# Mathematics Scope and Sequence, K-8

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1 Standard 1: Number and Operation Goal 1.1: Understands and uses numbers (number sense) Mathematics Scope and Sequence, K-8 Grade Counting Read, Write, Order, Compare Place Value Money Number Theory K Count by ones to 31 Compare sets of objects using vocabulary (less than, greater than, and same as) Identify a penny as a value of money 1st Show the verbal, symbolic and physical representations of a number up to 10. Count by ones and tens to 100, count backwards by ones from 20, and count with ordinal 2nd Count by twos, fives, and tens to 100, count backwards and forwards by ones from any given number less than 100. Read, write, compare and order whole numbers to 100. Read, write, compare and order whole numbers to rd Read, write, compare and order whole numbers to 10,000. 4th Read, write, compare and order whole numbers to 100,000. 5th Read, write, compare and order whole numbers through millions. 6th Compare magnitudes and relative magnitudes of positive rational numbers, including whole numbers through billions, fractions, and decimals. Locate the position of integers on a number line. 7th Compare magnitudes and relative magnitudes of rational numbers, including integers, fractions, and decimals. Locate the position of rational numbers on a number line. Identify place value through 99. Identify place value through 999. Identify place value through Identify and apply place value in whole Identify and apply place value in whole Identify each and state the value of pennies, nickels, and dimes. Count the value of a collection of pennies, nickels, dimes, and quarters up to \$1.00. Count the value of a collection of bills and coins up to \$ Count the value of a collection of bills and coins up to \$ Count back change from \$ Apply the number theory concepts of primes, composites, multiples, factors. Apply number theory concepts (prime, composite, prime factorization and identify common factors and common multiples. Apply the number theory concepts of primes, composites, prime factorization and find the LCM and GCF.

3 Grade Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division Evaluation Computation Method/ Calculator 3 rd (cont.) Add three one-and two-digit addends. 4th Add whole Subtract whole Recall multiplication facts through 10 x 10. Multiply up to two-digit by two-digit whole 5th Recall basic multiplication facts up to 10 s Multiply whole 6th Add whole Subtract whole Recall basic multiplication facts from 12 x 12 Times Table. Multiply whole 7th Add whole Subtract whole Multiply whole Divide whole numbers by one-digit divisors. Recall basic division facts up to 10 s. Divide whole Recall basic division facts from 12 x 12 Times Table. Divide whole Divide whole Evaluate numerical expressions that include parentheses Evaluate numerical expressions with whole numbers using the order of operations (excluding exponents). Evaluate whole numbers in exponential form. Select and use an appropriate method of computation from mental math, paper and pencil, calculator, or a combination of the three Investigate the use of a four-function calculator to solve complex gradelevel problems Select and use an appropriate method of computation from mental math, paper and pencil, calculator, or a combination of the three Investigate the use of a four-function calculator to solve complex gradelevel problems Select and use an appropriate method of computation from mental math, paper and pencil, calculator, or a combination of the three Investigate the use of a four-function calculator to solve complex gradelevel problems Select and use an appropriate method of computation from mental math, paper and pencil, calculator, or a combination of the 3.

4 Grade Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division Evaluation Computation Method/ Calculator 7th Cont. 8th Add rational Subtract rational numbers Multiply rational Divide rational Evaluate numerical expressions using the order of operations with whole numbers and decimals. Evaluate numerical expressions with whole number exponents. Evaluate numerical expressions with rational numbers using the order of operations. Investigate the use of a four-function calculator to solve complex gradelevel problems Select and use an appropriate method of computation from mental math, paper and pencil, calculator, or a combination of the three Investigate the use of a four-function calculator to solve complex gradelevel problems

