2 NIH Public Access Author Manuscript Published in final edited form as: Vet Microbiol May 3; 163(3-4): doi: /j.vetmic Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Prevalence in Laboratory Rabbits Alton G. Swennes #, Ellen M. Buckley, Carolyn M. Madden, Charles P. Byrd 1, Rachel S. Donocoff 2, Loretta Rodriguez 3, Nicola M. A. Parry, and James G. Fox Division of Comparative Medicine, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA Abstract Rabbit-origin enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) causes substantial diarrhea-associated morbidity and has zoonotic potential. A culture-based survey was undertaken to ascertain its prevalence. EPEC was isolated from 6/141 (4.3%) commercially-acquired laboratory rabbits. Three of these did not have diarrhea or EPEC-typical intestinal lesions; they instead had background plasmacytic intestinal inflammation. Asymptomatically infected rabbits may function as EPEC reservoirs. Keywords Escherichia col infections; laboratory animals; rabbits; diarrhea; zoonoses; inflammation 1. Introduction Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) is an important cause of diarrhea in both animals and humans (Abba et al., 2009; Garcia et al., 2010; Hill et al., 1991; Nguyen et al., 2006). Rabbits infected with rabbit- and human-origin strains have also been used as experimental models of human E. col infection (Cantey & Blake, 1977; Garcia et al., 2002, 2006; Moon et al., 1983; Shringi et al., 2012). In a recent report, we described 10.5% EPEC-associated morbidity and 1.44% mortality in a large laboratory rabbit cohort (Swennes et al., 2012). Disease presentation coincided with recent shipment, and the O145:H2 strain responsible was sensitive to the second-generation fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin. That strain s high associated morbidity, high subclinical infection prevalence (20%), and zoonotic potential prompted us to investigate laboratory rabbit EPEC prevalence. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1 Bacterial culture Fecal samples were obtained from adult 141 New Zealand white rabbits acquired from 5 commercial vendors and housed at 5 research institutions. All rabbits were clinically healthy except for 3 that had diarrhea. Samples were collected in Brucella broth containing 10% 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. # Corresponding author: Phone number: , Fax number: Present address: Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 2 Present address: College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 3 Present address: College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL Publisher's Disclaimer: This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final citable form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.
3 Swennes et al. Page 2 glycerol, homogenized, streaked on blood and MacConkey agar plates, and grown at 37 C under aerobic conditions. Lactose-positive colonies were sub-cultured based on morphology and speciated using API 20E identification test strips (biomérieux, Marcy l Etoile, France). All isolates were tested for antibiotic sensitivity using the Kirby-Bauer method as previously described (Swennes et al., 2012). 2.2 Molecular characterization 2.3 Histopathology 3. Results DNA was extracted from pure E. coli cultures using the High Pure PCR Template Preparation Kit (Roche Applied Science, Indianapolis, IN). Isolates were differentiated using repetitive sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) and PCR-tested for eae, stx1, and stx2 as previously described (Swennes et al., 2012). Representative isolates were serotyped by the Pennsylvania State University E. coli Reference Center (University Park, PA). Pieces of duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, ampulla, transverse colon, and descending colon were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, paraffin embedded, cut into 5 μm sections, mounted on glass slides, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Slides were examined by a board-certified veterinary pathologist. E. col isolates (n = 163) were obtained from 86 (61%) of the rabbits sampled. Of the 163 isolates, 13% were sensitive to ampicillin, 56% to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, 4% to ephalothin, and 41% to gentamicin. All isolates were sensitive to trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole and enrofloxacin. Isolates were differentiated by repetitive sequencebased PCR (REP-PCR), revealing 13 distinct banding patterns each corresponding to a single serotype (Table 1). Virulence factor-based PCR testing was performed for eae, the gene encoding the adhesin intimin that is involved in host epithelial association, as well as stx1 and stx2, which encode the shiga-like toxins which have been previously identified in rabbit-origin E. coli strains (Garcia & Fox, 2003; Garcia et al., 2002). Isolates from 6 rabbits (4.3%) tested eae-positive and stx-negative, the EPEC-characteristic genetic profile (Table 1). Two eae-positive strains were isolated from these rabbits, including an O145:H2 strain previously associated with rabbit diarrhea and a novel OM:H1 (multiple O-reactive) strain (Swennes et al., 2012). EPEC-positive rabbits were obtained from 2 vendors, each harboring either EPEC strain. Of rabbits