Comparing and Contrasting Grade Three

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1 Ohio Standards Connection Reading Applications: Literary Text Benchmark A Compare and contrast plot across literary works. Indicator 1 Recognize and describe similarities and differences of plot across literary works. Benchmark B Use supporting details to identify and describe main ideas, characters and setting. Indicator 2 Use concrete details from the text to describe characters and setting. Reading Process: Concepts of Print, Comprehension Strategies and Self- Monitoring Strategies Benchmark A Establish a purpose for reading and use a range of reading comprehension strategies to understand literary passages and text. Indicator 6 Create and use graphic organizers, such as Venn diagrams and webs, to demonstrate comprehension. Lesson Summary: Students demonstrate comprehension by comparing and contrasting literary elements across works. Estimated Duration: One hour, 30 minutes Commentary: The pre-assessment lets teachers know if students can identify story elements and understand the terms of both story elements and compare/contrast. Students are actively talking and discussing when working in pairs. Pre-Assessment: Distribute Pre-Assessment, Attachment A, to each student. Read short story aloud. Instruct students to complete Pre-Assessment sheet, during and after reading, listing characters, setting, plot, main idea, and analyzing similarities (comparison) and differences (contrasting). Observe student work. Use Pre-Assessment Guide, Attachment B, to record accuracy of student answers. Review definitions of words and give examples. Use questions from Pre-Assessment as guide. Instruct students to revise answers on Pre-Assessment as needed for use as a reference during lesson. Scoring Guidelines: Instruct students to use colored pens/pencils to make distinctions between original answers and revised answers during class discussion. Make anecdotal notes after conferring with individual students. Post-Assessment: Collect Venn diagrams comparing and contrasting assigned literary element. Scoring Guidelines: Use Post-Assessment Rubric, Attachment C, to determine student s ability to compare and contrast plot and use supporting details to identify and describe main ideas, characters and setting. 1

2 Instructional Procedures: 1. Group students into pairs. 2. Distribute two short stories or poems on related topics and Venn diagram, Attachment D. 3. Use projection equipment or chalkboard to create large Venn diagram. 4. Model use of Venn diagram; point out title placement. 5. Read aloud both texts. 6. Instruct students to think about characters, setting, plot and main idea of each work. 7. Instruct students to re-read both texts with a partner. 8. Assign a literary element to each pair. 9. Have students make notes on Venn diagrams. 10. Have students use Pre-Assessment as reference tool. 11. Monitor and assist student pairs as needed. 12. Collect completed Venn diagrams. 13. Divide students into small groups. 14. Instruct students to think about an activity done the prior evening. 15. Ask student to tell about the activity as though it were a story. 16. Ask them in turn to describe one activity they did the night before. 17. Group members identify characters, main idea, setting and plot of speaker s narrative story. Instructional Tips: Mixed ability groups may be used. This activity provides an excellent opportunity to incorporate fractured or cultural variants of fairy tales, poetry or drama in addition to short stories. Make sure selected texts contain well-defined characters, clear settings, main ideas and several plot elements. Differentiated Instructional Support: Instruction is differentiated according to learner needs, to help all learners either meet the intent of the specified indicator(s) or, if the indicator is already met, to advance beyond the specified indicator(s). Differentiate reading material in the body of the lesson according to student needs. Assist students during paired learning task by guiding them to examples of assigned literary element. Students showing evidence of not meeting the standard after lesson may work in small groups or individually with teacher for remediation or reteaching. Extensions: Students meet in small groups using jigsaw activity to share information on their Venn diagrams. Students compare and contrast all three literary elements addressed in lesson. Continue activity with read-alouds and chart-sized Venn diagram. Ask students what would happen if characters traded stories. Students make a list of questions that characters in both stories would ask each other if they met. Students role-play or interview each other as if they were two characters in different stories. 2

3 Home Connections: Students identify characters, setting, plot and main idea of books read aloud at home to reinforce application of literary elements. Send home two poems or short stories for parent and child to discuss and use for comparing and contrasting literary elements. Interdisciplinary Connections: Lesson can be adapted to multiple content areas through the choices of literature examined. Materials and Resources: The inclusion of a specific resource in any lesson formulated by the Ohio Department of Education should not be interpreted as an endorsement of that particular resource, or any of its contents, by the Ohio Department of Education. The Ohio Department of Education does not endorse any particular resource. The Web addresses listed are for a given site s main page, therefore, it may be necessary to search within that site to find the specific information required for a given lesson. Please note that information published on the Internet changes over time, therefore the links provided may no longer contain the specific information related to a given lesson. Teachers are advised to preview all sites before using them with students. For the teacher: chart paper or chalkboard or projection device, markers or chalk, large visual aid of Venn diagram, lesson attachments, read aloud for Pre-Assessment, two student texts for body of lesson For the students: pencil, colored pen, Attachments Vocabulary: character compare contrast main idea plot setting Venn Diagram Technology Connections: Students can create their Venn diagrams using word-processing or drawing software. Students can read short stories electronically. Research Connections: Arter, Judith and Jay McTighe. Scoring Rubrics in the Classroom: Using Performance Criteria for Assessing and Improving Student Performance. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press,

