# Chapter 6 Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 Chapter 6 Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes Day Activity Homework 1 Notes I, II Gondwanaland Take-Home Continental Drift* 2 Notes III- V B Edible Tectonics* 3 Notes V C- VI Article- One Boy s Experience Earthquake Data (Students should begin plotting earthquake data at the beginning of this unit) Eye on Earthquakes* 4 Notes VII Earth s Interior Egg Lab * Alternate Activities 1. Edible Tectonics- There are two possible choices for this lab. One with oranges, and the other with Milky Way candy bars. I have found both to be successful. 2. Eye on Earthquakes- In this activity students create and present a news report with each group member playing the role of a geologist, news anchor, seismologist, historian, geographer, or national disaster rescue official.

2 NC Goals: 2.02 Analyze the historical development of the theory of plate tectonics Analyze seismic waves including velocity and refraction to: Infer Earth s internal structure Locate earthquake epicenters Measure earthquake magnitude Evaluate the level of seismic activity in North Carolina

3 Chapter 6 Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes If the continents drift, where are we going? I. Once Upon a One-Land Planet A. Abraham Ortelius- in 1587 this famous mapmaker noticed that South America and Africa looked like mirror images. In his book Thesaurus Geographicus he argues that the continents were once joined. B. Alfred Wegener the thirty-two year old meteorologist unveiled his theory of continental drift 1. Wegener theorized that 200 million years ago Earth was one large continent called Pangaea (meaning all Earth ) 2. Gradually the continent split into two large landmasses a. Laurasia in the northern hemisphere b. Gondwanaland in the southern hemisphere C. Response from scientists at the time was very negative, but Wegener persisted D. About 30 years after Wegener s death, evidence convinced almost all scientists that continental drift was an acceptable, useful theory

4

5 II. Evidence Supporting Continental Drift A. Fossils 1. Glossopteris- an extinct plant fossil located in rocks about 250 million years old are found in South Africa, Australia, India, and Antarctica a. Seeds of this plant are too large to be carried by wind, too fragile to be carried by waves b. This suggests that places the plant fossils are found were once closer together. c. Glossopteris fossils found in Antarctica suggest a climate change, which indicates a position change in the land. 2. Many other reptile fossils support continental drift such as; Cynognathus, Lystrosaurus, and Mesosaurus B. Evidence from Rocks 1. Rock formations in Africa match those in South America 2. A folded mountain chain in South Africa matches a folded mountain chain in Argentina. 3. Coal fields with distinctive layers in Brazil are similar to those in Africa 4. Glacial deposits are found in South America, Africa, India, Australia, and Antarctica 5. Rock deposits of coal, salts, and limestone derived from coral reefs suggest changes in climate caused by continental drift. C. Evidence from the Ocean Floor 1. New mapping techniques of the 1950 s and 1960 s allowed scientists a closer look at the ocean floor.

6 2. Harry Hess, a geologist and Navy submarine commander, proposed the theory of sea-floor spreading in Scientists discovered the midocean ridge system, an undersea mountain range that snakes around the globe. a. At the midocean ridge, a great deal of volcanic activity causes lava to erupt from the rift valley. b. The lava hardens and forms new ocean floor. This is called oceanfloor spreading, and helps to explain how the continents drift. c. Old ocean floor that is pushed away from the ridge eventually moves down deep in the Earth along trenches through a process called subduction. Review Questions 1. What scientist developed the theory of continental drift? 2. What evidence was needed to prove the theory of continental drift? 3. Explain how ocean-floor spreading helps prove the theory of continental drift. III. Earth s Moving Plates A. Lithosphere- contains the crust and the uppermost part of the mantle and is composed of plates 1. There are 7 major plates named after their associated continents, or surface features (Ex. North American plate, South American plate)

7 2. The Pacific is the largest plate, covering one-fifth of Earth s surface. B. Plate Boundaries- where two plates meet 1. Divergent boundary- plates move apart (diverge), ex. Midocean ridges 2. Convergent boundary- plates come together (converge) a. creates pressure and friction b. can cause earthquakes and volcanoes 3. Strike-slip boundary- two plates grind together and slip past one another horizontally (Ex. San Andreas Fault in California) C. Plate Motion Hypothesis- convection currents caused by heat deep within the Earth may be responsible for the movement of continents 1. The layer below the lithosphere is called the asthenosphere and can flow like a liquid due to the intense heat and pressure in the mantle. 2. Material closer to the core is warm and rises, mantle material closer to the lithosphere is cooler and sinks 3. The rising and sinking cycle of the mantle material creates a circular motion that carries the plates of the Earth Review Questions 1. Why would a divergent boundary at the midocean ridge also be called a constructive boundary? 2. Explain what allows the plates of the Earth to move and could cause the continents to drift.

