Space Weather: An Introduction C. L. Waters. Centre for Space Physics University of Newcastle, Australia

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1 Space Weather: An Introduction C. L. Waters Centre for Space Physics University of Newcastle, Australia 1

2 Outline Space weather: Conditions on the Sun and in the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere that can influence the performance and reliability of spaceborne and ground-based technological systems and can endanger human life and health (National Space Weather Council, 1995). 1. Context for space weather 2. Sun and solar wind 3. A brief history 4. Space weather language 5. Space weather energy pathways 6. Space weather data sources/sensors 7. Space weather effects 8. Summary remarks 2

3 Solar system Astronomy Earth Solar-terrestrial Atmosphere 3

4 size and proporti

5 5

6 6

7 7

8 The solar 'wind' From: Physics of the Earths Space Environment, G. W. Prolss,

9 Brief History: Light and Magnetism Auroral displays - Greece, Roman, Scandinavia, China, Australia, north America Galileo ( ) : Reflection of sunlight H. Schwabe (1820s), R. Wolf : Sunspot cycle and numbers E. Sabine ( ) : magnetic disturbances, sunspot cycle and auroral displays From 1840s, magnetic disturbances linked to interference in railway signaling and telegraph systems First space weather forecast - prediction of auroral activity 1859 Carrington event: solar flare (H_alpha; A, B, C, M, X [x-ray]), CME K. Birkland ( ): Aurora and field aligned currents : Marconi and radio, Heaviside layer, Appleton and the ionosphere 1920s : radio propagation and space weather (solar, magnetic, auroral) 1940s : developments in radio and radar technologies 1950s-> space exploration July 23, Carrington class solar superstorm: 'Shot across the bow' J. Kennewell; image source: orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com.au/2015/04/ credit: C. Gauna 9

10 Sun and solar wind: Some terms CME - coronal mass ejection CIR - corotating interaction region SEP - solar energetic particle SPE - solar particle events IP - interplanetary (shocks) GCRs - galactic cosmic rays ( MeV/nucleon) ACRs - anomalous cosmic rays ACE - advanced composition explorer (spacecraft) SWEPAM - solar wind electron, proton and alpha monitor on ACE L1 - Lagrangian point AU - astonomical unit NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Wolf number - sunspot counts/index X28+ flare (4 Nov 2003) 10

11 Near-Earth Space -Magnetosphere Russell, Planet. Space Sci., 2001 Cowley,

12 Near-Earth Space -Magnetosphere 12

13 en.wikipedia/wiki/solar_wind 13

14 Near-Earth space - Ionosphere 14

15 J. Lean; earthzine.org/2008/08/28/changing-sun-changing-earth/ 15

16 J. Lean; earthzine.org/2008/08/28/changing-sun-changing-earth/ 16

17 Instrumentation - Spacecraft Solar Wind: Velocity Proton density Dyn. pressure Magnetic field ACE Spectrometer: cosmic ray solar isotope particle composition/energy Cluster magnetic field electric field plasma wave receiver particle detector Outer Magnetosphere - Space Science GEO - Comms, Meteorology/Space Science MEO - GPS, Comms, Navigation LEO - Earth Observation, Comms 17

18 Instrumentation - Ionosphere Ionosonde; top and bottom side sounding Sounding rockets HF radars - SuperDARN 18

19 Instrumentation - Ground supermag.jhuapl.edu supermag.uib.no Culgoora, Learmonth solar observatories - next talk 19

20 Space Weather Effects Ground 1100 Session Geomagnetic Induced Currents (GICs) Pipeline PSP Submarine cables B. Carter: earthchangesmedia.wordpress.com/2015/08/24 db/dt, GICy, PSP 20

21 1100 Session Ionosphere: GNSS 1. Scintillation 2. Loss of availability gpsworld.com 21

22 1100, 1300 Sessions: HF, VHF comms Ionosphere: Effects and prediction of spatial and temporal Ne aer.nict.go.jp/en/people/swe_yokoyama.html 22

23 1300 Session: Satellite Operations Satellite drag and tracking radiation effects; displacement, SEU, solar cell degradation Ziegler et al., 1996 Satellite Debris (1600) 23

24 Space weather effects Space Weather: solar activity (CMEs, flares), X-ray, radio bursts, MeV protons CMEs -> geomagnetic storms, radiation belt storms, ionospheric storms, scintillation Consequences Satellite operations: radiation (SEU, material degradation, charge deposition [RAM]), navigation and tracking issues, data errors, Earth observation services, space junk (generation and location) GNSS: range errors, clock errors, satellite availability loss (gradients and radio bursts) Ionosphere: HF loss of bandwidth, radar tracking errors, cell system dropped calls Atmosphere/Ground: elevated neutron flux (aircraft), GIC impacts on electricity supply assets, pipeline corrosion mitigation, VHF/UHF 24

25 Space weather secondary effects 25

26 Summary Sun is the primary source of severe space weather Secondary effects involve near-earth space plasma physics Space weather directly impacts multiple systems: satellite operations, GNSS, communications, resource infrastructure. Some of the flow-on effects of these systems for human activity have been estimated Australia is well connected to international research efforts (for now) Australia is located at 'low latitudes'. High (auroral) to low latitude space weather energy pathways are not well understood Applications for industry involve predictive and mitigation capabilities. Predicting the weather can be tricky Dealing with a large, complex, dynamic system with non-linear and time (state history) dependence. Progress requires a balance between understanding the system (research) and applications Workshops such as this are very important for achieving such a balance 26

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