Solar cycle. Auringonpilkkusykli Heinrich Schwabe: 11 year solar cycle. ~11 years

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Solar cycle. Auringonpilkkusykli. 1844 Heinrich Schwabe: 11 year solar cycle. ~11 years"

Transcription

1 Sun

2 Solar cycle Auringonpilkkusykli 1844 Heinrich Schwabe: 11 year solar cycle ~11 years

3 Auringonpilkkusykli Solar cycle Butterfly diagram: Edward Maunder 1904 New cycle Spots appear at mid-latitudes Migration towards the equator

4 Solar cycle and Earth 1852 Edward Sabine: clear connection between the sunspot number and geomagnetic activity at Earth 80 Sunspot number AA indeksi

5 Where we are: 09/2014

6 Solar wind 6

7 Why solar wind? There must be a mechanism to transfer solar activity to the Earth: Lindeman 1919: Quasi-neutral gas emissions from the Sun Chapman 1929: Solar flares emit plasma clouds Chapman and Ferraro 1931: Sun emits particle bursts which cause magnetic storms Ludwig Biermann 1951: Cometary tails require a fast corpuscular flow in addition to radiation pressure Solar wind-induced tail (ions) continuous solar wind Hale-Bopp Radiation pressure tail (neutral/dust)

8 Theory of solar wind formation Let s first investigate coronal plasma in the gravitational field of the Sun Tool: MHD Continuity equation and equation of momentum: r +Ñ rv = 0 t v r + rv Ñ v =-Ñ p + J B + rg t Assume steady plasma flow and spherical symmetry (physical properties functions of r only), neglect magnetic forces Þ 1 d 2 rvr = 0 2 r dr dv dp GM rv =- -r dr dr r 2 S

9 Chapman s attempt to solution (1957) Chapmann assumed that the corona is in equilibrium dp GM Þ - - r = dr r e 0 2 Pressure balance between pressure gradient and gravitation in a static atmosphere p p= 2nkT Þ r = m 2 kt ìgmemæ1 1 öü Solution for pressure: p( r) = p0 exp í ç - ý î 2kT èr Røþ Where: p( Re) = p0 at the base of corona r R p p 0 > < e

10 Assume heat outflow through a sphere (radius r) const. where the heat conduction coefficient is With the boundary conditions: T = T 0, when r = R 8, and T 0 when r Letting T 0 = 10 6 K, the temperature at 1 AU is 10 5 K, which is quite OK. the pressure becomes which at r approaches to a constant that is many orders of magnitudes higher than the pressure thought to exist in the interstellar medium

11 Parker s solution (1958): Isothermally expanding solar wind Apparently Chapman s static solution cannot represent an equilibrium state between corona and the interstellar space. (however, it correctly suggested that interplanetary space is filled with solar plasma) Parker reconsidered the problem with non-zero flow speed 1 d 2 rvr = 0 2 r dr dv dp GM rv =- -r dr dr r e 2 2 r vr = const. 2 Þ 4p r nv = const. i.e. mass flow through a sphere with surface area 4pr 2 Although the solar wind certainly cools when expanding, assume that the expansion is isothermal (T = const.)

12 Þ where is the isothermal sound speed (g = 1) this equation has a critical point: with critical radius: r c = GM 2v e 2 c v= v c v < v c : subsonic solar wind v > v c : supersonic solar wind Integration gives a family of curves:

13 Five regimes of solutions not consistent with observations unphysical unphysical stellar breeze (subsonic: v < v c ) Solution IV through the critical point ( C = 3) is the solar wind: subsonic near the Sun supersonic beyond the critical point Parker predicted the existence of a continuous supersonic expansion of corona

14 The wind velocity of an isothermal Parker wind, for different values of the temperature T0.

15 Observations of solar wind first observations: Soviet Lunik-2 and Lunik-3 probes in 1960 Mariner 2 while flying towards Venus confirmed the continuous solar wind and observed in it fast and slow streams repeating at 27-day interval Skylab : coronal holes sources of fast solar wind streams Ulysses: latitudinal variations of the solar wind (October 1990s ->) - perihelion 1.3 AU - aphelion 5.3 AU Helios 1 & 2: - Launched: Helios 1 December 1974 Helios 2 January perihelion within the orbit of Mercury, 0.3 AU

16 currently monitoring the upstream solar wind: SOHO, Wind, ACE, SDO, Stereo Satellites at L1 monitoring the solar wind: - Wind (launched Nov 1994) - ACE (launched Aug 1997) - SOHO (launched Dec 1995) Lagrangian points: five positions where the gravitational pull of the two large masses precisely cancels the centripetal acceleration required to rotate with them

17 Energy considerations Is there enough free energy in the coronal base for accelerating the solar wind? assume: e, p +, let n = n(r), T = T(r), n e» n p» n thermal energy of the gas in volume V The free energy is the enthalpy: should be enough to win gravitational potential energy density Assuming T = K E» 0.5 F Not enough for expansion! There must be (a) mechanism(s) to pump extra energy (Q) to the gas Observations: E + Q» F Magnetic field neglected in above treatment

18 Toward more realistic models Unrealistic assumptions of the Parker model include: - constant temperature - predicts that the solar wind speed grows to infinity Energy equation: Takes into account cooling of the expanding Sun k = k 0 T 5/2 ; k 0» Wm 1 K 1 ; T is given in Kelvin F is the observed energy flux far from the Sun Combination of Parker s expanding wind and Chapman s heat transfer

19 Solar wind properties consists primarily of protons and electrons, 5% of alpha particles + several types of heavier ions At 1 AU: Average is a quite meaningless concept here!

