Pushes and Pulls. TCAPS Created June 2010 by J. McCain


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1 Pushes and Pulls K i n d e r g a r t e n S c i e n c e TCAPS Created June 2010 by J. McCain
2
3 Table of Contents Science GLCEs incorporated in this Unit Materials List Overview of Lessons Lesson 1: Ways That Things Move Lesson 2: Pushes and Pulls Lesson 3: Position and Gravity Lesson 4: Speeding Up, Adding Weight Lesson 5: Shapes in Motion Lesson 6: Sorting Motion Words Lesson 7: What Would Happen If Game
4 Science GLCEs Incorporated in Pushes and Pulls Please see the complete Science GLCEs at Below are some areas of the GLCEs for your reference that particularly pertain to this unit. Please reference the document at the link above for all Kindergarten Science GLCEs. Physical Science: Force and Motion Prior to entering kindergarten, many students have developed an understanding of the motion of objects. For example, the young learner has discovered that solid objects cannot move through each other, changes in motion and position of objects are the result of a force outside them, and that objects tend to endure over space and time. They learn even though the ball has rolled out of sight, it still exists behind the wall, under the couch, or behind someone s back. They can also make inferences about reasonable causes of motion of inanimate objects. Prekindergarteners have their own concept of force that they use to explain what happens in the motion of objects. They think of forces as active pushes and pulls that are needed to explain an object s motion. The kindergarten content expectations for physical science are meant to build on and use the early learners ability to correctly sense some of the behaviors of simple mechanical objects and the motion of objects. The central idea is for the young learner to be able to attach appropriate language that describes motion, compares motion, and begin to develop an understanding of forces and their relationship to changes in motion. Finally the students are introduced to the concept that objects fall toward the Earth and that the force that pulls objects toward Earth affects the motion of all objects. PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Force and Motion K7 Standard P.FM: Develop an understanding that the position and/or motion of an object is relative to a point of reference. Understand forces affect the motion and speed of an object and that the net force on an object is the total of all of the forces acting on it. Understand the Earth pulls down on objects with a force called gravity. Develop an understanding that some forces are in direct contact with objects, while other forces are not in direct contact with objects. Page 3 2
5 P.FM.E.1 Position A position of an object can be described by locating the object relative to other objects or a background. * P.FM Describe the position of an object (for example: above, below, in front of, behind, on) in relation to other objects around it. * P.FM Describe the direction of a moving object (for example: away from or closer to) from different observers views. * P.FM.E.2 Gravity Earth pulls down on all objects with a force called gravity. With very few exceptions, objects fall to the ground no matter where the object is on the Earth. P.FM Observe how objects fall toward the earth. P.FM.E.3 Force A force is either a push or a pull. The motion of objects can be changed by forces. The size of the change is related to the size of the force. The change is also related to the weight (mass) of the object on which the force is being exerted. When an object does not move in response to a force, it is because another force is being applied by the environment. P.FM Demonstrate pushes and pulls on objects that can move. * P.FM Observe that objects initially at rest will move in the direction of the push or pull. P.FM Observe how pushes and pulls can change the speed or direction of moving objects. P.FM Observe how shape (for example: cone, cylinder, sphere) and mass of an object can affect motion. * * Revised expectations marked by an asterisk. Page 4 3
6 Materials List Student toys with wheels from home = homework after Lesson 1 Area around your school with a sloped, hard floor Classroom materials to test gravity Geometric shapes (sphere, cube, triangular prism, cone, cylinder, variety of rectangular prisms) Chart paper and marker Wooden cars with string Student journals Weights Tape or glue Pushes and Pulls Timeline Lesson Number Description Est. Days for Activities 1 Ways That Things Move 1 2 Pushes and Pulls 1 3 Position and Gravity 1 4 Speeding Up, Adding Weight 1 5 Shapes in Motion 1 6 Sorting Motion Words 1 7 What Would Happen If 1 Total Number of Days 7 Page 5 4
7 Overview of Lessons Lesson 1: Ways That Things Move Students brainstorm words for how things move Homework: students bring 1 toy with wheels to school for scientific experiments for the next 2 lessons Lesson 2: Pushes and Pulls Experiment with pushes and pulls on their wheeled toy Game: students, in pairs, push or pull their toy; partner needs to identify whether it was a push or pull Lesson 3: Position and Gravity Simon Says position game with your toy Introduce gravity concept and test it out on a slope with their toy (no pushes or pulls involved) last time they will need their toy with wheels Lesson 4: Speeding Up, Adding Weight Wooden cars adding a push or pull when moving Adding weights to wooden cars Lesson 5: Shapes in Motion Geometric shapes sorted by ability to roll Sit in group circle and test shapes to roll across floor Draw which shape rolled best in student journals Lesson 6: Sorting Motion Words Cut apart movement words from lesson 1 to sort into categories: direction, speed, position Lesson 7: What Would Happen If Game Drop, push, pull, etc. and students have to guess what will happen before you do the action you described Encourage scientific language when describing what will happen Page 6 5
