# Introduction to image coding

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1 Introduction to image coding Image coding aims at reducing amount of data required for image representation, storage or transmission. This is achieved by removing redundant data from an image, i.e. by using a transfomation of a 2-D pixel array into uncorrelated data set

2 Diagnostic imaging A single biomedical image requires storage of hundreds of MB of data Acquisition Archivation (data bases) Presentation

3 Why do we need to compress images? Standard colour TV image in digital form is pixel image, that takes up more than 1.1 MB of memory. 25 such images shown per second generate ~28 MB of data. Audio CD disk can store ~25 s of such a film. A two-sided DVD disc (17 GB) can store 1 min. of a film.

4 Image coding techniques Aim: removing redundancy and keeping important information, np. Ala has a cat lossless based on statistical image properties e.g. image histogram lossy based on spatial correlation between image pixels lossless and lossy based on image transforms CR - Compression Ratio CR~ a few CR~ a few CR~ tens-hundreds

5 Simple image transmission channel Source image F Encoder: Y=S(F) Encoded image Y Channel encoder Transmission channel Output image F Decoder: F =T(Y ) Encoded image Y Channel decoder Error-free channel: Y =Y If F = F, (T = S -1 ) then loss-less compression If F F, (T S -1 ) then lossy compression

6 Data redundancy and compression ratio Let n 1, n 2 denote data units carrying the same information. Relative data redundancy is given by: R D = 1-1/C R where C R is termed the compression ratio: C R = n 1 / n 2 for n 1 = n 2 : C R = 1; R = for n 1 >> n 2 : C R ; R 1 for n 1 << n 2 : C R ; R -

7 Source entropy Source entropy: : E F L = i= 1 p( l )log 2 p( li ) represents the average information per source output. For data source given in the form of an image, p(l i ) is the probability of occurrence of gray level l i. Entropy can be interpreted as the average number of bits required for coding a single image pixel. i

8 Entropy values for example images E = 7.1 E = 5.31

9 Types of redundancies in digital images coding redundancy interpixel redundancy psychovisual redundancy

10 Coding redundancy The average number of bits required to code each pixel: m avg L = 1 i= m( l i ) p( l i ) where m(l i ) wordlength representing gray level l i Entropy indicates the minimum average number of bits per pixel that are required to represet an image.

11 Example Variable-length code l k p(l k ) code 1 m 1 (l k ) code 2 m 2 (l k ) m 1 avg = 3, m 2 avg = 2.7, E = 2.651, C R = 1.11, R =.99, thus ~ 1% of data in code 1 is redundant

12 Huffman coding Source Source reduction Symbol p(l k ) #1 #2 #3 #4 a a a a a3.6.1 a5.4

13 Huffman coding Source Source reduction Symbol p(l k ) kod #1 #2 #3 #4 a a a a a a

14 Properties of the Huffman code variable-length code yields the smallest possible number of code symbols per source symbol is a memory-free code gives one-to-ne mapping between symbols and codes

15 Interpixel redundancy removal Gray levels of adjacent pixels are strongly correlated. Run length (RL) coding an image is coded by symbol pairs (g i, l i ) where g i denotes i-th gray level and l i is the run length

16 RL example (4 gray level image) RL sequences: (1,4); (3,3); (,2); (2,5); (3,2); (,7); (3,11); (1,2) 8*3=24 bytes are needed for image coding g coded by 1 byte, l coded by 2 bytes 6x6=36 bytes C R = 36/24 = 1.5

17 Predictive coding Given a sequence of symbols {s i }: we try to predict each consecutive symbol by adding 2 to the preceding symbol. We compute the difference between the predicted and true symbol values in a sequence: e i ( s ) = si i Note that this error sequence contains many -1,,1 symbols and other symbols are less frequent

18 Predictive coding { } s i { e } { s ( s )} i = i i Large entropy, i.e. on average many bits required to code symbols Small entropy, i.e. on average many bits required to code symbols Predictive coding is used in MP3 audio compression standard.