20 1. Fast wind in high speed streams High speed kms -1 Low density 3 cm -3 Low particle flux 2 x 10 8 cm -2 s -1 Helium content 3.6%, stationary Source Signatures The two basic types of solar wind coronal holes stationary for long times, all streams are alike, Alfvénic fluctuations 2. Low speed wind of "interstream" type Low speed kms -1 High density 10 cm -3 High particle flux 3.7 x 10 8 cm -2 s -1 Helium content below 2%, highly variable Source Signatures helmet streamers near current sheet, generally very variable, sector boundaries imbedded,

21 Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) solar wind carries the Sun s magnetic field throughout the solar system magnetic field is frozen into the solar wind recall: magnetic Reynolds number in the near Earth solar wind average magnitude at 1 AU: ~ 6 nt

22 solar wind blows out radially field frozen- into the solar wind sources of the IMF attached to the rotating Sun

23 The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Let s derive the form of the spiral close to the Sun: radial flow, B is nearly radial assume, that flow remains radial B is frozen-in to the rotating surface and to the outflowing plasma Flow speed perp.to B : V = V sin Y For large r : Archimedes spiral known in this context as the Parker spiral V sin Y = W( r - R 8 )cos Y Þ tan Y = W( r - R V 8 )

24 Calculation of B: Assume that B is radial and constant on the surface. 1. Radial component on the equatorial plane Write B and V in spherical coordinates (r,q,f): Now Þ B µ r - r 2 2. Azimuthal component in the equatorial plane Induction equation: Ñ ( V B) = 0 Þ Thus at large distances B µ r - and B 1 f B f spiral field

25 3. Off-equatorial (q p /2) B is more complicated i.e., the winding opens up toward high latitudes B Thus, far from the Sun: B The spiral angle is» 44º at Earth (1 AU)» 57º at Mars (1.5 AU)» 88º at Neptune (30 AU) f f r r -1-2 in the ecliptic (tight spiral) in the polar directions

26 Above analysis assumes that the IMF is too weak to affect the coronal outflow i.e. magnetic energy density 2 B 2m is much less than the kinetic energy density 0 ru 2 2 Þ v> V A (Alfven speed) where A At 1 AU: v ~10 V A Close to the base of corona: u << V A The distance where solar wind becomes super-alfvenic (magnetic equals kinetic energy density) is denoted by Alfven radius r A

27 Angular momentum loss solar magnetic field plays an important role in the angular momentum loss magnetic field enforces co-rotation with the Sun out to the Alfvén radius Write the force balance as Use Ampère s law and multiply by r 3 to get The mass flux r 2 r m V r and the magnetic flux r 2 B r are constants and integration gives where the constant of integration L contains the mechanical angular momentum and angular momentum carried with the magnetic field

28 use Br Vr = B V -rw f f to replace B f : Þ where is the the radial Alfvén Mach number

29 When r=r A, V r = V A and M A =1 Observations: r A» 12 R 8 r=r A Co-rotating Thus the angular momentum of the Sun decreases due to the solar wind: Magnetic braking Angular momentum transferred form the Sun by the magnetic field to the charged particles

30 Sources of the solar wind: Coronal holes plasma escapes on open flux tubes Corona seen during solar eclipses helmet streamer plasma confined by magnetic field near solar minimum - clear polar holes near solar maximum - holes all over the Sun

31 solar minimum: large polar coronal hole

32 Coronal holes may remain stable over many solar rotations

33 How does the real solar wind look like? Formation of the heliospheric current sheet (Pneuman and Knopp)

34 The real current sheet is curved Ballerina skirt (Alfvén) The Earth can be toward sector or in away sector

35 OMNI data, May 2007 red: towards sector green: away sector

36 The ballerina dancing through the solar cycle Maximum The magnetic topology of the large-scale heliosphere Minimum Hoeksema, 1995 Minimum

37 Coordinate Systems X Geocentric Solar Ecliptic (GSE) X = Earth-Sun Line Z = Ecliptic North Pole Y Geocentric Solar Magnetic (GSM) W E X = Earth-Sun Line Z = Projection of dipole axis on GSE YZ plane Radial Tangential Normal (RTN) R R = Sun to Spacecraft unit vector T = (Wx R) / (W x R) where Omega is Sun's spin axis N completes the right-handed triad T (spacecraft centred coordinate system) W E

38 Magnetic field magnitude (nt) Temperature (K) Density (cm -3 ) Speed (km/s)

39 Transient solar wind component coronal mass ejections B mag T Np Vp Gosling et al., 1987

40 Disturbed solar wind

41

42 Ulysses observations

43

44 Minimum and maximum epochs are very different!

45 The heliosphere

46 The heliosphere Estimate of the heliospheric boundary in the upstream interstellar wind Pressure balance: In solar wind (S) dynamic pressure dominates everywhere V constant up to termination shock The interstellar side (G) less well-known pressure 0.1 ppa or less Heliopause Termination shock at» 140 AU at about 2/3 of the distance to heliopause

47 Bastille Day: Interplanetary observations Magnetic field magnitude (nt) ~60 nt North-south component (nt) Intense southward IMF for several hours! Speed (km/s) Speed > 1000 km/s Dynamic pressure (npa) shock 28 hours travel time Magnetic cloud 47

The solar wind (in 90 minutes) Mathew Owens

The solar wind (in 90 minutes) Mathew Owens The solar wind (in 90 minutes) Mathew Owens 5 th Sept 2013 STFC Advanced Summer School m.j.owens@reading.ac.uk Overview There s simply too much to cover in 90 minutes Hope to touch on: Formation of the

More information

The Solar Wind. Chapter 5. 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Description

The Solar Wind. Chapter 5. 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Description Chapter 5 The Solar Wind 5.1 Introduction The solar wind is a flow of ionized solar plasma and an associated remnant of the solar magnetic field that pervades interplanetary space. It is a result of the

More information

Coronal expansion and solar wind

Coronal expansion and solar wind Coronal expansion and solar wind The solar corona over the solar cycle Coronal and interplanetary temperatures Coronal expansion and solar wind acceleration Origin of solar wind in magnetic network Multi-fluid

More information

Solar Wind: Theory. Parker s solar wind theory

Solar Wind: Theory. Parker s solar wind theory Solar Wind: Theory The supersonic outflow of electrically charged particles, mainly electrons and protons from the solar CORONA, is called the SOLAR WIND. The solar wind was described theoretically by

More information

Solar atmosphere. Solar activity and solar wind. Reading for this week: Chap. 6.2, 6.3, 6.5, 6.7 Homework #2 (posted on website) due Oct.