8 IV. Theory of Plate Tectonics A. Links together the ideas of continental drift and ocean-floor spreading B. Explains how the Earth has evolved (changed) over time C. Helps explain formation, movements, collisions, and destruction of the Earth s crust D. Helps scientists understand the past and helps predict the future V. Earthquakes A. Shaking and trembling resulting from movements of Earth s crust or plate tectonics 1. Most common cause of earthquakes is faulting- a break in the Earth s crust a. Most faults lie between the surface and a depth of 70 kilometers b. Focus- point below Earth s surface where rocks break and move c. Epicenter- point above Earth s surface directly above the focus 2. Movement at faults occur due to convection currents 3. Energy is released as the crust moves in the form of seismic waves. B. Types of Faults ( a break or crack where rocks move) 1. Normal faults- cracks where tension causes one block of rock (hanging wall) is sliding downward and away from another rock (foot wall) a. Hanging wall- block of rock above the fault b. Foot wall- block of rock below the fault 2. Reverse faults- compression causes one rock (hanging wall) to move up relative to the other rock (foot wall) 3. Strike-slip faults- shearing forces cause cracks between two plates to slide past one another

9 C. Types of Seismic Waves (Earthquake waves) 1. Primary Waves or P waves- travel fastest, travel through solids, liquids and gases a. push-pull waves that push rock particles ahead of them b. speed up when passing through denser material 2. Secondary Waves or S waves- slower than P waves, travel through solids, but not liquids and gases a. cause rocks particles to move from side to side b. speed up when passing through denser material 3. Surface Waves or L waves- slowest-moving seismic waves a. originate at the epicenter b. cause most of the damage during an earthquake c. earth s surface moves up and down as each L wave passes D. Measuring Seismic Waves 1. Seismographs- instrument that detects and measures seismic waves 2. Today's high-technology, digital seismographs record ground shaking over a large band of frequencies and seismic amplitudes. 3. Seismologists determine the strength of an earthquake by studying the height of waves recorded by seismographs. a. Richter Scale- an open-ended theoretical scale used to measure the magnitude of earthquakes (8.9 is largest magnitude assigned to an earthquake). i. The scale is logarithmic. Therefore an increase of 1 magnitude unit represents a factor of ten times in amplitude.

10 ii. For example, the seismic waves of a magnitude 6 earthquake are 10 times greater in amplitude than those of a magnitude 5 earthquake. b. Modified Mercalli Scale Measures earthquake intensity. Describes damage to structures. Ranges from I (felt by only a few) to XII (total destruction). Review Questions 1. What is the underground point of origin for an earthquake called? 2. How do S waves and P waves differ? 3. What type of waves cause the most damage during an earthquake? VI. History of Seismic Activity in North Carolina A. The first earthquake recorded in NC history was on March 8, 1735 near Bath, NC. B. From February 10 to April 17, 1784 there were 75 earthquakes felt in McDowell County, NC. C. April 31, 1886 an earthquake with an epicenter in Charleston, SC caused the most property damage in North Carolina s history. D. February 21, 1916 Asheville, NC - the most intense earthquake in NC history, measuring a 6 on the Mercalli scale. E. June 5, 1998 an earthquake in Moorseville, NC measured 3.2 on the Richter scale, but there was no reported damage. VII. Use of Seismic Waves in Developing a Model of Earth s Structure A. Solid Inner Core

11 1. When analyzing the activity of seismic waves through the Earth, scientists found that P waves began to speed up at 5150 kilometers. This indicates the waves were passing through solid material, proving the solid composition of the inner core. 2. Scientists theorize the inner core is composed of iron and nickel which under great pressure become solid. B. Liquid Outer Core 1. Scientists found that S waves terminated at a depth of 2900 kilometers. This indicates the outer core is liquid. 2. P waves also slow down as they pass through liquids to support this conclusion. 3. Scientists also theorize the outer core is composed of iron and nickel, but in liquid form. C. Mantle- directly above the outer core 1. Plasticity is the property of a solid with the ability to flow like a liquid at very, very slow rates. a. High temperature and pressure allow the rock to flow like a liquid b. This also allows the plates of Earth (lithosphere) to move on the mantle. 2. The mantle is composed of silicon, oxygen, iron and magnesium. 3. Moho- boundary between the crust and the mantle a. Change in the speed of seismic waves moving through the Earth led to its discovery b. Discovered in 1909 by a Yugoslav scientist, Andrija Mohorovicic D. Crust- thin outermost layer

12 1. Oceanic crust (less than 10 kilometers thick), made mostly of silicon, oxygen, iron and magnesium 2. Continental crust- (average thickness of 32 kilometers) made mostly of silicon, oxygen, aluminum, calcium, sodium and potassium Review Questions 1. Is North Carolina considered a high risk area for earthquakes? Why or why not? 2. List the layers of the Earth beginning with the crust. 3. How does the property of plasticity help explain the theory of plate tectonics?