presenting with diarrhea, 3 of 3 (100%) harbored the O145:H2 strain, while 3 other EPEC-positive rabbits harbored either the O145:H2 or OM:H1 strain and had no associated medical history. The diarrheic potential of the OM:H1 strain merits further investigation. Four of 6 EPEC-positive rabbits, 2 diarrheic and 2 asymptomatic, were available for necropsy following the initial survey. In all cases, the infecting EPEC strain was re-isolated from the cecal contents postmortem. Grossly, the 2 diarrheic rabbits had perineal, tail, and hindlimb accumulation of foul-smelling fecal material. Cecal and colonic serosal reddening suggestive of hemorrhage was evident, and the large intestine was distended with gas and watery feces. Histologically, EPEC-typical intestinal epithelial ulceration with mixed heterophilic/eosinophilic and plasma cell infiltrates was present (Heczko et al., 2000; Peeters et al., 1984; Swennes et al., 2012). The 2 non-diarrheic EPEC-infected rabbits, which harbored either the O145:H2 or OM:H1 strain, displayed no gross lesions or EPEC-typical histologic changes. Instead, an increase in mucosal lamina propria cellularity was noted between intestinal crypts and consisted primarily of plasma cells and few heterophils (Figure 1). Relatively few lymphocytes were found primarily in aggregates. Apoptotic cells were also noted within the mucosal epithelium.
4 Swennes et al. Page 3 4. Conclusions The survey performed here indicates that diverse E. coli strains are frequently found in the clinically healthy rabbits normal intestinal flora. Of the rabbits surveyed, 4.3% harbored EPEC, indicating that these bacteria persist at low levels in commercially-acquired rabbits. Of the infected rabbits, half did not have diarrhea or intestinal histologic changes consistent with EPEC-associated disease. Instead, they had intestinal plasmacytic infiltration similar to lymphocytic-plasmacytic inflammatory bowel disease of dogs and cats (Day et al., 2008). A prior study identified comparable intestinal plasmacytic infiltration in 53 of 102 (52%) rabbits used for various experimental purposes (Li et al., 1996). It is likely that these rabbits had underlying immune-mediated intestinal disease with secondary EPEC infection. This data infers that laboratory rabbits may frequently have idiopathic chronic intestinal inflammation and display no overt clinical signs. Pathogenic E. coli have been associated with chronic intestinal inflammatory disease in a variety of species. In one report, cotton-top tamarins with EPEC-positive fecal cultures were 2.7 times more likely to have active colitis (Mansfield et al., 2001). Additionally, adherent/ invasive E. coli, a heterogeneous pathotype possessing few conventional virulence genes, have been isolated from the ileal mucosa of Crohn s disease patients (Darfeuille-Michaud et al., 2004) and from the colonic mucosa of Boxer dogs with granulomatous colitis (Simpson et al., 2006). Population-level analyses also indicate that Crohn s disease patients ileal mucosa contains numerous E. coli expressing various virulence genes, including eae (Baumgart et al., 2007). These reports suggest that the inflamed intestine presents a favorable niche for pathogenic E. coli such as EPEC. In this context, laboratory rabbits with intestinal inflammatory conditions may become infected and remain undetected within rabbit populations until other host or environmental factors, such as Lawsonia intracellularis (Schauer et al., 1998) or rotavirus (Thouless et al., 1996) infection, low dietary fiber intake (Gidenne & Licois, 2005), shipment (Swennes et al., 2012), or increased stress level (Everest, 2007) potentiate fulminant disease. High subclinical EPEC prevalence (20%) was noted in our recent investigation (Swennes et al., 2012). However, this report suggests that without an inciting cause to promote fecal shedding, baseline laboratory rabbit infection prevalence is likely much lower, i.e. 4.3%. Subclinical EPEC infection is at least 5.9% prevalent in children (Afset et al., 2004; Knutton et al., 2001) and may be 2.5% prevalent in the general human population (Robins-Browne et al., 2004). Laboratory rabbit enzootic EPEC infection is also significant because these strains are potentially zoonotic. Animal- and human-origin EPECs possess similar virulence factors and share similar clonal origins (Moura et al., 2009). In addition to rabbits, EPEC O145:H2 strains have been identified in non-diarrheic sheep (Vettorato et al., 2009), diarrheic human infants (Gonzalez et al., 1997), and wastewater samples (Doughari et al., 2011). Also, piglets and rabbits are routinely experimentally infected with EPEC and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) strains from humans and other animals, indicating that infection is not host species-dependent (Garcia et al., 2006; Moon et al., 1983). EHEC transmission from cattle to wild rabbits to humans has also been associated with human hemorrhagic diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome cases (Bailey et al., 2002; Pritchard et al., 2001). Our findings indicate that non-diarrheic rabbits function as reservoirs that potentiate EPEC-associated diarrheal disease and zoonotic transmission. Laboratory rabbit users and suppliers should monitor for and exclude potentially pathogenic E. coli strains.