4 An analytical trait rubric divides a product or performance into essential traits or dimensions so they can be judged separately one analyzes a product or performance for essential traits. A separate score is provided for each trait. Analytical rubrics address some of the limitations of the holistic rubric. They: Judge complex performances involving several significant dimensions and Provide more specific feedback to students, parents and teachers. Barrantine, S. J. Engaging with Reading through Interactive Read-Alouds. The Reading Teacher, , A read-aloud session is a method framework often used by teachers to develop independent readers. It involves: 1. Choosing a book with both your students and yourself in mind, 2. Practice reading of the book, 3. Creating a comfortable atmosphere for reading aloud, 4. Reading the selection with feeling and expression, 5. Discussing the meanings of unfamiliar words and 6. Supporting children s responses to what has been read. Marzano, Robert J., Jane E. Pollock and Debra Pickering. Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement, Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Identifying similarities and differences enhances students understanding of and ability to use knowledge. This process includes comparing, classifying, creating metaphors and creating analogies, and may involve the following: Presenting students with explicit guidance in identifying similarities and differences, Asking students to independently identify similarities and differences and Representing similarities and differences in graphic or symbolic form. 3. Practice and homework provide students with opportunities to deepen their understanding and skills related to content that has been presented to them. 4. Nonlinguistic representations or imagery helps students think about and recall knowledge. This includes creating graphic representations (organizers). 5. Cooperative-learning grouping has a powerful effect on student learning. This grouping includes the following elements: Positive interdependence, Face-to-face interaction, Individual and group accountability, Interpersonal and small-group skills and Group processing. Zemelman, Steven, Harvey Daniels and Arthur Hyde. Best Practice: New Standards of Teaching and Learning in America's Schools. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, Cooperative learning has been described by William Glasser (1990), David and Roger Johnston (1991), Yael and Shlomo Sharan (1992) and Robert Slavin (1985) among others. Manifestations 4

5 Partner/Buddy reading Peer Response and Editing Reading Circles/Text Sets Study Teams Group Investigations Centers Representing-to-learn Writing to learn developed in the 70s and 80s by Peter Elbow (1973) and Toby Fulwiler (1987) was widely spread in National Writing Project in-service programs. However, this needn t be limited only to writing words. Drawing, sketching, jotting, mapping and other graphic representations are equally valuable and can be called representing to learn (Daniels & Bizar 1998). General Tips: Provide students adequate space to spread out materials while working with partners. Select reading material that is easily compared and contrasted with other work Choose reading material that contains clear main idea, plot, setting and characters. Attachments: Attachment A, Pre-Assessment Attachment B, Pre-Assessment Guide Attachment C, Post-Assessment Rubric Attachment D, Venn Diagram 5

6 Attachment A Pre-Assessment Name Date Directions: Fill in each line as the story is read aloud. Characters: Setting: Plot: Main idea: Compare yourself to the main character: (How are you alike?) Contrast yourself with the main character: (How are you different?) 6

7 Attachment B Pre-Assessment Guide Student Name Main Idea The central thought or chief topic Character(s) Who is in the story Setting The time and place of the action Plot The sequence of events in a story - student correctly identifies concept in story - student partially or incorrectly identifies concept in story Compare Similarities between two or more things Contrast Differences between two or more things 7

8 Attachment C Post-Assessment Rubric Student Name Assigned Literary Element(s) Assign student score using only the literary element(s) assigned to that student. Attributes Similarities and differences Exemplary 4 Numerous similarities and differences in plot are identified and correctly placed in Venn diagram. Proficient 3 Several similarities and differences in plot are identified and correctly placed Developing 2 Few similarities and differences in plot are Minimal description. One or more items are Beginning 1 One or no similarities and differences in plot are identified; description is in Venn diagram or non-existent. Main ideas and themes Characters Settings All main ideas and themes of both literary works are identified and described thoroughly and correctly placed in Venn diagram. All characters in both literary works are identified and described thoroughly. Items correctly placed in Venn diagram. Settings of both literary works are identified and described thoroughly. Items correctly placed in Venn diagram. One or more main ideas of both literary elements are identified and correctly placed Several characters in both literary works are identified and correctly placed in Venn diagram Settings of both literary works are identified and correctly placed Only one main idea is Minimal description. One or more items are Few characters from each literary work are Minimal description. One or more items are Only one setting is identified with minimal description. One or more items Main ideas are incorrect or not Minimal or no description. Items in Venn Diagram. One or no characters are Minimal or no description. Items One or no settings Minimal or no description. Items Draft 8

9 Attachment D Venn Diagram Title: Title: Draft 9

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