13 Plate Tectonics is thought to be driven by describes is a theory supported by convection currents in the mantle movement of plates data and observations where plates slip by plates diverge plates converge each other San Andreas at at at divergent boundaries producing convergent boundaries transform boundaries that include Continental rifts mid-ocean ridge continental- oceanic- oceanic-continental continental oceanic Mid-Atlantic Ridge creating make where trenches large mountain belts one plate moves under another Word Bank Himilayas convection currents subduction subduction divergent theory trenches San Andreas Himilayas

14 Created by: CIESE Real Time Data Projects Activity 1 Student Worksheet: Plot Current Earthquake Data Materials You will need either a small world map to plot the earthquakes individually or in a small group OR a large world map to plot the earthquakes as a class. If you do not have a map, you can download a map from the National Geographic Xpeditions web site. Instructions: 1. Click on one of the web sites listed below to see all of the earthquakes that have occurred over the last few days which were larger than 2.5 on the Richter Scale. Note that in the first two columns you will see the time and date for each earthquake. Note that in the second two columns you will see the latitude and longitude coordinates for the epicenter of the earthquake. o TEXT-BASED (Recommend) USGS Earthquake Bulletin NOTE: Magnitude Greater Than 2.5 Earthquakes From Around the World IRIS List of Earthquakes (last 30 days) NOTE: a latitude of + corresponds to degrees North and a latitude of - corresponds to degrees South

15 a longitude of + corresponds to degrees East and a longitude of - corresponds to degrees West o INTERACTIVE MAPS USGS Recent earthquakes with tectonic plate boundaries (last 7 days) Recent earthquakes (last 7 days) IRIS Seismic Monitor 2. Use the latitude and longitude coordinates to plot a dot on your world map which represents the epicenter of the earthquake. 3. Use a blue star if the earthquake occurred near the surface (less than 100 km) and use a red star if it occurred deep (greater than 100 km) in the earth (you will see the depth measurements in the table.) 4. NOTE: You can use the links that appear in the last column of the table to assist you in finding the locations of the earthquakes if using the latitude and longitude coordinates is too difficult. 5. Do this for a period of one or two weeks.

16 Activity 2 Student Worksheet: Look for Patterns 1. Instructions: Your teacher will tell you to record your answers in your 'Musical Plates' journal/notebook OR on this worksheet. 1. At the end of the one or two week period, study the map that you have produced displaying the recent earthquake events. See if you can answer these questions: a. Do the earthquakes appear to occur all over the earth's surface or only in isolated regions? b. Is there a recognizable pattern to where earthquakes seem to occur? c. If such a pattern does exist, could you use it to determine where high risk earthquakes zones are located? d. Name several high risk zones that the President might want to know about.

17 2. Now, compare your world map from Activity 1 which has the earthquakes plotted on it to this tectonic plate map below. See if you can answer these questions: a. Do you see any relationship between the map you created and the map above showing tectonic plates? b. Do you think that there might be a correlation between tectonic plates and earthquakes? c. What do you think this correlation is?

18 d. What do you think is happening in the places where two plates are touching each other? e. When two plates rub against each what might the results be? Why? How might this relate to earthquakes? 3. If you distinguished between shallow and deep earthquakes when you plotted the data, examine this plate boundary map that shows the types of boundaries (i.e. convergent, divergent, transform) that exist between certain plates. See if you can answer the following questions: a. Do deep earthquakes seem to correlate to any particular type of plate boundary? If so, what type of boundary? b. Do shallow earthquakes seem to correlate to any particular type of plate boundary? If so, what type of boundary? c. If there is a correlation, can you explain it?

19 Activity 3 Student Worksheet: Where will your home be in a million years? Instructions: 1. Locate the station HILO in Hawaii on the GPS Time Series Global Velocities Map below: 2. Use the scaling arrow at the bottom of the left-side of Global Velocities map to determine the speed at which station HILO is moving ("5 cm/yr --->"). See if you can answer these questions: a. How fast is it moving in one year? b. How far will it move in 10 years? 100 years? 1,000 years? 100,000 years? a million years? Don't forget to include the units (cm, m, km, etc.) Year(s) Years 1-1, , million - 3. Determine the plate on which station HILO is located. What plates are touching it?