5 Swennes et al. Page 4 Acknowledgments References We thank the Boston-area research institutions that contributed rabbit fecal samples. This study was supported by NIH T32 RR Abba K, Sinfield R, Hart CA, Garner P. Pathogens associated with persistent diarrhoea in children in low and middle income countries: systematic review. BMC Infect Dis. 2009; 9:88. [PubMed: ] Afset JE, Bevanger L, Romundstad P, Bergh K. Association of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) with prolonged diarrhoea. J Med Microbiol. 2004; 53: [PubMed: ] Bailey JR, Warner L, Pritchard GC, Williamson S, Carson T, Willshaw G, Cheasty T, Bailey JR. Wild rabbits--a novel vector for Vero cytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) O157. Comm Dis Public Health. 2002; 5: Baumgart M, Dogan B, Rishniw M, Weitzman G, Bosworth B, Yantiss R, Orsi RH, Wiedmann M, McDonough P, et al. Culture independent analysis of ileal mucosa reveals a selective increase in invasive Escherichia coli of novel phylogeny relative to depletion of Clostridiales in Crohn s disease involving the ileum. The ISME J. 2007; 1: Cantey JR, Blake RK. Diarrhea due to Escherichia col in the rabbit: a novel mechanism. J Infect Dis. 1977; 135: [PubMed: ] Darfeuille-Michaud A, Boudeau J, Bulois P, Neut C, Glasser AL, Barnich N, Bringer MA, Swidsinski A, Beaugerie L, Colombel JF. High prevalence of adherent-invasive Escherichia coli associated with ileal mucosa in Crohn s disease. Gastroenterology. 2004; 127: [PubMed: ] Day MJ, Bilzer T, Mansell J, Wilcock B, Hall EJ, Jergens A, Minami T, Willard M, Washabau R. Histopathological standards for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal inflammation in endoscopic biopsy samples from the dog and cat: a report from the World Small Animal Veterinary Association Gastrointestinal Standardization Group. J Comp Pathol. 2008; 138:S1 43. [PubMed: ] Doughari HJ, Ndakidemi PA, Human IS, Benade S. Virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility among verotoxic non O157:H7 Escherichia col isolates obtained from water and wastewater samples in Cape Town, South Africa. Afr J Biotechnol. 2011; 10: Everest P. Stress and bacteria: microbial endocrinology. Gut. 2007; 56: [PubMed: ] Garcia A, Fox JG. The rabbit as a new reservoir host of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003; 9: [PubMed: ] Garcia A, Marini RP, Feng Y, Vitsky A, Knox KA, Taylor NS, Schauer DB, Fox JG. A naturally occurring rabbit model of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli-induced disease. J Infect Dis. 2002; 186: [PubMed: ] Garcia A, Bosques CJ, Wishnok JS, Feng Y, Karalius BJ, Butterton JR, Schauer DB, Rogers AB, Fox JG. Renal injury is a consistent finding in Dutch Belted rabbits experimentally infected with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. J Infect Dis. 2006; 193: [PubMed: ] Garcia A, Fox JG, Besser TE. Zoonotic enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli: A One Health perspective. ILAR J. 2010; 51: [PubMed: ] Gidenne T, Licois D. Effect of a high fibre intake on the resistance of the growing rabbit to an experimental inoculation with an enteropathogenic strain of Escherichia coli. Anim Sci. 2005; 80: Gonzalez R, Diaz C, Marino M, Cloralt R, Pequeneze M, Perez-Schael I. Age-specific prevalence of Escherichia coli with localized and aggregative adherence in Venezuelan infants with acute diarrhea. J Clin Microbiol. 1997; 35: [PubMed: ] Heczko U, Abe A, Finlay BB. In vivo interactions of rabbit enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O103 with its host: an electron microscopic and histopathologic study. Microbes Infect. 2000; 2:5 16. [PubMed: ]