Solar atmosphere. Solar activity and solar wind. Reading for this week: Chap. 6.2, 6.3, 6.5, 6.7 Homework #2 (posted on website) due Oct. Solar activity and solar wind Solar atmosphere Reading for this week: Chap. 6.2, 6.3, 6.5, 6.7 Homework #2 (posted on website) due Oct. 17 Photosphere - visible surface of sun. Only ~100 km thick. Features

More information

Bulk properties of the slow and fast solar wind and interplanetary coronal mass ejections measured by Ulysses: Three polar orbits of observations

Bulk properties of the slow and fast solar wind and interplanetary coronal mass ejections measured by Ulysses: Three polar orbits of observations Click Here for Full Article JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 114,, doi:10.1029/2008ja013631, 2009 Bulk properties of the slow and fast solar wind and interplanetary coronal mass ejections measured

More information

SPACE WEATHER INTERPRETING THE WIND. Petra Vanlommel & Luciano Rodriguez

SPACE WEATHER INTERPRETING THE WIND. Petra Vanlommel & Luciano Rodriguez SPACE WEATHER INTERPRETING THE WIND Petra Vanlommel & Luciano Rodriguez THE SUN LOSES ENERGY Radiation Mass Particles THE SUN LOSES ENERGY PHYSICAL REPHRASING Total Solar Irradiance Solar Wind Fast Particles

More information

GEOPHYSICS AND GEOCHEMISTRY - Vol.III - Solar Wind And Interplanetary Magnetic Field - Schwenn R. SOLAR WIND AND INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC FIELD

GEOPHYSICS AND GEOCHEMISTRY - Vol.III - Solar Wind And Interplanetary Magnetic Field - Schwenn R. SOLAR WIND AND INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC FIELD SOLAR WIND AND INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC FIELD Schwenn R. Max-Planck-Institut für Aeronomie, Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany Keywords: Sun, corona, solar wind, plasma, magnetic field, reconnection, coronal mass

More information

Solar Wind: Global Properties

Solar Wind: Global Properties Solar Wind: Global Properties The most fundamental problem in solar system research is still unsolved: how can the Sun with a surface temperature of only 5800 K heat up its atmosphere to more than a million

More information

Exemplar Problems Physics

Exemplar Problems Physics Chapter Eight GRAVITATION MCQ I 8.1 The earth is an approximate sphere. If the interior contained matter which is not of the same density everywhere, then on the surface of the earth, the acceleration

More information

Justin C. Kasper Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics 2012 Heliophysics Summer School Boulder, CO

Justin C. Kasper Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics 2012 Heliophysics Summer School Boulder, CO The Solar Wind Justin C. Kasper Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics 2012 Heliophysics Summer School Boulder, CO Goals Origin of the solar wind Historical understanding of the solar wind Why study

More information

Solar System Fundamentals. What is a Planet? Planetary orbits Planetary temperatures Planetary Atmospheres Origin of the Solar System

Solar System Fundamentals. What is a Planet? Planetary orbits Planetary temperatures Planetary Atmospheres Origin of the Solar System Solar System Fundamentals What is a Planet? Planetary orbits Planetary temperatures Planetary Atmospheres Origin of the Solar System Properties of Planets What is a planet? Defined finally in August 2006!

More information

Solar Ast ro p h y s ics

Solar Ast ro p h y s ics Peter V. Foukal Solar Ast ro p h y s ics Second, Revised Edition WI LEY- VCH WILEY-VCH Verlag Co. KCaA Contents Preface 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.3

More information

Statistical Study of Magnetic Reconnection in the Solar Wind

Statistical Study of Magnetic Reconnection in the Solar Wind WDS'13 Proceedings of Contributed Papers, Part II, 7 12, 2013. ISBN 978-80-7378-251-1 MATFYZPRESS Statistical Study of Magnetic Reconnection in the Solar Wind J. Enžl, L. Přech, J. Šafránková, and Z. Němeček

More information

1 Stellar winds and magnetic fields

1 Stellar winds and magnetic fields 1 Stellar winds and magnetic fields by Viggo Hansteen The solar wind is responsible for maintaining the heliosphere, and for being the driving agent in the magnetospheres of the planets but also for being

More information

Heating & Cooling in Molecular Clouds

Heating & Cooling in Molecular Clouds Lecture 8: Cloud Stability Heating & Cooling in Molecular Clouds Balance of heating and cooling processes helps to set the temperature in the gas. This then sets the minimum internal pressure in a core

More information

The microstate of the solar wind

The microstate of the solar wind The microstate of the solar wind Radial gradients of kinetic temperatures Velocity distribution functions Ion composition and suprathermal electrons Coulomb collisions in the solar wind Waves and plasma

More information

Halliday, Resnick & Walker Chapter 13. Gravitation. Physics 1A PHYS1121 Professor Michael Burton