5 Standard 1: Number and Operation Goal 1.3: Estimation Grade K Use estimation to identify a number of objects. Use estimation to evaluate the reasonableness of an answer. 1st Estimate a quantity of objects when shown a set of 10 Use estimation to evaluate the reasonableness of an answer. 2nd Estimate to predict the sum of numbers through 99. 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th Use estimation to evaluate the reasonableness of the sum of numbers through 99. Estimate to predict sums and differences. Use estimation to evaluate the reasonableness of a sum or difference. Estimate to predict computation results. Use estimation to evaluate the reasonableness of an answer. Estimate to predict computation results. Identify when an estimation is sufficient or when an exact answer is required. Explain why a given estimate is an overestimate or underestimate. Estimate to predict computation results. Explain when estimation is appropriate Identify whether a given estimate is an overestimate or underestimate. Estimate to predict computation results. Explain when estimation is appropriate and describe the usefulness of an estimate as opposed to an exact answer. Identify whether a given estimate is an overestimate or underestimate. Estimate to predict computation results. Identify whether a given estimate is an overestimate or underestimate.

7 Standard 2: Measurement Goal 2.1: Understand and use U.S. customary and metric measurements. Grade Length, vol., wt. Units/tools Time Estimation Conversions/Equivalences K Compare the lengths or sizes of objects (e.g., longer, shorter, larger, smaller) Name the day of the week and the days date using a calendar Estimate measurement using concrete objects 1st Use non-standard tools and units for measuring length, vol., and wt. 2nd Select a tool that can measure a given attribute (e.g. ruler- length, cup vol., clock time) 3rd Select and use appropriate units and tools to make formal measurements of length and temp. in both systems. Tell time to the hour. Recite the days of the week, in order, and identify yesterday and tomorrow on a calendar. Tell time using both digital and analog clocks to the half hour. Recite the months of the year in order. Select the most appropriate unit to measure the time of a given situation (mins. hrs.) Tell time using digital and analog clocks using quarter hour and 5- minute intervals State that there are 24 hrs in a day, 7 days in a week, and 12 mths. in a yr. Estimate measurement using non-standard units. Estimate length and time using standard units. Estimate length, time, and weight in real-world problems using standard units. Identify relationships of length and time within the U.S. customary system and within the metric system. 4th Select and use appropriate units and tools to make formal measurements of length, temp., and wt. in both systems. Tell time to the nearest minute using analog and digital clocks. State that there are 365 days in a year and 52 weeks in a year. Estimate length, time, weight, and temp. in real-world problems using standard units. Convert units of length and time within the U.S. customary system. Recall length and volume equivalences involving inches, feet, yards, cups, pints, quarts, and gallons.

8 Grade Length, vol., wt. Units/tools Time Estimation Conversions/Equivalences 5th Select and use appropriate units and tools to make formal measurements of length, temp., wt., and vol. in both systems. Tell time to the nearest second. Convert days into weeks and years and years into decades and centuries. Estimate length, time, weight, temp. and vol. in real-world problems using standard units. Convert units of length within each system. Recall length, volume, and mass equivalences involving millimeters, centimeters, meters, milliliters, liters, grams, and kilograms. 6th Select and use appropriate units and tools to make formal measurements in both systems. 7th Select and use appropriate units and tools to make formal measurements in both systems. 8th Select and use appropriate units and tools to make formal measurements in both systems. Apply estimation of measurement to realworld and content problems using standard measuring devices. Apply estimation of measurement to realworld and content problems using standard measuring devices Apply estimation of measurement to realworld and content problems using standard measuring devices Convert units of measurement within each system in one-step problems (e.g., quarts to gallons and gallons to quarts) Convert units of measurement in each system. Convert units of measurement in each system in problem solving situations. Standard 2: Measurement Goal 2.2: Apply the concepts of rates, ratios, and proportions. Goal 2.3: Apply dimensional analysis 6th Identify and write ratios and scales (on a map). 7th Explain rates and their relationships to ratios, and use proportions to solve problems represented with a diagram. Reduce rates to unit rates. 8th Use rates, proportions, ratios, and map scales in problem-solving situations. Determine unit rates in real-world situations. Identify properly constructed dimensional analysis conversions. Illustrate the interrelationship of measurement units through dimensional analysis conversions.