6 Swennes et al. Page 5 Hill SM, Phillips AD, Walker-Smith JA. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and life threatening chronic diarrhoea. Gut. 1991; 32: [PubMed: ] Knutton S, Shaw R, Phillips AD, Smith HR, Willshaw GA, Watson P, Price E. Phenotypic and genetic analysis of diarrhea-associated Escherichia col isolated from children in the United Kingdom. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2001; 33: [PubMed: ] Li X, Fox JG, Erdman SE, Lipman NS. Intestinal plasmacytosis in rabbits: a histologic and ultrastructural study. Vet Pathol. 1996; 33: [PubMed: ] Mansfield KG, Lin KC, Xia D, Newman JV, Schauer DB, MacKey J, Lackner AA, Carville A. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and ulcerative colitis in cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). J Infect Dis. 2001; 184: [PubMed: ] Moon HW, Whipp SC, Argenzio RA, Levine MM, Giannella RA. Attaching and effacing activities of rabbit and human enteropathogenic Escherichia col in pig and rabbit intestines. Infect Immun. 1983; 41: [PubMed: ] Moura RA, Sircili MP, Leomil L, Matte MH, Trabulsi LR, Elias WP, Irino K, Pestana de Castro AF. Clonal relationship among atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from different animal species and humans. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009; 75: [PubMed: ] Nguyen RN, Taylor LS, Tauschek M, Robins-Browne RM. Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection and prolonged diarrhea in children. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006; 12: [PubMed: ] Peeters JE, Geeroms R, Glorieux B. Experimental Escherichia coli enteropathy in weanling rabbits: clinical manifestations and pathological findings. J Comp Pathol. 1984; 94: [PubMed: ] Pritchard GC, Williamson S, Carson T, Bailey JR, Warner L, Willshaw G, Cheasty T. Wild rabbits - a novel vector for verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157. Vet Record. 2001; 149:567. Robins-Browne RM, Bordun AM, Tauschek M, Bennett-Wood VR, Russell J, Oppedisano F, Lister NA, Bettelheim KA, Fairley CK, et al. Escherichia coli and community-acquired gastroenteritis, Melbourne, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004; 10: [PubMed: ] Schauer DB, McCathey SN, Daft BM, Jha SS, Tatterson LE, Taylor NS, Fox JG. Proliferative enterocolitis associated with dual infection with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Lawsonia intracellularis in rabbits. J Clin Microbiol. 1998; 36: [PubMed: ] Shringi S, Garcia A, Lahmers KK, Potter KA, Muthupalani S, Swennes AG, Hovde CJ, Call DR, Fox JG, Besser TE. Differential virulence of clinical and bovine-biased enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 genotypes in piglet and Dutch Belted rabbit models. Infect Immun. 2012; 80: [PubMed: ] Simpson KW, Dogan B, Rishniw M, Goldstein RE, Klaessig S, McDonough PL, German AJ, Yates RM, Russell DG, et al. Adherent and invasive Escherichia col is associated with granulomatous colitis in boxer dogs. Infect Immun. 2006; 74: [PubMed: ] Swennes AG, Buckley EM, Parry NM, Madden CM, Garcia A, Morgan PB, Astrofsky KM, Fox JG. Enzootic enteropathogenic Escherichia col infection in laboratory rabbits. J Clin Microbiol. 2012; 50: [PubMed: ] Thouless ME, DiGiacomo RF, Deeb BJ. The effect of combined rotavirus and Escherichia coli infections in rabbits. Lab Anim Sci. 1996; 46: [PubMed: ] Vettorato MP, de Castro AF, Cergole-Novella MC, Camargo FL, Irino K, Guth BE. Shiga toxinproducing Escherichia coli and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from healthy sheep of different populations in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2009; 49: [PubMed: ]
7 Swennes et al. Page 6 NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript Figure 1. Ileum from an EPEC-positive rabbit with no clinical signs. A diffuse increase in cellularity in the mucosal lamina propria, comprised primarily of plasma cells, was noted. Occasional lymphoid aggregates are also seen. Hematoxylin and eosin stain. Bar = 100 μm. NIH-PA Author Manuscript
8 Swennes et al. Page 7 Table 1 E. col isolates of each REP-PCR genotype and corresponding serotype obtained. REP-PCR genotype Serotype eae PCR n 1 1 O2:H1 3 2 OM:H O-:H7 1 4 O7:H O8:H O8:H O103:H7 8 8 O145:H O170:H O174:H O13:H O103:H O18:H7 1 1 Number of rabbits harboring the indicated REP-PCR genotype/serotype.
