population Level Management Plans for Large Carnivores Contract nr. 070501/2005/424162/MAR/B2 Guidelines for Population Level Management Plans for Large Carnivores Contract nr. 070501/2005/424162/MAR/B2 FINAL Version 1 st July 2008 Prepared by Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe c/o Istituto

More information

Chapter 6 Organisms Depend on a Healthy Environment

Chapter 6 Organisms Depend on a Healthy Environment Chapter 6 Organisms Depend on a Healthy Environment 6.1: The Dynamics of Nature: Succession Vocabulary: succession a series of gradual changes that result in the replacement of one community of plants

More information

Past and Current Research on Natural Resource Issues in the Blue Mountains

Past and Current Research on Natural Resource Issues in the Blue Mountains Past and Current Research on Natural Resource Issues in the Blue Mountains Recreation, Hunting, Access Livestock Production (and Wild Ungulate Ecology) Restoration Timber Harvest, Production Biodiversity,

More information

Dr. Cristina Sandu - Institute of Biology Bucharest, Romanian Academy; - International Association for Danube Research (IAD)

Dr. Cristina Sandu - Institute of Biology Bucharest, Romanian Academy; - International Association for Danube Research (IAD) Dr. Cristina Sandu - Institute of Biology Bucharest, Romanian Academy; - International Association for Danube Research (IAD) Excellent indicators of water/sediment quality Unique value for EU biodiversity

More information

WHAT'S HAPPENING IN THE ENVIRONMENT? 3 SEPTEMBER 2014

WHAT'S HAPPENING IN THE ENVIRONMENT? 3 SEPTEMBER 2014 WHAT'S HAPPENING IN THE ENVIRONMENT? 3 SEPTEMBER 2014 Lesson Description In this lesson we: Look at predator-prey relationships Discuss types of competition Consider specialisation Look at the different

More information

River Basin Management in Romania. - Focus Danube Delta -

River Basin Management in Romania. - Focus Danube Delta - River Basin Management in Romania - Focus Danube Delta - Danube Delta Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve lies on the Romanian territory over an area 5,800 km2 Following the pattern of morpho-river, river,

More information

Forest characteristics and forest types - Finland

Forest characteristics and forest types - Finland Forest characteristics and forest types - Finland Geographically Finland lies in an intermediate zone between maritime and continental climates, belonging for the most part to the boreal vegetation zone.

More information

Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation (PARC) Position Statement on the Sustainable Use of Reptiles and Amphibians

Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation (PARC) Position Statement on the Sustainable Use of Reptiles and Amphibians Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation (PARC) Position Statement on the Sustainable Use of Reptiles and Amphibians [Note: This document was adapted from the position paper on sustainability of

More information

AP BIOLOGY SUMMER ASSIGNMENT

AP BIOLOGY SUMMER ASSIGNMENT AP BIOLOGY SUMMER ASSIGNMENT AP BIOLOGY includes topics in a college course for biology. One topic, Ecology, is usually very briefly mentioned in lecture in the year course. There are so many topics to

More information

Non-consumptive Predator Effects Risk Effects and the Ecology of Fear. ESRM 450 Wildlife Ecology and Conservation

Non-consumptive Predator Effects Risk Effects and the Ecology of Fear. ESRM 450 Wildlife Ecology and Conservation Non-consumptive Predator Effects Risk Effects and the Ecology of Fear ESRM 450 Wildlife Ecology and Conservation The Role of Predators in Ecosystems Predators eat their prey In so doing, can influence

More information

France s biodiversity at risk

France s biodiversity at risk France s biodiversity at risk A call for action France hosts a large proportion of the species that are threatened at the European level, and has the important responsibility for protecting these species

More information

Information Request 38

Information Request 38 Information Request 38 Information Request 38 38-1 Responses to Information Request 38 Response to Information Request 38b Response to Information Request 38c 38-2 38-9 38-10 Federal Review Panel Information

More information

Study Guide B. Answer Key. Interactions in Ecosystems

Study Guide B. Answer Key. Interactions in Ecosystems Interactions in Ecosystems Answer Key SECTION 1. HABITAT AND NICHE 1. a habitat is all of the biotic and abiotic factors in the area where an organism lives, while a niche includes all physical, chemical,

More information

Ecology Review Questions

Ecology Review Questions 1. The food chain above shows (A) one autotroph and two heterotrophs (B) one producer, one autotroph, and one decomposer (C) one producer and two omnivores (D) one heterotroph and two autotrophs 2. Assume

More information

CCR Biology - Chapter 14 Practice Test - Summer 2012

CCR Biology - Chapter 14 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Name: Class: Date: CCR Biology - Chapter 14 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Zebras live on the savannas of

More information

Wolf monitoring in the Alps

Wolf monitoring in the Alps First WISO Conference Innsbruck, 26 th- 28 th April 2012 Wolf monitoring in the Alps F. Marucco, C. Duchamp, E. Avanzinelli, & E. Marboutin The natural wolf recolonization of the Western Alps Innsbruck,

More information

Natural Resource-Based Planning*

Natural Resource-Based Planning* Natural Resource-Based Planning* Planning, when done well, is among the most powerful tools available to communities. A solid plan, based on good natural resource information, guides rational land-use

More information

STATEMENT OF RESEARCH for Kevin McGarigal September 2002

STATEMENT OF RESEARCH for Kevin McGarigal September 2002 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH for Kevin McGarigal September 2002 Goals and Philosophy The goals of my research program are as follows: develop a diverse and productive research program in landscape ecology, provide