Halliday, Resnick & Walker Chapter 13. Gravitation. Physics 1A PHYS1121 Professor Michael Burton Halliday, Resnick & Walker Chapter 13 Gravitation Physics 1A PHYS1121 Professor Michael Burton II_A2: Planetary Orbits in the Solar System + Galaxy Interactions (You Tube) 21 seconds 13-1 Newton's Law

More information

Presentation of problem T1 (9 points): The Maribo Meteorite

Presentation of problem T1 (9 points): The Maribo Meteorite Presentation of problem T1 (9 points): The Maribo Meteorite Definitions Meteoroid. A small particle (typically smaller than 1 m) from a comet or an asteroid. Meteorite: A meteoroid that impacts the ground

More information

Sound. References: L.D. Landau & E.M. Lifshitz: Fluid Mechanics, Chapter VIII F. Shu: The Physics of Astrophysics, Vol. 2, Gas Dynamics, Chapter 8

Sound. References: L.D. Landau & E.M. Lifshitz: Fluid Mechanics, Chapter VIII F. Shu: The Physics of Astrophysics, Vol. 2, Gas Dynamics, Chapter 8 References: Sound L.D. Landau & E.M. Lifshitz: Fluid Mechanics, Chapter VIII F. Shu: The Physics of Astrophysics, Vol., Gas Dynamics, Chapter 8 1 Speed of sound The phenomenon of sound waves is one that

More information

The sun and the solar corona

The sun and the solar corona The sun and the solar corona Introduction The Sun of our solar system is a typical star of intermediate size and luminosity. Its radius is about 696000 km, and it rotates with a period that increases with

More information

Using spacecraft measurements ahead of Earth in the Parker spiral to improve terrestrial space weather forecasts

Using spacecraft measurements ahead of Earth in the Parker spiral to improve terrestrial space weather forecasts SPACE WEATHER, VOL. 9,, doi:10.1029/2010sw000627, 2011 Using spacecraft measurements ahead of Earth in the Parker spiral to improve terrestrial space weather forecasts D. L. Turner 1,2 and X. Li 1,2 Received

More information

Solar Storms and Northern lights - how to predict Space Weather and the Aurora

Solar Storms and Northern lights - how to predict Space Weather and the Aurora Solar Storms and Northern lights - how to predict Space Weather and the Aurora Pål Brekke Norwegian Space Centre/UNIS Pål Brekke torsdag 12. mars 15 Fleet of satellites watching the Sun Stereo SDO SOHO

More information

The Sun. Solar radiation (Sun Earth-Relationships) The Sun. The Sun. Our Sun

The Sun. Solar radiation (Sun Earth-Relationships) The Sun. The Sun. Our Sun The Sun Solar Factoids (I) The sun, a medium-size star in the milky way galaxy, consisting of about 300 billion stars. (Sun Earth-Relationships) A gaseous sphere of radius about 695 500 km (about 109 times

More information

Notes: Most of the material in this chapter is taken from Young and Freedman, Chap. 13.

Notes: Most of the material in this chapter is taken from Young and Freedman, Chap. 13. Chapter 5. Gravitation Notes: Most of the material in this chapter is taken from Young and Freedman, Chap. 13. 5.1 Newton s Law of Gravitation We have already studied the effects of gravity through the

More information

DYNAMICS OF GALAXIES

DYNAMICS OF GALAXIES DYNAMICS OF GALAXIES 2. and stellar orbits Piet van der Kruit Kapteyn Astronomical Institute University of Groningen the Netherlands Winter 2008/9 and stellar orbits Contents Range of timescales Two-body

More information

Halliday, Resnick & Walker Chapter 13. Gravitation. Physics 1A PHYS1121 Professor Michael Burton

Halliday, Resnick & Walker Chapter 13. Gravitation. Physics 1A PHYS1121 Professor Michael Burton Halliday, Resnick & Walker Chapter 13 Gravitation Physics 1A PHYS1121 Professor Michael Burton II_A2: Planetary Orbits in the Solar System + Galaxy Interactions (You Tube) 21 seconds 13-1 Newton's Law

More information

Astronomy 100 Exam 2

Astronomy 100 Exam 2 1 Prof. Mo Exam Version A Astronomy 100 Exam 2 INSTRUCTIONS: Write your name and ID number on BOTH this sheet and the computer grading form. Use a #2 Pencil on the computer grading form. Be careful to

More information

Name Class Date. true

Name Class Date. true Exercises 131 The Falling Apple (page 233) 1 Describe the legend of Newton s discovery that gravity extends throughout the universe According to legend, Newton saw an apple fall from a tree and realized

More information

Use the following information to deduce that the gravitational field strength at the surface of the Earth is approximately 10 N kg 1.

Use the following information to deduce that the gravitational field strength at the surface of the Earth is approximately 10 N kg 1. IB PHYSICS: Gravitational Forces Review 1. This question is about gravitation and ocean tides. (b) State Newton s law of universal gravitation. Use the following information to deduce that the gravitational

More information

The Solar Wind Interaction with the Earth s Magnetosphere: A Tutorial. C. T. Russell

The Solar Wind Interaction with the Earth s Magnetosphere: A Tutorial. C. T. Russell The Solar Wind Interaction with the Earth s Magnetosphere: A Tutorial C. T. Russell Department of Earth and Space Sciences and Institute of Geophysics and Space Physics University of California Los Angeles

More information

Coronal Hole Properties in Solar Cycle 24

Coronal Hole Properties in Solar Cycle 24 Coronal Hole Properties in Solar Cycle 24 Adrián Arteaga Harvard College Dr. Mari Paz Miralles Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics What is a Coronal Hole? Regions of open magnetic flux in the solar

More information

This paper is also taken for the relevant Examination for the Associateship. For Second Year Physics Students Wednesday, 4th June 2008: 14:00 to 16:00

This paper is also taken for the relevant Examination for the Associateship. For Second Year Physics Students Wednesday, 4th June 2008: 14:00 to 16:00 Imperial College London BSc/MSci EXAMINATION June 2008 This paper is also taken for the relevant Examination for the Associateship SUN, STARS, PLANETS For Second Year Physics Students Wednesday, 4th June

More information

Lesson 3: Isothermal Hydrostatic Spheres. B68: a self-gravitating stable cloud. Hydrostatic self-gravitating spheres. P = "kt 2.