Identification and characterization of Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) by Real Time PCR amplification of the main virulence genes and the genes associated with the serogroups mainly associated
Dietary emulsifiers impact the mouse gut microbiota promoting colitis and metabolic syndrome Andrew T. Gewirtz et al N A T U R E VOL 519 5 M A R C H 2 0 1 5 Background Incidence of IBD Fact 1: increasing
Identification of the VTEC serogroups mainly associated with human infections by conventional PCR amplification of O-associated genes 1. Aim and field of application The present method concerns the identification
Szent István University Postgraduate School of Veterinary Science Genetic background of the virulence factors of atypical bovine Escherichia coli O157 strains PhD dissertation theses Domonkos László Sváb
Downloaded from orbit.dtu.dk on: Jan 03, 2016 Brachyspirainfektioner hos svin og in situ identifikation Jensen, Tim Kåre Publication date: 2012 Document Version Publisher final version (usually the publisher
Comparison of strand-specific transcriptomes of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL933 under eleven different environmental conditions including radish sprouts and cattle feces R. Landstorfer
Lecture 3 Dr. Ismail I. Daood Medical Microbiology Culture Media : Culture media are used for recognition and identification (diagnosis) of microorganisms. The media are contained in plates (Petri dishes),
Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea, Clostridium difficile- Associated Diarrhea and Colitis ANTIBIOTIC-ASSOCIATED DIARRHEA Disturbance of the normal colonic microflora Leading to alterations in bacterial degradation
CRL_Method 01 28_04_2008 Pag 1 of 10 Identification and characterisation of Verocytotoxinproducing Escherichia coli (VTEC) by PCR amplification of virulence genes CRL_Method 01 28_04_2008 Pag 2 of 10 INDEX
Probiotics for the Treatment of Adult Gastrointestinal Disorders Darren M. Brenner, M.D. Division of Gastroenterology Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine Chicago, Illinois What are Probiotics?
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) (Postdiarrheal) DISEASE REPORTABLE WITHIN 24 HOURS OF DIAGNOSIS Per N.J.A.C. 8:57, healthcare providers and administrators shall report by mail or by electronic reporting
Community Psychology Master program at Birzeit University, Palestine Birzeit University, Birzeit, Palestine; Ibrahim Makkawi Lillehammer University College NTNU, Trondheim; Sven Hroar Klempe The impact
Doctor of Philosophy Program in Microbiology FACULTY OF MEDICAL SCIENCE Naresuan University 171 Doctor of Philosophy Program in Microbiology The time is critical now for graduate education and research
Diagnostic Testing and Strategies for BVDV Dan Grooms Dept. of Large Animal Clinical Sciences College of Veterinary Medicine Introduction Clinical diseases in cattle resulting from infection with bovine
Ch 14: Principles of Disease and Epidemiology Learning Objectives Define pathology, etiology, infection, and disease Explain the difference between normal, transient, and opportunistic microbes Compare
Update on Clostridium difficile Colitis Clostridium difficile infection has recently emerged in populations without any known risk factors. This presentation will focus on the historical background, diagnosis,
Enteric Unknowns Miramar College Biology 205 Microbiology Enteric (Greek enteron = intestine) bacteria are comprised of several different genera, but all reside in the digestive tract of mammals. Because
7- Master s Degree in Public Health and Public Health Sciences (Majoring Microbiology) Students should fulfill a total of 38 credit hours: 1- Basic requirements: 10 credit hours. 150701, 150702, 150703,
Claim#:021914-174 Initials: J.T. Last4SSN: 6996 DOB: 5/3/1970 Crime Date: 4/30/2013 Status: Claim is currently under review. Decision expected within 7 days Claim#:041715-334 Initials: M.S. Last4SSN: 2957
Cystic Fibrosis Webquest Sarah Follenweider, The English High School 2009 Summer Research Internship Program Introduction: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited chronic disease that affects the lungs and
Veterinary Testing Classes of Test July 2014 Copyright National Association of Testing Authorities, Australia 2014 This publication is protected by copyright under the Commonwealth of Australia Copyright