20 4. Use the "direction arrow" for station HILO to determine the direction that that station will move in. Assuming that station HILO remains moving in that direction, use the scale on your map to determine where station HILO will be in for each of the time periods above. Don't forget to include the units (cm, m, km, etc.) Year(s) Years 1-1, , million - 5. Do the same activity for station AUCK in Auckland, New Zealand. Don't forget to include the units (cm, m, km, etc.) Year(s) Years 1-1, , million - 6. See if you can answer these questions: a. How would the movement of either station affect the climate that plants and animals located on the land mass would experience?

21 b. How might this change in climate affect the habitat on the land mass? c. How might this habitat affect the animals? d. What animals living in the region might become extinct and which might be able to survive? 7. Based on the map of plate movements, where will North Carolina be in 100 years? 1000 years? EXTENSION 1. Scroll down past the Global Velocities Map, 2. Click on the station you would like to view 3. You can access the geodetic position measurements from that station from 1990 to the present day to determine its direction and movement for the last 10 years.

22 GPS Time Series Global Velocities Map

### ES Chapter 10 Review. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Name: Class: Date: ES Chapter 10 Review Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Scientists used the pattern of alternating normal and reversed

### Chapter 8: Plate Tectonics -- Multi-format Test

Name: Class: Date: ID: A Chapter 8: Plate Tectonics -- Multi-format Test Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the

### Interactive Plate Tectonics

Interactive Plate Tectonics Directions: Go to the following website and complete the questions below. http://www.learner.org/interactives/dynamicearth/index.html How do scientists learn about the interior

### Unit 4 Lesson 2 Plate Tectonics. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Puzzling Evidence What evidence suggests that continents move? In the late 1800s, Alfred Wegener proposed his hypothesis of continental drift. According to this hypothesis, the continents once formed a

### Plate Tectonics Short Study Guide

Name: Class: Date: Plate Tectonics Short Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The existence of coal beds in Antarctica

### Rocks and Plate Tectonics

Name: Class: _ Date: _ Rocks and Plate Tectonics Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is a naturally occurring, solid mass of mineral or

### Plate Tectonics Chapter 2

Plate Tectonics Chapter 2 Does not include complete lecture notes. Continental drift: An idea before its time Alfred Wegener First proposed his continental drift hypothesis in 1915 Published The Origin

### Plate Tectonics Web-Quest

Plate Tectonics Web-Quest Part I: Earth s Structure. Use the following link to find these answers: http://www.learner.org/interactives/dynamicearth/structure.html 1. Label the layers of Earth in the diagram

### 11A Plate Tectonics. What is plate tectonics? Setting up. Materials

11A Plate Tectonics What is plate tectonics? Earth s crust plus the upper mantle forms the lithosphere. Earth s lithosphere is broken in a number of different pieces. How these pieces move and interact

### Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Shaky Ground 6 th Grade

The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are

### Plate Tectonics. Introduction. Boundaries between crustal plates

Plate Tectonics KEY WORDS: continental drift, seafloor spreading, plate tectonics, mid ocean ridge (MOR) system, spreading center, rise, divergent plate boundary, subduction zone, convergent plate boundary,

### The Dynamic Crust 2) EVIDENCE FOR CRUSTAL MOVEMENT

The Dynamic Crust 1) Virtually everything you need to know about the interior of the earth can be found on page 10 of your reference tables. Take the time to become familiar with page 10 and everything

### SECOND GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

SECOND GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SECOND GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Investigating the parts of a volcano. LAB: Comparing the parts of a

### DYNAMIC CRUST: Unit 4 Exam Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes

DYNAMIC CRUST: Unit 4 Exam Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes NAME: BLOCK: DATE: 1. Base your answer to the following question on The block diagram below shows the boundary between two tectonic plates. Which

### Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science Grade 6. Unit Organizer: Geology: Inside the Earth (Approximate Time: 7 Weeks)

The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are

### Plate Tectonics. Earth, 9 th edition Chapter 2

1 Plate Tectonics Earth, 9 th edition Chapter 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Plate Tectonics: summary in haiku form Alfred Wegener gave us Continental Drift. Fifty years later... Continental Drift

### Continents join together and split apart.

KEY CONCEPT Continents change position over time. BEFORE, you learned Earth s main layers are the core, the mantle, and the crust The lithosphere and asthenosphere are the topmost layers of Earth The lithosphere

### Geol 101: Physical Geology PAST EXAM QUESTIONS LECTURE 4: PLATE TECTONICS II

Geol 101: Physical Geology PAST EXAM QUESTIONS LECTURE 4: PLATE TECTONICS II 4. Which of the following statements about paleomagnetism at spreading ridges is FALSE? A. there is a clear pattern of paleomagnetic

### Regents Questions: Plate Tectonics

Earth Science Regents Questions: Plate Tectonics Name: Date: Period: August 2013 Due Date: 17 Compared to the oceanic crust, the continental crust is (1) less dense and more basaltic (3) more dense and

### Name: Period: # Plate Tectonics. Journey to the center of the Earth

Plate Tectonics Journey to the center of the Earth Use pages 124 129 to answer the following questions. Exploring Inside Earth (p. 125-126) 1. What are the two main types of evidence that Geologist use

### Plate Tectonics Practice Questions and Answers Revised August 2007

Plate Tectonics Practice Questions and Answers Revised August 2007 1. Please fill in the missing labels. 2. Please fill in the missing labels. 3. How many large plates form the outer shell of the earth?