8 Lesson 1: Ways that Things Move Materials List Chart paper and marker Lesson Overview: 1. Ask your students, What are some words for how things move? Students may think of fast, slow, rolling, falling, sliding, bouncing, etc. Write these words on a Ways That Things Move chart on chart paper. 2. Tell students their homework is to bring a toy that moves with wheels to school tomorrow. Note: Vocabulary listed with each lesson is highly recommended to use throughout the lessons. Vocabulary words are taken from the GLCE Companion Document. Suggested Vocabulary: None yet, take student suggestions only during this lesson. Page 7 6
9 Lesson 2: Pushes and Pulls Materials List: Student toy from home (extras from your collection or another classroom in your building) Lesson Overview: 1. Pushes and Pulls Students bring in toys that have wheels to work on their pushes and pulls, not throwing! Hands have to stay on the item so it does not fly away from them. You may have to split this activity into 2 days. 2. Experimentation Students will first play with their wheeled toy on a level area of floor in the classroom. Ask them to find a personal space to explore where they cannot reach any of their friends. Allow them this time so they can then follow directions of what to do with their toy next. 3. Tell students, Push the toy away from you. Then tell them, Pull your toy towards you. Ask students, What made your toy move? It is their hand giving it a push or a pull, but the hand has to do this kind of action to make it move. You can do this like Simon Says to make it into a game and give students practice. Students need to know they are practicing pushes and pulls, both towards them and away from them. Use these terms to introduce directionality as well. Practice pushing to the right or pulling to the left. 4. Have students work in pairs and either push or pull their toy. The other student has to identify whether they are doing a push or a pull. Suggested Vocabulary: Push Pull Towards Away from Right Left Page 8 7
10 Lesson 3: Position Lesson and 3: Gravity Position and Gravity Materials List: Materials Student List: toy from home Classroom Student toy materials from home for testing gravity Classroom materials for testing gravity Lesson Overview: Lesson 1. Position Overview: Test students knowledge of position words with their toy. 1. This Position can also Test be students done as a knowledge game like Simon of position Says. words Ask students with their to toy. return This can to also their be personal done as space a game on like the Simon floor Says. like last Ask time. students Ask them to to place return their to their toy personal space on the floor like last time. Ask them to place their i. toy in front of you, ii. i. behind front you, of you, iii. ii. above behind you, you, iii. iv. above below you, iv. below on you, you, vi. v. on under you, you, vii. vi. under away from you, you, viii. vii. close away from to you, you, viii. ix. close between to you, your hands, ix. on between top of your hands, feet. xi. x. Note: on top Students of your feet. who are not familiar with any of these xi. terms Note: Students will either who be assisted are not familiar by the teacher with any or of learn these quickly terms will by either observing be assisted their friends. by the teacher or learn 2. Gravity Return quickly to by whole observing group. their Pick up friends. various classroom materials 2. (pencil, Gravity book, Return eraser, to whole etc.). group. Ask students Pick up various what will classroom happen to materials the material (pencil, book, if you eraser, let go etc.). of it while Ask students holding it what in the will air. happen This is to because the of material gravity, if which you let causes go of it things while to holding fall to it the in the earth. air. Do This multiple is because of experiments, gravity, which explaining causes that things scientists to fall to try the something earth. Do multiple multiple times experiments, to make sure it s explaining true. that scientists try something multiple times 3. to Gravity make Field sure it s Trip true. You will then take a walking field trip to an area 3. Gravity around your Field school Trip that You has will a then paved take slope a walking (or use field wooden trip blocks to an to area around create ramps). your school Student that has releases a paved object slope from (or use top wooden of the slope blocks and to create observes ramps). gravity Student at work. releases object from top of the slope and 4. observes Discussion gravity Return at work. to the classroom to ask students why the toys will 4. Discussion still roll downhill Return even to though the classroom they didn t to ask have students to push why or pull. the toys will still Students roll downhill should remember even though their they new didn t science have term, to push gravity. or pull. Vocabulary: Students should remember their new science term, gravity. Front Below Away Top Behind On Close Gravity Page 9 Above Under Between Page 9 8