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences ISOLATION OF POTENTIALLY PATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 FROM THE WATER SOURCES M.THENMOZHI School of Life Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, Karpagam
Equine Diarrhea Diarrhea in the Horse: Salmonella and Other Infections Amanda M. House, DVM, DACVIM Assistant Professor Large Animal Clinical Sciences UF College of Veterinary Medicine Introduction Clinical
Mini-Medical School on Infectious Diseases Session #1 - Basic Science The Microbial World Michael V. Norgard, Ph.D., Chairman Department of Microbiology U.T. Southwestern Medical Center The Microbial World
Could bacteriuria hold the key to understanding urgency/ urge incontinence 8:15 to 8:20min: Prof Kate Moore, introduction and welcome 8:20-8:35: Dr Colin Walsh 8:35-8:45: Discussion 8:45-9.00: Dr Kylie
MDM Metabolic Drift Mutations - Attenuation Technology Seite 2 Origin of MDM attenuation technology Prof. Dr. Klaus Linde Pioneer in R&D of human and animal vaccines University of Leipzig Germany Origin
Laboratory Exercise # 11: Differentiation of the Species Staphylococcus and Streptococcus Purpose: The purpose of this laboratory exercise is to explore the differences between Staphylococcal species and
In vitro co-culture model of the inflamed intestinal mucosa Berlin, December 13, 2011 Eva-Maria Collnot, email@example.com Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland Departement
Biological Sciences Initiative HHMI Student Activities Measuring Antibiotic Resistance Introduction: You might be aware that antibiotics were once thought of as a magic bullet; a nearly perfect drug for
PRIORITY RESEARCH TOPICS Understanding all the issues associated with antimicrobial resistance is probably impossible, but it is clear that there are a number of key issues about which we need more information.
Joint FAO/WHO Expert Meetings on Microbiological Risk Assessment (JEMRA) CALL FOR DATA ON VEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI (VTEC) / SHIGATOXIGENIC E. COLI (STEC) Background Deadline: 17 June 2016 Verotoxigenic
Linda Mulder, MSc. Vårseminaret 2014 Content Background on probiotics Intestinal microbiota & health on 3 levels Indication-specific probiotics Strain-specific characteristics Monostrain vs. multispecies
Agricultural Research Clay Center, NE The (USMARC) was authorized by Congress on June 16, 1964, following transfer of the Naval Ammunition Depot from the Department of Defense to the Department of Agriculture.
Epi procolon The Blood Test for Colorectal Cancer Screening Epi procolon is an approved blood test for colorectal cancer screening. The US Preventive Services Task Force, the American Cancer Society and
EU Reference Laboratory for E. coli Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety Unit of Foodborne Zoonoses Istituto Superiore di Sanità Inventory of the expertise on molecular typing of Verocytotoxin-producing
Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology HST.035: Principle and Practice of Human Pathology Dr. Badizadegan Introduction to Pathology and Diagnostic Medicine Spring 2003 What is pathology?
Management of Extended Spectrum Beta- Lactamase (ESBL) Producing Enterobacteriaceae in health care settings Dr. Mary Vearncombe PIDAC-IPC February 2012 Objectives: To provide an overview of the RP/AP Annex
Measuring severity of disease and defining treatment benefit using the Simple Endoscopic Activity Score (SES-CD) Jean-Frederic COLOMBEL Icahn Medical School at Mount Sinai, New York J-F Colombel has served
SMALL BOWEL BLEEDING: CAUSES, DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT By Anne C. Travis, M.D., M.Sc. and John R. Saltzman, M.D., FACG Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School Boston, MA 1. What is the small
Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP): Genetic Transformation, Synthesis and Purification of the Recombinant Protein INTRODUCTION Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) is a novel protein produced by the bioluminescent
Proposal to Establish the Crohn s and Colitis Center at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine Contents Mission... 1 Background... 2 Services and Programs... 2 Clinical Care... 2 IBD Specialists...