### 6.E.2.2 Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes and Volcanoes

Name: Date: 1. The road shown below was suddenly broken by a natural event. 3. The convergence of two continental plates would produce Which natural event most likely caused the crack in the road? island

### 1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers.

1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers. Which statement about the deposition of the sediments best explains why these layers have the curved shape shown? 1) Sediments were

### Plate Tectonics. Plate Tectonics The unifying concept of the Earth sciences. Continental Drift

Plate Tectonics The unifying concept of the Earth sciences. The outer portion of the Earth is made up of about 20 distinct plates (~ 100 km thick), which move relative to each other This motion is what

### Plate Tectonics: Big Ideas. Plate Tectonics. Plate Tectonics. The unifying concept of the Earth sciences.

Plate Tectonics: Big Ideas Our understanding of Earth is continuously refined. Earth s systems are dynamic; they continually react to changing influences from geological, hydrological, physical, chemical,

### FOURTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FOURTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FOURTH GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing different structures of volcanoes. LAB: Modeling three types

### Glossary. continental crust: the sections of crust, the outermost layer of the earth, that include the continents

aftershock: an earthquake that follows a larger earthquake or main shock and originates in or near the rupture zone of the larger earthquake. Generally, major earthquakes are followed by a number of aftershocks

### Plate Tectonics. Learning Guide. Pacific Plate. Pacific Ocean. Divergent boundaries

Plate Tectonics Learning Guide North American Plate Eurasian Plate Arabian Plate Pacific Plate Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean Cocos Plate Nazca Plate South American Plate African Plate Convergent boundary

### FIRST GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FIRST GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FIRST GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Learning the shapes of volcanoes. LAB: Experimenting with "lava." POST:

### Plate Tectonics Lab. Continental Drift. The Birth of Plate Tectonics

Plate Tectonics Lab Continental Drift Take a look at a globe sometime and observe the remarkable fit between South America and Africa. Could they have, in fact, been connected? During the 19th and early

### Name Score /225. (Make sure you identify each key concept by identifying the section [1.1, 1.2, etc.].]

Name Score /225 Changing Earth Chapter 1 Worksheet Before reading Chapter 1 (pages 9 37). On a separate sheet of paper, make two columns. Title the first column Before I Read. Title the second column After

### 4. Plate Tectonics II (p. 46-67)

4. Plate Tectonics II (p. 46-67) Seafloor Spreading In the early 1960s, samples of basaltic ocean crust were dredged up from various locations across the ocean basins. The samples were then analyzed to

### Study Guide Questions Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics

Study Guide Questions Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics What evidence did Alfred Wegener present in 1912 to support the idea of continental drift? Why did most geologists at the time dismiss Wegener

### Plate Tectonics. Hi, I am Zed and I am going to take you on a trip learning about Plate Tectonics. And I am Buddy Zed s mascot

Plate Tectonics Hi, I am Zed and I am going to take you on a trip learning about Plate Tectonics And I am Buddy Zed s mascot Continental Drift Alfred Wegener proposed that continents were not always where

### TECTONICS ASSESSMENT

Tectonics Assessment / 1 TECTONICS ASSESSMENT 1. Movement along plate boundaries produces A. tides. B. fronts. C. hurricanes. D. earthquakes. 2. Which of the following is TRUE about the movement of continents?

### Tectonic plates have different boundaries.

KEY CONCEPT Plates move apart. BEFORE, you learned The continents join and break apart The sea floor provides evidence that tectonic plates move The theory of plate tectonics helps explain how the plates

### Plate tectonics states that the Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into sections, called plates.

Notes on Plate Tectonics Plate tectonics states that the Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into sections, called plates. These plates move around the mantle. Plates are composed of the crust and

### SIXTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

SIXTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SIXTH GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing the structure of different types of volcanoes. LAB: Plotting

[Geology Layers of the Earth] [Basic: Grade 2-3] [Advanced: Grade 5: Introduction to Plate Tectonics} BACKGROUND Scientists and geologists have been able to do some drilling on Earth. They are also able

### Continental Drift. Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) Proposed that all of the continents were once part of a large supercontinent - Pangaea Based on:

Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift Continental Drift Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) Proposed that all of the continents were once part of a large supercontinent - Pangaea Based on: Similarities in shorelines

### FIFTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FIFTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FIFTH GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Exploring the rocks produced by volcanoes. LAB: Comparing igneous rocks.