10 Standard 3: Concepts and Language of Algebras and Functions Goal 3.2: Evaluate algebraic expressions Grade 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th Use the commutative property of addition. Solve addition problems using the commutative property. Use the commutative property of multiplication. Solve multiplication problems using the commutative property Use the identity and zero properties of multiplication. Use the following properties as they relate to addition and multiplication: commutative, associative, and distributive. Use the following properties as they relate to addition and multiplication: commutative, associative, identity, zero, inverse, distributive, and substitution properties. Evaluate simple algebraic expressions using substitution. Evaluate simple numeric and algebraic expressions using commutative, associative, identity, zero, inverse, distributive, and substitution properties. Use the order of operations in evaluating simple algebraic expressions. Use and apply the following properties in evaluating algebraic expressions: commutative, associative, identity, zero, inverse, distributive, and substitution. Use the order of operations in evaluating simple algebraic expressions. Simplify algebraic expressions. Standard 3: Concepts and Language of Algebras and Functions Goal 3.3: Solve algebraic equations and inequalities Goal 3.4 Understand the concept of functions Grade K Replicate and extend simple repeating patterns (e.g., ABAB) 1st Describe and extend a repeating pattern (e.g., ABACABAC) 2nd Translate a repeating pattern from one representation to another e.g., even, odd, even, odd translates to ABAB). 3rd Solve missing addend equations. Extend a growing arithmetic, numerical pattern when given a rule with a single operation of one digit addition (e.g., add 3). 4th Solve missing factor equations. Identify the rule (function0 for a pattern using whole numbers and addition and then extend the pattern. 5th Solve missing factor equations. Identify the rule for a pattern using whole numbers and extend the pattern. 6th Solve one-step equations with whole Extend simple patterns and state a rule (function) that generates the pattern using whole numbers, decimals, and fractions as input. Describe and extend patterns by using manipulatives and pictorial representations. Use mathematical models to show change in a real world context.

11 7th Solve one-step equations. Extend patterns involving rational numbers and describe the rule that generates the pattern. Explain how a change in one quantity impacts a change in another quantity. 8th Solve one-and two-step equations and Extend patterns and identify a rule (function) that generates the pattern using rational inequalities. Match graphical representations with simple linear equations. Use relationships to explain how a change in one quantity may result in a change in another, and identify the relationship as positive, negative, or neither. Standard 3: Concepts and Language of Algebras and Functions Goal 3.5: Represent equations, inequalities, and functions Goal 3.6: Apply functions to a variety of problems in a variety of formats. Grade 5th Use patterns to represent problems. 6th Use patterns to represent and solve simple problems. 7th Represent a simple set of data in a table, as a graph, and as Use patterns and linear functions to represent and solve simple problems. a mathematical relationship. 8th Represent a set of data in a table, as a graph, and as a mathematical relationship. Use patterns and linear functions to represent and solve problems

12 Standard 4: Concepts and Principles of Geometry Goal 4.1: Apply concepts of size, shape and spatial relationship. Grade Shapes Points, lines, rays, angles Spatial Relationships Formulas K Recognize, name, compare, and sort two-and threedimensional shapes (triangle, rectangle, square, circle, cone, cube). 1st Recognize, name, build, draw and sort two- and three-dimensional shapes (triangle, rectangle, square, circle, cone, cube, cylinder). 2nd Recognize, name, build, compare, and sort the two- Draw a line of symmetry. and three-dimensional shapes of triangles, rectangles, squares, circles, cones, cubes, spheres, cylinders, and pyramids. 3rd Identify, compare, and analyze attributes of twoand three-dimensional shapes, including right angles, squares, and three-dimensional shapes in environment, and develop vocabulary to describe the attributes. Discuss sliding and flipping of two-dimensional shapes. Identify vertical and 4th 5th Identify, compare, and analyze attributes of twoand three-dimensional shapes, including parallel, perpendicular, and intersecting lines, and develop vocabulary to describe the attributes. Identify, compare, and analyze attributes of polygons and polyhedra and develop vocabulary to describe the attributes. Classify angles without formal measures as acute, right, obtuse, and/or straight. Identify and label points, lines, line segments, rays, and angles. horizontal lines of symmetry. Predict the results of sliding and flipping two-dimensional shapes. Identify multiple lines of symmetry in two-dimensional shapes. Discuss perimeters of polygons and areas and perimeters of rectangles and squares, using concrete objects Discuss and predict the results of sliding, flipping, and turning two-dimensional shapes. Identify shapes as congruent, similar, or symmetrical. Explain the difference between Calculate the perimeter of polygons and the area of rectangles and squares.