UTILIZATION of PLASMA ACTIVATED WATER in Biotechnology, Pharmacology and Medicine JSC TECHNOSYSTEM-ECO Moscow, Russia April, 2009 METHOD of WATER ACTIVATION with PLASMA of GAS DISCHARGE ANODE VACUUM WATER
FALK Workshop Mechanisms of Intestinal Inflammation Dresden, October 9-10, 2007 Identification of the predominant antigenic epitopes in intestinal flora in IBD R. Duchmann Medizinische Klinik I (Gastroenterologie,
Canine Distemper Virus Canine Distemper (CD) is a highly contagious infectious disease of dogs worldwide caused by the canine distemper virus (CDV). It is often fatal. CD is a multisystemic disease that
Celiac Disease Donald Schoch, M.D. Ohio ACP Meeting October 17, 2014 None to disclose Conflicts of Interest Format Present a case Do a pretest about the evaluation Review case Discuss the questions & answers
Abdominal CT scan findings in Acute Appendicitis Pathophysiology of acute appendicitis. Acute appendicitis occurs when the lumen is obstructed, leading to fluid accumulation, luminal distention, inflammation
Gastrointestinal Bleeding Introduction Gastrointestinal bleeding is a symptom of many diseases rather than a disease itself. A number of different conditions can cause gastrointestinal bleeding. Some causes
Characterization of Complex Microbial Communities Developed in a Single-Stage Chemostat Model Of the Human Distal Gut Julie McDonald firstname.lastname@example.org Allen-Vercoe Laboratory University of Guelph Guelph,
The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) Strategic Plan 2012-2016 Table of Contents Background... 2 Mission... 3 Overview of Accomplishments, 1996-2011... 4 Strategic Goals and Objectives...
CHAPTER 1 WHAT IS MICROBIOLOGY AND WHY IS IT IMPORTANT? WHO / TDR / Crump WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT? Microbiology is more relevant than ever in today s world. Infectious diseases are a leading health-related
Managing Clostridial Diseases in Cattle Sheila M. McGuirk, DVM, PhD Introduction The many diseases of cattle that are attributed to Clostridial bacteria are shown in the following table. Clostridial type
Accepted for Publication, Published online October 13, 2014; doi:10.4269/ajtmh.14-0018. The latest version is at http://ajtmh.org/cgi/doi/10.4269/ajtmh.14-0018 In order to provide our readers with timely
Approaches to Infection Control Considerations for PTAs in the Clinic Objectives Describe the basic characteristics of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Discuss the locations, advantages, and disadvantages
Clostridium Difficile colitismore virulent than ever ECHO- Sept 17, 2015 Charles Krasner, M.D. UNR School of Medicine Sierra NV Veterans Affairs Hospital Growing problem of pseudomembranous colitis MMWR-
Surveillance and outbreak reports Results of surveillance for infections with Shiga toxinproducing Escherichia coli (STEC) of serotype O104:H4 after the large outbreak in Germany, July to December 2011
Antimicrobial Resistance and Human Health Dearbháile Morris, Discipline of Bacteriology, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway The microbial world The is a gene Talk cloud in a The
Corvinus University of Budapest Faculty of Food Science Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology DETECTION, PCR-BASED MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION AND TYPING OF FOOD SAFETY RELATED BACTERIA Theses Ágnes
Introduction to Microbiology The Microbial World and You (Chapter 1) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College Primary Source for figures and content: Eastern Campus
Evaluation of SNAP Lepto in the Diagnosis of Leptospirosis Infections in dogs: Twenty two Clinical Cases Winzelberg, S 1 Tasse, SM 2 Goldstein, RE 1 Chapman, PS 3 Benedict, AG 4 Mason, GD 5 Noble, SJ 5
Rheumatoid arthritis: an overview Christine Pham MD RA prevalence Chronic inflammatory disease affecting approximately 0.5 1% of the general population Prevalence is higher in North America (approaching
Animal Health Diagnostic Center Lyme Disease Multiplex Testing for Dogs Background on Lyme disease and Lyme diagnostics in dogs Lyme disease is induced by the spirochete B. burgdorferi. Spirochetes are
The role of IBV proteins in protection: cellular immune responses COST meeting WG2 + WG3 Budapest, Hungary, 2015 1 Presentation include: Laboratory results Literature summary Role of T cells in response