### Essential Question: How did the theory of Plate Tectonics evolve?

Essential Question: How did the theory of Plate Tectonics evolve? 1. Look at a globe or a map of the Earth. Name the continents. (7 points) 2. How many continents are there? (3 points) 3. On a sheet of

### Name Date Class. By studying the Vocabulary and Notes listed for each section below, you can gain a better understanding of this chapter.

CHAPTER 7 VOCABULARY & NOTES WORKSHEET Earthquakes By studying the Vocabulary and Notes listed for each section below, you can gain a better understanding of this chapter. SECTION 1 Vocabulary In your

### Tectonic plates push together at convergent boundaries.

KEY CONCEPT Plates converge or scrape past each other. BEFORE, you learned Plates move apart at divergent boundaries In the oceans, divergent boundaries mark where the sea floor spreads apart On land,

### Section 1 The Earth System

Section 1 The Earth System Key Concept Earth is a complex system made up of many smaller systems through which matter and energy are continuously cycled. What You Will Learn Energy and matter flow through

### Earthquakes and Plate Boundaries Deborah Jordan and Samuel Spiegel

Earthquakes and Plate Boundaries Deborah Jordan and Samuel Spiegel Jordan, Deborah and Spiegel, Samuel: Learning Research Development Center, University of Pittsburgh. Earthquakes and Plate Boundaries.

### 1. You are about to begin a unit on geology. Can anyone tell me what geology is? The study of the physical earth I.

PLATE TECTONICS ACTIVITY The purpose of this lab is to introduce the concept of plate tectonics and the formation of mountains. Students will discuss the properties of the earth s crust and plate tectonics.

### Layers of the Earth s Interior

Layers of the Earth s Interior 1 Focus Question How is the Earth like an ogre? 2 Objectives Explain how geologists have learned about the interior of the Earth. Describe the layers of the Earth s interior.

### A Collection of Curricula for the STARLAB Plate Tectonics Cylinder

A Collection of Curricula for the STARLAB Plate Tectonics Cylinder Including: The Changing Earth by Gerald L. Mallon, Ed.D. v. 616-2008 by Science First /STARLAB, 86475 Gene Lasserre Blvd., Yulee, FL.

### The interior of the Earth is divided into layers based on chemical and physical properties.

Plate Tectonics Lecture Notes: Slide 1. Title Slide Slide 2. The interior of the Earth is divided into layers based on chemical and physical properties. The Earth has an outer silica-rich, solid crust,

### Chapter 2. Plate Tectonics. Plate Tectonics: Learning Goals

Plate Tectonics Chapter 2 Interactions at depend on the direction of relative plate motion and the type of crust. Which kind of plate boundary is associated with Earthquake activity? A. Divergent Boundary

### Earth Egg Model Teacher Notes

Ancient Greeks tried to explain earthquakes and volcanic activity by saying that a massive bull lay underground and the land shook when it became angry. Modern theories rely on an understanding of what

### Layers of the Earth and Plate Tectonics

Layers of the Earth and Plate Tectonics Objectives: explain various ways the earth can be changed by natural forces define the term Geology define the terms Crust, Mantle, Outer Core and Inner Core classify

### II. Earth Science (Geology) Section (9/18/2013)

EAPS 100 Planet Earth Lecture Topics Brief Outlines II. Earth Science (Geology) Section (9/18/2013) 1. Interior of the Earth Learning objectives: Understand the structure of the Earth s interior crust,

### Alfred Wegener s Theory of Continental Drift Became Modern Plate Tectonics. Wegener in Greenland about 1912. He froze to death there in 1930.

Alfred Wegener s Theory of Continental Drift Became Modern Plate Tectonics Wegener in Greenland about 1912. He froze to death there in 1930. Science is self correcting. The Scientific Method The history

### Unit Plan: Plate Tectonics Shannon B. Carpenter TE 804 1/25/02

Unit Plan: Plate Tectonics Shannon B. Carpenter TE 804 1/25/02 This unit plan is intended to cover about seven weeks and would be appropriate for a middle school general science class or an introductory

### How Did These Ocean Features and Continental Margins Form?

298 10.14 INVESTIGATION How Did These Ocean Features and Continental Margins Form? The terrain below contains various features on the seafloor, as well as parts of three continents. Some general observations

### Earth Science Module 21. Plate Tectonics: The Earth in Motion. Plate Tectonics Module Study Notes and Outline. Creationist Model

Earth Science Module 21 Plate Tectonics: The Earth in Motion Plate Tectonics Module Study Notes and Outline Creationist Model I. Scientists shift their paradigm A. When the data supporting plate tectonics