More information

SLOW ONSET EVENTS. climate change impacts on BIODIVERSITY

SLOW ONSET EVENTS. climate change impacts on BIODIVERSITY Regional Gateway for Technology Transfer and Climate Change Action in Latin America and the Caribbean (ROLAC UNEP) Characterizing and addressing SLOW ONSET EVENTS climate change impacts on BIODIVERSITY

More information

Colorado Natural Heritage Program

Colorado Natural Heritage Program CNHP s mission is to preserve the natural diversity of life by contributing the essential scientific foundation that leads to lasting conservation of Colorado's biological wealth. Colorado Natural Heritage

More information

Comments on EBR Registry Numbers , and

Comments on EBR Registry Numbers , and January 18, 2016 Minister Bill Mauro Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry Information Centre 300 Water Street Peterborough ON K9J 8M5 Dear Minister Mauro, On behalf of a broad coalition of animal

More information

A Multi-Species Approach for Assessing the Ecological Impact of Urban Development Using Landscape Graphs

A Multi-Species Approach for Assessing the Ecological Impact of Urban Development Using Landscape Graphs A Multi-Species Approach for Assessing the Ecological Impact of Urban Development Using Landscape Graphs, Cécile Tannier Jean-Christophe Foltête, First Congress of the Society for Urban Ecology Progress

More information

STUDY GUIDE ECOLOGY. CHAPTER 21: Populations 1. An overview of ecology. Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environment.

STUDY GUIDE ECOLOGY. CHAPTER 21: Populations 1. An overview of ecology. Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environment. STUDY GUIDE ECOLOGY CHAPTER 21: Populations 1. An overview of ecology. Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environment. 2. A Hierarchy of interactions: cells tissues organs

More information

The word ECOLOGY has come to the forefront of human consciousness and has become a commonly used household word.

The word ECOLOGY has come to the forefront of human consciousness and has become a commonly used household word. NOTES ON BIO 201 GENERAL ECOLOGY INTRODUCTION: WHAT IS ECOLOGY? The word ECOLOGY has come to the forefront of human consciousness and has become a commonly used household word. It has come to be recognized

More information

Proposed Terms of Reference for EIA studies

Proposed Terms of Reference for EIA studies 1 Proposed Terms of Reference for EIA studies Base line data collection will be collected for the Post-Monsoon season 2016 (September to November 2016) in study area and 10 kms radius from project site.

More information

Department of Forest and

Department of Forest and Colorado State University 1 Department of Forest and Rangeland Stewardship Office in Forestry Building, Room 123 (970) 491-6911 warnercnr.colostate.edu/frs-home (http://warnercnr.colostate.edu/ frws-home)

More information

Interactions between rodent borne diseases and climate, and the risks for public and animal health

Interactions between rodent borne diseases and climate, and the risks for public and animal health Interactions between rodent borne diseases and climate, and the risks for public and animal health Mare Lõhmus Climate centrum / SMS / KMF National Veterinary Institute Uppsala, Sweden The source of many

More information

Camp. plan template. elements. This section that need to. identify the. vegetation. of flying-fox. also

Camp. plan template. elements. This section that need to. identify the. vegetation. of flying-fox. also Camp management plan template Introduction The following templatee guides local government in compiling a Camp Management Plan that will facilitate licensing of camp management actions for a five-year

More information

What is Landscape Ecology?

What is Landscape Ecology? Introduction to Landscape Ecology By Kevin McGarigal Disclaimer: Some of the material in this document was borrowed from Turner et al. (2001) and Dean Urban s Landscape Ecology course notes, Duke University.

More information

The Balkan Lynx Recovery Programme -transboundary approach -

The Balkan Lynx Recovery Programme -transboundary approach - The Balkan Lynx Recovery Programme -transboundary approach - Dime Melovski Aleksandar Stojanov Gjorgi Ivanov Vasko Avukatov Alexandër Trajçe Bledi Hoxha Kujtim Mersini Balkan Lynx Recovery Programme Description

More information

Activity 1.6: Food for Thought: Climate Change and Trophic Cascades

Activity 1.6: Food for Thought: Climate Change and Trophic Cascades Activity 1.6: Food for Thought: Climate Change and Trophic Cascades Grades 7 9 Description: Students will read an article about the impact of melting ice on the Arctic food web. Students will diagram food

More information

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM for CLASS IX to X

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM for CLASS IX to X ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM for CLASS IX to X The Royal Society for Protection of Nature (RSPN) in collaboration with Department of Curriculum Research & Development (DCRD) of Ministry of Education

More information

ECOSYSTEM RESPONSES. reflect

ECOSYSTEM RESPONSES. reflect reflect There is a saying, No man is an island, which means that people need one another in order to survive. Everyone on Earth is interconnected in some way. This is not only true of human beings, but

More information

REVIEW UNIT 10: ECOLOGY SAMPLE QUESTIONS

REVIEW UNIT 10: ECOLOGY SAMPLE QUESTIONS Period Date REVIEW UNIT 10: ECOLOGY SAMPLE QUESTIONS A. Sample Multiple Choice Questions Complete the multiple choice questions to review this unit. 1. All of the following are density-dependent factors

More information

Habitat selection by wolves Canis lupus in the uplands and mountains of southern Poland

Habitat selection by wolves Canis lupus in the uplands and mountains of southern Poland Acta Theriologica 50 (3): 417 428, 2005. PL ISSN 0001 7051 Habitat selection by wolves Canis lupus in the uplands and mountains of southern Poland W³odzimierz JÊDRZEJEWSKI, Magdalena NIEDZIA KOWSKA, Robert

More information

Chapter 3 Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems

Chapter 3 Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems Section 1: Community Ecology Section 2: Terrestrial Biomes Section 3: Aquatic Ecosystems Click on a lesson name to select. 3.1 Community Ecology Communities A biological

More information