19 Lossless predictive coding Encoding Input image f(n) Predictor + Nearest integer f (n) e(n) - Symbol encoder e(n) = f(n) - f (n) Compressed image Decoding Symbol decoder e(n) + + g (n) Nearest integer Predictor g(n) reconstructed image = input image G(n)=F(n) g(n) = g (n) + e(n) Differential Pulse Code Modulation f '( n) = round[ ai f ( n i) ] m i= 1

20 Lossless predictive coding - example n f ' n = round[.9 f ( n 1) ] f n 1 - e n = f n - f ' n g = e + n n g ' n round(9)= = round(9.9)= = round(13.5)= = round(1.8)= = round(15.3)= = This pixel is transmitted first decoder

21 f Predictive coding - example m '( n) = round [ ai f ( n i)] = f ( n 1) m = 1, a1 i= 1 e(n) e(n) = 1 E = 2.44 (5.31) C R = 3.28 (1.51) E = 5.6 (7.1) C R = 1.58 (1.14)

22 Lossless predictive coding algorithm f[ i ],g[ i ] = array[1..n*n] of byte {image given as a vector} e[ i ] = array[2..n*n] of integer {error image} {1-st order predictor, a 1 =1} {encoding} for i := 2 to N*N do begin e[ i ] := f[ i ] - f[ i-1 ]; e[ i ] :=e [ i ] + 128; if e[ i ] > 255 then e[ i ] := 255; if e[ i ] < then e[ i ] := ; end; {decoding} g[ 1 ] := f[ 1 ]; for i := 2 to N*N do g[ i ] := e[ i ] + g[ i-1 ];

23 Encoding f(n) Input image e(n) f (n) Quantizer Predictor e(n) = f(n) - f (n) f (n) = e (n) + f (n) f (n) e (n) Symbol encoder Compressed image + + eta e (n) - eta Quantizer f (n) = a 1 f (n-1) = e (n-1) + f (n-1); 1-st order predictor, a 1 =1 f (1) = f(1) Lossy predictive coding e(n)

24 Lossy predictive coding Decoding g(1) = f(1) Symbol decoder e (n) + + g (n) Predictor g(n) reconstructed image output image g(n) f(n) g(n) = g (n) + e (n) g (n) = g(n-1)

25 Lossy predictive coding - example n f n 1 f - ' n e n - ' e n '' n ' n f = e + 1 f ' n ' ' = gn en fn gn g + n This pixel is transmitted first decoder

26 Delta modulation example eta too small eta too large

27 Eta=1 Eta=1 Eta=2 Eta=4

28 Lossy predictive coding algorithm f[ i ], f [ i ], g[ i ] = array[1..n*n] of byte {image given as vector} e[ i ] = array[2..n*n] of integer {error image} {1-st order predictor, a 1 =1, eta quantizer constant} {encoding} f [ 2 ] := f [ 1 ]; for i := 2 to N*N do begin e[ i ] := f[ i ] - f [ i ]; if e[ i ] >= then e[ i ] := eta else e[ i ] := -eta; f [ i+1 ] := e[ i ] + f [ i ]; end; {decoding} g := f ; if g[ i ] < then g[ i ] := ; if g[ i ] > 255 then g[ i ] := 255;

29 Psychovisual redundancy Visual perception of humans does not work as a camera of a predefined characteristic. Wikipedia

30 Psychovisual redundancy (example) 8 bits 5 bits 3 bits

31 Psychovisual redundancy examples of image textures 8 bits 7 bits 6 bits 5 bits 4 bits 3 bits 2 bits 1 bit

32 Transform coding F(i,j) Construct NxN subimages Forward transform Quantizer Symbol encoder Coded image Symbol decoder Inverse transform Merge NxN subimages F (i,j) reconstructed image

33 Image transforms The Karhunen-Loeve expansion - minimizes the mean square reconstruction error, computationally complex, no fast transform Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) high compression ratios achievable (fast vanishing of cosine coefficients), fast transform exists (used in JPEG) The wavelet transform new compression technique, competitive or better than DCT, fast transform exists MPEG 2, JPEG 2