### 1 Exploring Earth s Interior

1 Exploring Earth s Interior Crust Mantle Outer Core Crust-to-Mantle Inner Core Cross Section From Surface to Center SCIENCE EXPLORER Focus on Earth Science Prentice-Hall, Inc. 2 Evidence for Continental

### KINDERGARTEN PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

KINDERGARTEN PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF KINDERGARTEN VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Learning that all mountains are not volcanoes. LAB: Investigating rocks

### Transform Boundaries

Lecture 7 Plates and Mantle Plumes Transform Boundaries Transform boundaries occur where one segment of rigid lithosphere slides horizontally past another in response to stresses in the lithosphere. The

### Lesson 13: Plate Tectonics I

Standards Addressed Lesson 13: Plate Tectonics I Overview Lesson 13 introduces students to geological oceanography by presenting the basic structure of the Earth and the properties of Earth s primary layers.

### Step 2: Learn where the nearest divergent boundaries are located.

What happens when plates diverge? Plates spread apart, or diverge, from each other at divergent boundaries. At these boundaries new ocean crust is added to the Earth s surface and ocean basins are created.

### Hot Spots & Plate Tectonics

Hot Spots & Plate Tectonics Activity I: Hawaiian Islands Procedures: Use the map and the following information to determine the rate of motion of the Pacific Plate over the Hawaiian hot spot. The volcano

### Continental Drift, Sea Floor Spreading and Plate Tectonics

Page 1 of 13 EENS 1110 Tulane University Physical Geology Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Continental Drift, Sea Floor Spreading and Plate Tectonics This page last updated on 26-Aug-2015 Plate Tectonics is a theory

### Plate Tectonics Lab Assignment

Plate Tectonics Lab Assignment After reading the introduction to the Plate Tectonics exercises in the lab manual, complete the questions on a hard copy of this Lab Assignment. When finished, transfer your

### Rapid Changes in Earth s Surface

TEKS investigate rapid changes in Earth s surface such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and landslides Rapid Changes in Earth s Surface Constant Changes Earth s surface is constantly changing. Wind,

### Seismic Waves Practice

1. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which shows models of two types of earthquake waves. Model A best represents the motion of earthquake waves called 1) P-waves (compressional

### Plate Tectonics: Ridges, Transform Faults and Subduction Zones

Plate Tectonics: Ridges, Transform Faults and Subduction Zones Goals of this exercise: 1. review the major physiographic features of the ocean basins 2. investigate the creation of oceanic crust at mid-ocean

### Student Exploration: Plate Tectonics

Name: Date: Student Exploration: Plate Tectonics Vocabulary: collisional boundary, convergent boundary, crust, divergent boundary, earthquake, lithosphere, mantle, plate, plate tectonics, transform boundary,

### Exploring Our World with GIS Lesson Plans Engage

Exploring Our World with GIS Lesson Plans Engage Title: Exploring Our Nation 20 minutes *Have students complete group work prior to going to the computer lab. 2.List of themes 3. Computer lab 4. Student

PLATE TECTONICS Teacher Guide including Lesson Plans, Student Readers, and More Information Lesson 1 - Evidence of Plate Tectonics Lesson 2 - Plotting Earthquakes and Volcanoes Lesson 3 - Case History

### Unit: Restless Earth Lesson: Earth s Interior

Melissa Duran, Hoover Middle School, San Jose, CA 1/9/03 Bay Area Science Museum Collaboratory Project Unit: Restless Earth Lesson: Earth s Interior Introduction Standards: 1.b, 7.e Objectives Students

### Introduction and Origin of the Earth

Page 1 of 5 EENS 1110 Tulane University Physical Geology Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Introduction and Origin of the Earth This page last updated on 30-Jul-2015 Geology, What is it? Geology is the study of

### Investigation 6: What happens when plates collide?

Tectonics Investigation 6: Teacher Guide Investigation 6: What happens when plates collide? In this activity, students will use the distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes in a Web GIS to learn about

### Students explore the mechanism behind plate motion as they investigate convection currents. KEY CONCEPTS AND PROCESS SKILLS

Convection Currents 40- to 1 50-minute session ACTIVITY OVERVIEW 46 L A B O R AT O R Y Students explore the mechanism behind plate motion as they investigate convection currents. KEY CONCEPTS AND PROCESS

### Lesson 3: The formation of mountains Factsheet for teachers

Lesson 3: The formation of mountains Factsheet for teachers Vocabulary This lesson uses the following geographical terms. These should be used and explained to pupils as the lesson is taught. Core, mantle,

### Earth Science Grade 4 Minerals

Earth Science Grade 4 Minerals Standards: Identifies the physical properties of minerals Teacher Background Minerals are pure substances and mix together to make rocks. Rocks have a cycle and different