Lesson 3: Isothermal Hydrostatic Spheres. B68: a self-gravitating stable cloud. Hydrostatic self-gravitating spheres. P = kt 2. Lesson 3: Isothermal Hydrostatic Spheres B68: a self-gravitating stable cloud Bok Globule Relatively isolated, hence not many external disturbances Though not main mode of star formation, their isolation

More information

CHAPTER 11. The total energy of the body in its orbit is a constant and is given by the sum of the kinetic and potential energies

CHAPTER 11. The total energy of the body in its orbit is a constant and is given by the sum of the kinetic and potential energies CHAPTER 11 SATELLITE ORBITS 11.1 Orbital Mechanics Newton's laws of motion provide the basis for the orbital mechanics. Newton's three laws are briefly (a) the law of inertia which states that a body at

More information

Motion and Gravity in Space

Motion and Gravity in Space Motion and Gravity in Space Each planet spins on its axis. The spinning of a body, such a planet, on its axis is called rotation. The orbit is the path that a body follows as it travels around another

More information

The Four Seasons. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. The Moon s Phases

The Four Seasons. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. The Moon s Phases The Four Seasons A Warm Up Exercise What fraction of the Moon s surface is illuminated by the Sun (except during a lunar eclipse)? a) Between zero and one-half b) The whole surface c) Always half d) Depends

More information

Solar Wind and Interplanetary Magnetic Field: A Tutorial. C. T. Russell

Solar Wind and Interplanetary Magnetic Field: A Tutorial. C. T. Russell Solar Wind and Interplanetary Magnetic Field: A Tutorial C. T. Russell Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics and Department of Earth and Space Sciences University of California, Los Angles California

More information

Simultaneous Heliospheric Imager and Interplanetary Scintillation observations of CMEs and CIRs

Simultaneous Heliospheric Imager and Interplanetary Scintillation observations of CMEs and CIRs Simultaneous Heliospheric Imager and Interplanetary Scintillation observations of CMEs and CIRs Gareth D. Dorrian (gdd05@aber.ac.uk) 1, Andy R. Breen 1, Jackie A. Davies 2, Alexis P. Rouillard 3, Mario

More information

2. Orbits. FER-Zagreb, Satellite communication systems 2011/12

2. Orbits. FER-Zagreb, Satellite communication systems 2011/12 2. Orbits Topics Orbit types Kepler and Newton laws Coverage area Influence of Earth 1 Orbit types According to inclination angle Equatorial Polar Inclinational orbit According to shape Circular orbit

More information

Coordinate Systems. Orbits and Rotation

Coordinate Systems. Orbits and Rotation Coordinate Systems Orbits and Rotation Earth orbit. The earth s orbit around the sun is nearly circular but not quite. It s actually an ellipse whose average distance from the sun is one AU (150 million

More information

The heliosphere-interstellar medium interaction: One shock or two?

The heliosphere-interstellar medium interaction: One shock or two? 1 The heliosphere-interstellar medium interaction: One shock or two? John D. Richardson M.I.T. Abstract. The issue of whether a shock forms in the interstellar medium as it approaches the heliopause has

More information

Solar System. 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X?

Solar System. 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X? Solar System 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X? A) Earth B) Sun C) Moon D) Polaris 2. Which object orbits Earth in both the Earth-centered

More information

Acceleration of the solar wind as a result of the reconnection of open magnetic flux with coronal loops

Acceleration of the solar wind as a result of the reconnection of open magnetic flux with coronal loops JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 108, NO. A4, 1157, doi:10.1029/2002ja009284, 2003 Acceleration of the solar wind as a result of the reconnection of open magnetic flux with coronal loops L. A. Fisk

More information

Astrodynamics (AERO0024)

Astrodynamics (AERO0024) Astrodynamics (AERO0024) 6. Interplanetary Trajectories Gaëtan Kerschen Space Structures & Systems Lab (S3L) Course Outline THEMATIC UNIT 1: ORBITAL DYNAMICS Lecture 02: The Two-Body Problem Lecture 03:

More information

Chapter 3.8 & 6 Solutions

Chapter 3.8 & 6 Solutions Chapter 3.8 & 6 Solutions P3.37. Prepare: We are asked to find period, speed and acceleration. Period and frequency are inverses according to Equation 3.26. To find speed we need to know the distance traveled

More information

Coronal Heating Problem

Coronal Heating Problem Mani Chandra Arnab Dhabal Raziman T V PHY690C Course Project Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Outline 1 2 3 Source of the energy Mechanism of energy dissipation Proposed mechanisms Regions of the

More information

Temperature anisotropy in the solar wind

Temperature anisotropy in the solar wind Introduction Observations Simulations Summary in the solar wind Petr Hellinger Institute of Atmospheric Physics & Astronomical Institute AS CR, Prague, Czech Republic Kinetic Instabilities, Plasma Turbulence

More information

Physics 9e/Cutnell. correlated to the. College Board AP Physics 1 Course Objectives

Physics 9e/Cutnell. correlated to the. College Board AP Physics 1 Course Objectives Physics 9e/Cutnell correlated to the College Board AP Physics 1 Course Objectives Big Idea 1: Objects and systems have properties such as mass and charge. Systems may have internal structure. Enduring