13 perimeter and area of a polygon. Grade Shapes Points, lines, rays, angles Spatial Relationships Formulas 6th Describe relationships among types of one- and twodimensional geometric figures, using their defining properties. Draw and measure various angles and shapes using appropriate tools. Describe reflections, translations, and rotations on various shapes. 7th 8th Classify relationships among types of one- and two-dimensional geometric figures, using their defining properties. Describe and classify relationships among types of one-, two-, and three dimensional geometric figures, using their defining properties. Apply fundamental concepts, properties, and relationships among points, lines, rays, and angles. Draw and measure various angles and shapes using appropriate tools. Apply fundamental concepts, properties, and relationships among points, lines, rays, planes and angles. Draw and measure various angles and shapes using appropriate tools. Apply fundamental concepts, properties, and relationships among points, lines, rays, planes and angles. Identify congruence, similarities, and line symmetry of shapes. Discuss the spatial relationship between twoand three-dimensional objects. Explain and model the effects of reflections, translations, and rotations on various shapes. Identify congruence, similarities, and line symmetry of shapes. Describe the concept of surface area and volume (capacity). Explain the differences between perimeter, area, and volume and their measures. Identify and model the effects of reflections, translations, rotations, and scaling on various shapes. Identify congruence, similarities, and line symmetry of shapes. Explain the concept of surface area and volume. Given the formulas, find the perimeter or circumference and area of triangles, circles, and parallelograms. Given the formulas, find the perimeter, circumference, or area of triangles, circles, and quadrilaterals. Given the formulas, find the circumference, perimeter, or area of triangles, circles, and quadrilaterals, and the volume and surface area of rectangular prisms.

14 Compare the differences and relationships among measures of perimeter, area, and volume. Standard 4: Concepts and Principles of Geometry Goal 4.3: Apply graphing in two dimensions Grade K 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th Apply graphing in two dimensions. Indicate whether a number is above or below a benchmark number (100 or less0 on a number line. Indicate whether a number is above or below a benchmark number of 1000 or less on a number line. Identify the point of final destination given directions for movement on a positive number line. Use ordered pairs to identify the position of a point in the first quadrant on a coordinate grid. Use ordered pairs to identify and plot points in the first quadrant on a coordinate grid. Identify and plot points in the first quadrant on a coordinate plane. Identify and plot points on a coordinate plane. Identify and plot points on a coordinate plane.

15 Standard 5: Data Analysis, Probability, and Statistics Goal 5.1: Understand data analysis Goal 5.2: Collect, organize, and display data Grade K Interpret information from real object graphs and simple Create a graph using real objects or pictorial representations. pictographs. 1st Interpret information found in real object graphs and in pictographs to answer questions. Gather and display data in real object graphs and pictographs to answer questions. 2nd Interpret information found in simple tables, charts, bar graphs, and pictographs. Gather and display data in tables, charts, and bar graphs in order to answer a question. 3rd Interpret information found in tables, bar graphs, and charts. Collect, organize, and display data in tables, charts, or bar graphs in order to answer a question. 4th Read and interpret simple tables, charts, bar graphs, and line Collect, organize and display data in tables and charts to answer a question. graphs. 5th Read and interpret tables, charts, bar graphs, and line graphs. Collect, organize, and display data with appropriate notation in tables, charts, bar graphs, and line graphs. 6th Read and interpret tables, charts, graphs, including broken line graphs, bar graphs, frequency tables, line plots, and circle graphs. Collect, organize and display data with appropriate notation in tables, charts, and graphs, including broken line graphs, bar graphs, frequency tables, and line plots. Explain and justify stated conclusions drawn from tables, charts, 7th 8th and graphs. Read and interpret tables, charts, and graphs, including frequency tables, scatter plots, broken line graphs, line plots, bar graphs, histograms, circle graphs, and stem-and-leaf plots. Explain conclusions drawn from tables, charts, and graphs. Analyze and interpret tables, charts, and graphs, including frequency tables, scatter plots, broken line graphs, line plots, bar graphs, histograms, circle graphs, and stem-and-leaf plots. Explain and justify conclusions drawn from tables, charts and graphs. Collect, organize and display data with appropriate notation in tables, charts, and graphs, including scatter plots, broken line graphs, line plots, bar graphs, histograms, and stem-and-leaf plots. Collect, organize and display data with appropriate notation in tables, charts, and graphs, including scatter plots, broken line graphs, line plots, bar graphs, histograms, and stem-and-leaf plots.