34 Image compression standards JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) a group of experts (engineers and scientists) working on developing new methods and standards for coding still images ( MPEG (Moving Pictures Experts Group) - a group of experts working on developing standards for coding audio and video signals (

35 DCT basis functions. a kl f B ( x,y) f B 7 7 ( x,y) a cos( kω x) cos( lω y), for x,y = 1, 2, K, 7 = k = l= kl Image 8x8 blocks are obtained by computing a linear combination of DCT basis functions

36 Input image offset - DCT Difference encoder JPEG-2 encoder Zigzac run encoder Quantization table DC AC Quantizer Huffman table Compressed data

37 JPEG-2 decoder offset + DCT -1 Decoded image Zigzac run decoder Difference decoder Quantization table Q -1 Compressed data (Huffman code)

38 Coding example DCT Quantization of DCT coefficients DCT -1 CR=8:1

39 MATLAB Demo Discrete Cosine Transform

40 Fidelity criteria for lossy compression Root-mean-square error (RMS): RMS = M N MN [ f ( x,y) fˆ ( x,y) ] x= y= 2 Mean-square signal-to-noise ratio (MSE): SNR = 1log1 M x x= 1N 1 = M 1N 1 y= [ f ( x,y) ] ( x, y) fˆ ( x,y) [ ] 2 f y= 2

41 Fidelity criteria for lossy compression Mean-square signal-to-noise ratio (MSE): PSNR = 1log1 M x 1N 1 = MN y= { max[ f ( x, y) ]} ( x, y) fˆ ( x, y) [ ] 2 f 2 Most often used

42 Subjective fidelity criteria Objective criteria are mean measures evaluated for an entire image. Subjective criteria do not need to match the obejctive criteria! Subjective criteria: arbitrary scale (e.g. -5) comparative (comparison of the subjective perception of different coded images to the original).

43 JPEG coding Bitmap (8bpp) Parameter CR Value 2:1 Parameter CR Value 4:1 bpp.4 bpp.2 MSE 257 MSE 367 SNR 8.2 db SNR 6.6 db PSNR 24 db PSNR 22.5 db

44 JPEG coding Bitmap (8bpp) Parameter CR Value 15:1 Parameter CR Value 3:1 bpp.53 bpp.27 MSE 4.6 MSE 12.2 SNR 3 db SNR 25.7 db PSNR 41.5 db PSNR 37.3 db

45 VCDemo

46 Comparison of JPEG standards Lena 512x512,.3 b/pixel (VCDemo) JPEG (DCT) JPEG 2 (wavelet transform)

47 MPEG versions Intra frame coding (DCT) and INTER frame coding (motion vectors DPCM) Standard Applications Resolution Number of frames per second Bit Rate Quality Compression ratio MPEG Digital storage on CD s ~ 288 x 352 (CIF) 25 3 frames/s 1.5 Mb/s VHS ~ 2-3 MPEG Digital TV (HDTV) ~ 576 x 72 (1152 x 144) 5-6 frames/s (1-12 frames/s) ~ 4 Mb/s (~ 2 Mb/s) NTSC/PAL ~3-4 MPEG Video transmission via internet Depends on video standard up to 6 frames/s 5 64 kb/s 4 Mb/s VHS/NTSC/PAL hundreds

48 DVD Video A standard based on DVD ROM ( GB), resolution: PAL , 24 fps, 12 b/pixel, MPEG-2, aspect ratio 4:3, 16:9, bit rate 4 Mbp (max. 9.8 Mbp), 2 8 hours of video. Video CD (VCD) A standard based on CD ROM (~7 MB), resolution VHS , 24 fps, MPEG-1, aspect ratio 4:3, 7 min. of video DivX A fomat based on MPEG-4, very popular in the internet.

49 MPEG compression concept DivX.com Deltaframes Keyframes

50 Comparison of video standards HDTV 192x18 DVD 16:9

51 Comparison of video standards TV PAL VHS (VCD)

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