More information

Name: João Fernando Alves da Silva Class: 7-4 Number: 10

Name: João Fernando Alves da Silva Class: 7-4 Number: 10 Name: João Fernando Alves da Silva Class: 7-4 Number: 10 What is the constitution of the Solar System? The Solar System is constituted not only by planets, which have satellites, but also by thousands

More information

Class 2 Solar System Characteristics Formation Exosolar Planets

Class 2 Solar System Characteristics Formation Exosolar Planets Class 1 Introduction, Background History of Modern Astronomy The Night Sky, Eclipses and the Seasons Kepler's Laws Newtonian Gravity General Relativity Matter and Light Telescopes Class 2 Solar System

More information

Fluid Mechanics Prof. S. K. Som Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Fluid Mechanics Prof. S. K. Som Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Fluid Mechanics Prof. S. K. Som Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture - 20 Conservation Equations in Fluid Flow Part VIII Good morning. I welcome you all

More information

A three-dimensional MHD solar wind model with pickup protons

A three-dimensional MHD solar wind model with pickup protons Click Here for Full Article JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 111,, doi:10.109/005ja011533, 006 A three-dimensional MHD solar wind model with pickup protons A. V. Usmanov 1, and M. L. Goldstein 3 Received

More information

WELCOME to Aurorae In the Solar System. J.E. Klemaszewski

WELCOME to Aurorae In the Solar System. J.E. Klemaszewski WELCOME to Aurorae In the Solar System Aurorae in the Solar System Sponsoring Projects Galileo Europa Mission Jupiter System Data Analysis Program ACRIMSAT Supporting Projects Ulysses Project Outer Planets

More information

White Dwarf Properties and the Degenerate Electron Gas

White Dwarf Properties and the Degenerate Electron Gas White Dwarf Properties and the Degenerate Electron Gas Nicholas Rowell April 10, 2008 Contents 1 Introduction 2 1.1 Discovery....................................... 2 1.2 Survey Techniques..................................

More information

MAGNETIC FORCE ON AN ELECTRIC CHARGE

MAGNETIC FORCE ON AN ELECTRIC CHARGE DO PHYSICS ONLINE MOTORS AND GENERATORS MAGNETIC ORCE ON AN ELECTRIC CHARGE Experiments show that moing electric charges are deflected in magnetic fields. Hence, moing electric charges experience forces

More information

Interaction of Energy and Matter Gravity Measurement: Using Doppler Shifts to Measure Mass Concentration TEACHER GUIDE

Interaction of Energy and Matter Gravity Measurement: Using Doppler Shifts to Measure Mass Concentration TEACHER GUIDE Interaction of Energy and Matter Gravity Measurement: Using Doppler Shifts to Measure Mass Concentration TEACHER GUIDE EMR and the Dawn Mission Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) will play a major role in

More information

Space Weather: An Introduction C. L. Waters. Centre for Space Physics University of Newcastle, Australia

Space Weather: An Introduction C. L. Waters. Centre for Space Physics University of Newcastle, Australia Space Weather: An Introduction C. L. Waters Centre for Space Physics University of Newcastle, Australia 1 Outline Space weather: Conditions on the Sun and in the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere and

More information

Lecture 10 Formation of the Solar System January 6c, 2014

Lecture 10 Formation of the Solar System January 6c, 2014 1 Lecture 10 Formation of the Solar System January 6c, 2014 2 Orbits of the Planets 3 Clues for the Formation of the SS All planets orbit in roughly the same plane about the Sun. All planets orbit in the

More information

Chapter 15.3 Galaxy Evolution

Chapter 15.3 Galaxy Evolution Chapter 15.3 Galaxy Evolution Elliptical Galaxies Spiral Galaxies Irregular Galaxies Are there any connections between the three types of galaxies? How do galaxies form? How do galaxies evolve? P.S. You

More information

A Solar Cycle Prediction Puzzle s Possible Explanation?

A Solar Cycle Prediction Puzzle s Possible Explanation? A Solar Cycle Prediction Puzzle s Possible Explanation? Janet Luhmann Space Sciences Laboratory University of California, Berkeley With thanks for many related interactions with my long-time collaborators

More information

Steady Heat Conduction

Steady Heat Conduction Steady Heat Conduction In thermodynamics, we considered the amount of heat transfer as a system undergoes a process from one equilibrium state to another. hermodynamics gives no indication of how long

More information

EDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1

EDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1 Instructor: L. M. Khandro EDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1 1. An arc second is a measure of a. time interval between oscillations of a standard clock b. time

More information

The Layout of the Solar System

The Layout of the Solar System The Layout of the Solar System Planets fall into two main categories Terrestrial (i.e. Earth-like) Jovian (i.e. Jupiter-like or gaseous) [~5000 kg/m 3 ] [~1300 kg/m 3 ] What is density? Average density

More information

Group Leader: Group Members:

Group Leader: Group Members: THE SOLAR SYSTEM PROJECT: TOPIC: THE SUN Required Project Content for an Oral/Poster Presentation on THE SUN - What it s made of - Age and how it formed (provide pictures or diagrams) - What is an AU?