REDUCED DIVERSITY OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN AND T -CELL RECEPTOR GENE IN CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE IN DOG BiEsseA Milano Daniela Olivero Stefano Perfetto Genefast Claudia Calzolari M. Elena
School of Social Work The Digestive System Undergraduate researcher: Nancy D. Bergerson (2010). 1 The Digestive System breaks down and absorbs food. When food is eaten, it is not in a form the body can
Journal of Agribusiness 18(1), Special Issue (March 2000):129S133 2000 Agricultural Economics Association of Georgia Food Safety Issues Arising at Food Production in a Global Market Michael P. Doyle Foodborne
A Practical Guide to Diagnosis and Treatment of Infection in the Outpatient Setting Diagnosis and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections By Gary R. Skankey, MD, FACP, Infectious Disease, Las Vegas, NV Sponsored
Connecticut Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science College of Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Connecticut SL Bushmich, MS, DVM CVMDL:
Classification of gastritis Pieter Demetter Department of Pathology Erasme University Hospital, Brussels The broad spectrum of gastritis General agreement on morphological aspects Great variety of names
Research in IBD at University of Colorado Denver Blair Fennimore, MD Assistant Professor of Medicine Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology UCH Crohn s and Colitis Center Mucosal Inflammation Program
GUIDELINE DOCUMENT CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING IN SOUTH AFRICA 2015 Cervical cancer remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in South Africa. At present the national cervical cancer prevention
Effects of Antibiotics on Bacterial Growth and Protein Synthesis: Student Laboratory Manual I. Purpose...1 II. Introduction...1 III. Inhibition of Bacterial Growth Protocol...2 IV. Inhibition of in vitro
Page 1 IKDT Laboratory IKDT as Service Lab (CRO) for Molecular Diagnostics IKDT lab offer is complete diagnostic service to all external customers. We could perform as well single procedures or complex
NOVA SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY Bacterial Evolutionary Genetics Course Graduate Level Oceanographic Center NOVA Southeastern University Lecture Time: Location: Instructor: Telephone: ON-LINE SUMMER SESSION May
Alteri, Christopher J. 5641 Medical Science Bldg. II 1150 W. Medical Center Dr. Research Investigator Ann Arbor, MI 48109 Department of Microbiology and Immunology phone: (734)763-5364 University of Michigan
Raw Milk Quality Tests Do They Predict Fluid Milk Shelf-life or Is it time for new tests? Martin Wiedmann Milk Quality Improvement Program November 3, 2011 Fluid milk shelf life What defines shelf life
An Overview of Cells and Cell Research 1 An Overview of Cells and Cell Research Chapter Outline Model Species and Cell types Cell components Tools of Cell Biology Model Species E. Coli: simplest organism
Gastrointestinal Tract Infections 20 Introduction Ingested pathogens may cause disease confined to the gut or involving other parts of the body Ingestion of pathogens can cause many different infections.
LECTURE 6 Gene Mutation (Chapter 16.1-16.2) 1 Mutation: A permanent change in the genetic material that can be passed from parent to offspring. Mutant (genotype): An organism whose DNA differs from the
(1) General features (a) Large intestine is last organ of digestive tract proper divided into 3 or 4 regions cecum appendix in humans colon rectum 1 b) No villi lumenal epithelium has microvilli This brush
Betaherpesvirinae Cytomegalovirus (HHV5/CMV) Roseolovirus (HHV6 & 7) CYTOMEGALOVIRUS CMV is thought to be amongst the oldest type of herpesvirus in evolutionary terms. CMV is the prototype of beta-herpesviruses
Witt Wait to Treat tutiled Until Endoscopic Evidence of Crohn s Disease Raymond Cross, MD, MS, AGAF Associate Professor of Medicine Director, IBD Program University of Maryland School of Medicine Co-Director,
The basic layout, the main functions and instrumentation concept of micro Inspection Division laboratory, 1, Virology Laboratory 1. Functions: for the city to monitor the prevalence of HIV disease, dealing