16 Standard 5: Data Analysis, Probability, and Statistics Goal 5.4: Understand basic concepts of probability Goal 5.5: Make predictions or decisions based on data Grade 3rd Make predictions based on data. 4th Predict the results of simple probability experiments using coins Make predictions based on data. or spinners. 5th Predict, perform, and record results of simple probability Make predictions and decisions based on data. experiments using fraction notation. Use the language of probability. 6th Predict, perform, and record results of simple probability Make predictions based on data. experiments Use the language of probability. 7th Predict, perform, and record results of simple probability Make predictions based on simple theoretical probabilities. experiments Recognize equally likely outcomes. Explain that probability ranges from impossible to certain (0% to 100%) Use the language of probability. 8th Model situations of probability using simulations. Make predictions based on experimental and theoretical probabilities. Recognize equally likely outcomes. Conduct statistical experiments and interpret results using tables, charts, or graphs. Explain that probability ranges from 0% to 100% and identify a situation as having high or low probability. Use the language of probability.

17 Problem Solving Grade Number and Operation Estimation Measurement Geometry K Select strategies appropriate for solving a problem. Use concrete objects to identify and show a solution to a problem. 1st Select strategies appropriate for solving a problem. 2nd Recognize mathematical information and select strategies appropriate for solving a problem. Choose addition or subtraction to solve word problems 3rd and explain the choice. Recognize mathematical information and select strategies appropriate for solving a multi-step problem. Solve real world problems related to time. Use appropriate operations to solve word problems and show or explain work. 4th Select strategies appropriate for solving a problem. Solve real world problems related to elapsed time. Select and use appropriate operations to solve word problems and show or explain work. 5th Select strategies appropriate for solving a problem. Formulate conjectures and discuss why they must be or seem to be true. 6th 7th Use a variety of strategies to solve real life problems. Solve problems using the 4-step process of explore, plan, solve, and examine. Use a variety of strategies to solve real life problems. Describe the use of integers in real-world situations. Recognize pertinent information for problem solving. Use a variety of strategies including common mathematical formulas to compute problems drawn Formulate conjectures and discuss why they must be or seem to be true. Formulate conjectures and discuss why they must be or seem to be true. Solve real world problems related to elapsed time. Apply understanding of relationships to solve real-world problems related to elapsed time. Solve problems involving perimeter and area of rectangles Solve problems involving perimeter and area of rectangles and triangles.

18 8th for real life situations. Solve problems requiring the conversion between decimals, fractions ratios, and percents Describe the use of integers in real-world situations. Recognize pertinent information for problem solving. Use a variety of strategies including common mathematical formulas to compute problems drawn for real life situations. Use rational numbers, including percents and rations, and π to solve problems. Apply integers in one- and two-step common realworld situations. Identify when estimation is appropriate and apply to problem solving situations. Formulate conjectures and justify (short of formal proof) why they must be or seem to be true. Solve problems involving area of circles and the perimeter and area of rectangles and triangles.

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