More information

Solar Forcing of Electron and Ion Auroral Inputs

Solar Forcing of Electron and Ion Auroral Inputs Solar Forcing of Electron and Ion Auroral Inputs Barbara A. Emery (NCAR), Ian G. Richardson (GSFC), David S. Evans (NOAA), Frederick J. Rich (LL/MIT), Gordon Wilson (AFRL), Sarah Gibson (NCAR), Giuliana

More information

Solar Flux and Flux Density. Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle. Solar Energy Incident On the Earth. Solar Flux Density Reaching Earth

Solar Flux and Flux Density. Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle. Solar Energy Incident On the Earth. Solar Flux Density Reaching Earth Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle Solar Flux and Flux Density Planetary energy balance Greenhouse Effect Vertical energy balance Latitudinal energy balance Seasonal and diurnal cycles Solar Luminosity (L)

More information

METIS Coronagraph on Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Synergies. INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino (Italy) & the METIS Team

METIS Coronagraph on Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Synergies. INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino (Italy) & the METIS Team METIS Coronagraph on Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Synergies Silvano Fineschi INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino (Italy) & the METIS Team 3rd METIS Scientific and Technical Meeting Napoli 17 th

More information

Chapter 13. Gravitation

Chapter 13. Gravitation Chapter 13 Gravitation 13.2 Newton s Law of Gravitation In vector notation: Here m 1 and m 2 are the masses of the particles, r is the distance between them, and G is the gravitational constant. G = 6.67

More information

Answers. Sun, Earth, Moon. Year 7 Science Chapter 10

Answers. Sun, Earth, Moon. Year 7 Science Chapter 10 Answers Sun, Earth, Moon Year 7 Science Chapter 10 p216 1 Geocentric indicates a model in which Earth is the centre of the universe. 2 Pythagoras reasoning was that the sphere is the perfect shape and

More information

THE SOLAR SYSTEM - EXERCISES 1

THE SOLAR SYSTEM - EXERCISES 1 THE SOLAR SYSTEM - EXERCISES 1 THE SUN AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM Name the planets in their order from the sun. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The asteroid belt is between and Which planet has the most moons? About how many?

More information

Acceleration of the Solar Wind as a Result of the Reconnection of Open Magnetic Flux with Coronal Loops

Acceleration of the Solar Wind as a Result of the Reconnection of Open Magnetic Flux with Coronal Loops Acceleration of the Solar Wind as a Result of the Reconnection of Open Magnetic Flux with Coronal Loops L. A. Fisk 1, G. Gloeckler 1,2, T. H. Zurbuchen 1, J. Geiss 3, and N. A. Schwadron 4 1 Department

More information

Angular Velocity vs. Linear Velocity

Angular Velocity vs. Linear Velocity MATH 7 Angular Velocity vs. Linear Velocity Dr. Neal, WKU Given an object with a fixed speed that is moving in a circle with a fixed ius, we can define the angular velocity of the object. That is, we can

More information

Understanding the motion of the Universe. Motion, Force, and Gravity

Understanding the motion of the Universe. Motion, Force, and Gravity Understanding the motion of the Universe Motion, Force, and Gravity Laws of Motion Stationary objects do not begin moving on their own. In the same way, moving objects don t change their movement spontaneously.

More information

STUDY GUIDE: Earth Sun Moon

STUDY GUIDE: Earth Sun Moon The Universe is thought to consist of trillions of galaxies. Our galaxy, the Milky Way, has billions of stars. One of those stars is our Sun. Our solar system consists of the Sun at the center, and all

More information

Page. ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS (Page 4).

Page. ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS (Page 4). Star: ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS ( 4). Ball of gas that generates energy by nuclear fusion in its includes white dwarfs, protostars, neutron stars. Planet: Object (solid or gaseous) that orbits a star. Radius

More information

The Earth s magnetosphere

The Earth s magnetosphere The Earth s magnetosphere 1 Re-call: Earth s magnetosphere C. Russell, The solar wind interaction with the Earth s magnetosphere: Tutorial 2 Magnetospheres Term introduced by Thomas Gold in 1959 Not a

More information

Wave-particle and wave-wave interactions in the Solar Wind: simulations and observations

Wave-particle and wave-wave interactions in the Solar Wind: simulations and observations Wave-particle and wave-wave interactions in the Solar Wind: simulations and observations Lorenzo Matteini University of Florence, Italy In collaboration with Petr Hellinger, Simone Landi, and Marco Velli

More information

Coronal Magnetic Field Measurements: Space Weather Forecasting Needs

Coronal Magnetic Field Measurements: Space Weather Forecasting Needs Coronal Magnetic Field Measurements: Space Weather Forecasting Needs D.N. Baker Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences Department of Physics University

More information

The Origin of the Solar System and Other Planetary Systems

The Origin of the Solar System and Other Planetary Systems The Origin of the Solar System and Other Planetary Systems Modeling Planet Formation Boundary Conditions Nebular Hypothesis Fixing Problems Role of Catastrophes Planets of Other Stars Modeling Planet Formation

More information

Physics 2A, Sec B00: Mechanics -- Winter 2011 Instructor: B. Grinstein Final Exam

Physics 2A, Sec B00: Mechanics -- Winter 2011 Instructor: B. Grinstein Final Exam Physics 2A, Sec B00: Mechanics -- Winter 2011 Instructor: B. Grinstein Final Exam INSTRUCTIONS: Use a pencil #2 to fill your scantron. Write your code number and bubble it in under "EXAM NUMBER;" an entry

More information

Correlation of speed and temperature in the solar wind

Correlation of speed and temperature in the solar wind Click Here for Full Article JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 111,, doi:10.1029/2006ja011636, 2006 Correlation of speed and temperature in the solar wind W. H. Matthaeus, 1 H. A. Elliott, 2 and D.