11 Lesson 4: Speeding Lesson Up, Adding 4: Weight Speeding Up, Adding Weight Materials List: Materials Wooden List: cars with string attached, one for each group Weights Wooden cars to add with to string car, 3 attached, per group one for each group Weights to add to car, 3 per group Lesson Overview: Lesson Overview: 1. Wooden cars Remind students that little wooden cars are science 1. tools Wooden and cars not toys. Remind Let students experiment that little wooden with pushes cars are and science pulls in small tools and groups not first. toys. While Let students they re experiment working, ask with students, pushes What and pulls if your in friend small groups is pulling first. the While car by they re string working, and you ask give students, it an extra What push? if your What friend happens? is pulling the Test car this by out. the string and you give it an extra push? 2. Discussion What happens? on change Test this in speed out. Call students back to whole group. 2. Ask Discussion students on what change happened in speed when Call they students added a back push to or whole a pull? group. What happened Ask students to the what speed happened of the when car? they Students added should a push notice or a pull? that What with an happened extra push, to the objects speed can of the travel car? faster. Students should notice that with 3. Adding an extra Weight push, objects Ask students, can travel What faster. will happen if I add this weight 3. to Adding my car? Weight How will Ask it students, feel? Will What it be easier will happen or harder? if I add Give this weight students to my car? time How to will hypothesize it feel? Will before it be testing easier it or out harder? with the Give weights. Give students students time all to 3 hypothesize weights and before ask them testing to be it scientists out with the everyone weights. try Give pushing students and all pulling 3 weights the cart and ask with them no weights, to be scientists then 1 weight, everyone then 2 weights, try pushing finally and 3 pulling weights. the cart Tell students with no weights, they will then come 1 weight, back to then 2 discuss weights, their finally scientific 3 weights. findings Tell students as a whole they group will when come they re back to done experimenting. discuss their scientific findings as a whole group when they re done 4. Discussion experimenting. on adding weight What happened when you added more 4. weight? Discussion What on adding felt harder weight to pull? What Why? happened when you added more 5. Optional weight? What Discussion felt harder Discuss to pull? other Why? objects: What kinds of objects 5. need Optional a push? Discussion What objects Discuss need other a pull? objects: Let students What kinds tell of you objects a variety need a push? of everyday What objects need that a they pull? either Let students push or pull. tell you Does a it matter variety how of everyday much something objects weighs that they for either how easy push it or is to pull. push Does or pull? it matter how much something weighs for how easy it is to push or pull? Vocabulary: Speed Heavier Fast, Faster Lighter Slow, Slower Harder Weight Easier Page 10 Page 10 9
12 Lesson 5: Shapes in Motion Materials List: Geometric shapes Lesson Overview: 1. Predicting how shapes will roll Geometric shapes will be used to test how pushes and pulls work on various shapes. Sit in whole group with your class in a circle. Tell students to think about which shapes they think will be easiest to roll across the circle. Once students have had time to think, ask individuals to sort the shapes into rolls well or doesn t roll well piles, one student at a time coming up to choose an object and put it in one of the piles. Encourage students that many scientists do not agree before testing something, but they don t argue about it they do scientific testing to find out what is true. 2. Rolling shapes Roll each object across the circle to a student, one at a time. Discuss if they were right does it roll well or is it tricky to roll? Some shapes, like cubes, don t roll well because you have to push so much harder, or use more force, to get them to move. Stress that you re trying to make them all equal by pushing the same amount each time. Note: Make sure to discuss why some objects rolled faster or more easily than others. What is it about their shape that made it easier to roll? Vocabulary: Push Speed Shape Size Faster Slower Smooth Edges Points Page 11 10
13 Lesson 6: Sorting Motion Words Materials List Chart paper words from lesson 1, cut apart New chart paper and marker Tape or glue Lesson Overview: 1. Prep: Take chart paper words for how objects move (lesson 1) and cut them apart. 2. Have students help you sort the words into 3 categories: direction, speed, and position. Write these categories on the chart paper and tape words onto the category they belong in. Students may have new words they want to add after all the experimenting they have done. Let students decide which category these new words belong in and just write them on the chart. Below are some examples students may come up with: 1. Direction: right, left 2. Speed: fast, slow 3. Position: away, close, on, under, in front of, behind Page 12 11
14 Lesson 7: What Would Happen If Game Materials List Various objects chosen from around the room Lesson Overview: 1. Take an object from the room and either hold it in the air to drop, or put your hand on it as if to push it on the floor, or put your hand on it as if to pull it towards you, etc. Act as if you will do the action (but don t do it yet!) and describe what you will do by asking students, What will happen if I. 2. Call on individuals to tell you what will happen, using their new scientific words on pushes and pulls. Then have students come up and take a turn, using their scientific words. They may call on students to guess what will happen. Students can play this in small groups as well. Make sure they refer to your poster from lesson 6 for scientific words. 3. Example: Jerry puts his hand on the edge of the book and says, What will happen if I push the book away from me? It may help students if you model this quite a bit so they understand the formula. Page 13 12
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