### There are numerous seams on the surface of the Earth

Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift There are numerous seams on the surface of the Earth Questions and Topics 1. What are the theories of Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift? 2. What is the evidence

### www.amnh.org Continental Drift is the movement of the Earth s continents in relation to one another.

A Plate Tectonic Puzzle Introduction The Earth s crust is not a solid shell. It is made up of thick, interconnecting pieces called tectonic plates that fit together like a puzzle. They move atop the underlying

### FOURTH GRADE EARTHQUAKES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FOURTH GRADE EARTHQUAKES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FOURTH GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing different structures of volcanoes. DURING: Modeling three types

### Plate Tectonics Visual Glossary and Atlas How to use this app in your classroom

Plate Tectonics Visual Glossary and Atlas How to use this app in your classroom In addition to providing a comprehensive list of terms, definitions, illustrations, and animations related to plate tectonics,

### Chapter 16: Plate Tectonics

Chapter 16: Plate Tectonics Chapter Summary In the early 1900s Alfred Wegener set forth the continental drift hypothesis. One of its major tenets was that a supercontinent called Pangaea began breaking

### Unit 6 Earthquakes and Volcanoes

Unit 6 Earthquakes and Volcanoes Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Essential Questions What evidence can students observe that the Earth is changing? How do scientists know what s inside the Earth? What processes

### Name: Date: Class: Finding Epicenters and Measuring Magnitudes Worksheet

Example Answers Name: Date: Class: Finding Epicenters and Measuring Magnitudes Worksheet Objective: To use seismic data and an interactive simulation to triangulate the location and measure the magnitude

### California Standards Grades 9 12 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping

California Standards Grades 912 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping Earth Sciences Earth s Place in the Universe 1. Astronomy and planetary exploration reveal the solar system s structure,

### Unit 4 Lesson 6 Measuring Earthquake Waves. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Shake, Rattle, and Roll What happens during an earthquake? As plates of the lithosphere move, the stress on rocks at or near the edges of the plates increases. This stress causes faults to form. A fault

### II. 2003 Core Knowledge National Conference, Plate Tectonics, Grade 6 1

Plate Tectonics Grade: Six Written by: Sara Schroeder, Classical Charter School, Appleton, Wisconsin Lori Morris, Crestview Academy, Eau Claire, Wisconsin Length of Unit: 13 days I. ABSTRACT This is a

### Scope and Sequence Interactive Science grades 6-8

Science and Technology Chapter 1. What Is Science? 1. Science and the Natural World 2.Thinking Like a Scientist 3. Scientific Inquiry Scope and Sequence Interactive Science grades 6-8 Chapter 2. Science,

### CHAPTER 6 THE TERRESTRIAL PLANETS

CHAPTER 6 THE TERRESTRIAL PLANETS MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following is NOT one of the four stages in the development of a terrestrial planet? 2. That Earth, evidence that Earth differentiated.

TEACHING LEARNING COLLABORATIVE (TLC) EARTH SCIENCE Volcanoes Erupt Grade 6 Created by: Debra McKey (Mountain Vista Middle School); Valerie Duncan (Upper Lake Middle School); and Lynn Chick (Coyote Valley

### Using Google Earth to Explore Plate Tectonics

Using Google Earth to Explore Plate Tectonics Laurel Goodell, Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 laurel@princeton.edu Inspired by, and borrows from, the GIS-based Exploring

### Plotting Earthquake Epicenters an activity for seismic discovery

Plotting Earthquake Epicenters an activity for seismic discovery Tammy K Bravo Anne M Ortiz Plotting Activity adapted from: Larry Braile and Sheryl Braile Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Purdue

### PLATE TECTONICS EXERCISE (Modified from North Seattle Community College online exercise)

PLATE TECTONICS EXERCISE (Modified from North Seattle Community College online exercise) Introduction: As discussed in our textbook, the speed at which tectonic plates move has been calculated in several

### Plate Tectonics PuzzleMap User Guide

About this Product: Plate tectonics is a key standards-based topic taught in earth science classrooms throughout the United States. The purpose of this map is to help educators (teachers, museum tour guides,

### Earthquake Hazards and Risks

Page 1 of 7 EENS 3050 Tulane University Natural Disasters Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Earthquake Hazards and Risks This page last updated on 28-Aug-2013 Earthquake Risk Many seismologists have said that "earthquakes

### Chapter 9 Plate Tectonics

Chapter 9 Plate Tectonics Section 1 Continental Drift Key Concepts What is the hypothesis of continental drift? What evidence supported continental drift? Vocabulary continental drift Pangaea An Idea Before

### Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Natural Disasters 6 th Grade

The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are