More information

Progress Towards the Solar Dynamics Observatory

Progress Towards the Solar Dynamics Observatory Progress Towards the Solar Dynamics Observatory Barbara J. Thompson SDO Project Scientist W. Dean Pesnell SDO Assistant Project Scientist Page 1 SDO OVERVIEW Mission Science Objectives The primary goal

More information

Name: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due in class Tuesday, Jan. 20, 2015

Name: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due in class Tuesday, Jan. 20, 2015 Name: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due in class Tuesday, Jan. 20, 2015 Why are celestial motions and forces important? They explain the world around

More information

SINP SPACE MONITORING DATA CENTER PORTAL

SINP SPACE MONITORING DATA CENTER PORTAL SINP SPACE MONITORING DATA CENTER PORTAL Parunakian D.A. 1, Kalegaev V.V. 2, Bobrovnikov S.Yu. 2, Barinova W.O. 2 1 Moscow State University Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics 119991, Russia, e-mail:

More information

Chapter 15. The Chandrasekhar Limit, Iron-56 and Core Collapse Supernovae

Chapter 15. The Chandrasekhar Limit, Iron-56 and Core Collapse Supernovae Chapter 15. The Chandrasekhar Limit, Iron-56 and Core Collapse Supernovae 1. The Equation of State: Pressure of an Ideal Gas Before discussing results of stellar structure and stellar evolution models

More information

Section 4: The Basics of Satellite Orbits

Section 4: The Basics of Satellite Orbits Section 4: The Basics of Satellite Orbits MOTION IN SPACE VS. MOTION IN THE ATMOSPHERE The motion of objects in the atmosphere differs in three important ways from the motion of objects in space. First,

More information

EMİNE CEREN KALAFATOĞLU EYİGÜLER

EMİNE CEREN KALAFATOĞLU EYİGÜLER EMİNE CEREN KALAFATOĞLU EYİGÜLER SPACE ENVIRONMENT UZB411E 2015-2016 FALL ROOM: 322 / THIRD FLOOR UPPER ATMOSPHERE AND SPACE WEATHER LAB OFFICE HOURS: EVERY TUESDAY AND WEDNESDAY BETWEEN 15-17 FOR OTHER

More information

Sunlight and its Properties. EE 495/695 Y. Baghzouz

Sunlight and its Properties. EE 495/695 Y. Baghzouz Sunlight and its Properties EE 495/695 Y. Baghzouz The sun is a hot sphere of gas whose internal temperatures reach over 20 million deg. K. Nuclear fusion reaction at the sun's core converts hydrogen to

More information

Our Sun: the view from outside

Our Sun: the view from outside Our Sun: the view from outside 1. The Sun is hot. Really hot. The visible "surface" of the Sun, called the photosphere, has a temperature of about 5800 Kelvin. That's equivalent to roughly 10,000 Fahrenheit.

More information

A. 81 2 = 6561 times greater. B. 81 times greater. C. equally strong. D. 1/81 as great. E. (1/81) 2 = 1/6561 as great.

A. 81 2 = 6561 times greater. B. 81 times greater. C. equally strong. D. 1/81 as great. E. (1/81) 2 = 1/6561 as great. Q12.1 The mass of the Moon is 1/81 of the mass of the Earth. Compared to the gravitational force that the Earth exerts on the Moon, the gravitational force that the Moon exerts on the Earth is A. 81 2

More information

Lecture 13. Gravity in the Solar System

Lecture 13. Gravity in the Solar System Lecture 13 Gravity in the Solar System Guiding Questions 1. How was the heliocentric model established? What are monumental steps in the history of the heliocentric model? 2. How do Kepler s three laws

More information

8.1 Radio Emission from Solar System objects

8.1 Radio Emission from Solar System objects 8.1 Radio Emission from Solar System objects 8.1.1 Moon and Terrestrial planets At visible wavelengths all the emission seen from these objects is due to light reflected from the sun. However at radio

More information

Chapter 3 Earth - Sun Relations

Chapter 3 Earth - Sun Relations 3.1 Introduction We saw in the last chapter that the short wave radiation from the sun passes through the atmosphere and heats the earth, which in turn radiates energy in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic

More information

1. Units of a magnetic field might be: A. C m/s B. C s/m C. C/kg D. kg/c s E. N/C m ans: D

1. Units of a magnetic field might be: A. C m/s B. C s/m C. C/kg D. kg/c s E. N/C m ans: D Chapter 28: MAGNETIC FIELDS 1 Units of a magnetic field might be: A C m/s B C s/m C C/kg D kg/c s E N/C m 2 In the formula F = q v B: A F must be perpendicular to v but not necessarily to B B F must be

More information

Chapter 2. Derivation of the Equations of Open Channel Flow. 2.1 General Considerations

Chapter 2. Derivation of the Equations of Open Channel Flow. 2.1 General Considerations Chapter 2. Derivation of the Equations of Open Channel Flow 2.1 General Considerations Of interest is water flowing in a channel with a free surface, which is usually referred to as open channel flow.

More information

Neutron Stars. How were neutron stars discovered? The first neutron star was discovered by 24-year-old graduate student Jocelyn Bell in 1967.

Neutron Stars. How were neutron stars discovered? The first neutron star was discovered by 24-year-old graduate student Jocelyn Bell in 1967. Neutron Stars How were neutron stars discovered? The first neutron star was discovered by 24-year-old graduate student Jocelyn Bell in 1967. Using a radio telescope she noticed regular pulses of radio

More information

Sun Earth Relationships

Sun Earth Relationships 1 ESCI-61 Introduction to Photovoltaic Technology Sun Earth Relationships Ridha Hamidi, Ph.D. Spring (sun aims directly at equator) Winter (northern hemisphere tilts away from sun) 23.5 2 Solar radiation

More information

Orbital Mechanics. Angular Momentum

Orbital Mechanics. Angular Momentum Orbital Mechanics The objects that orbit earth have only a few forces acting on them, the largest being the gravitational pull from the earth. The trajectories that satellites or rockets follow are largely

More information

Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations

Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Our Solar System is a collection of gravitationally interacting bodies that include Earth and the Moon. Universal

More information