THERE ARE SEVERAL KINDS OF PRONOUNS:

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1 PRONOUNS

2 WHAT IS A PRONOUN? A Pronoun is a word used in place of a noun or of more than one noun. Example: The high school graduate accepted the diploma proudly. She had worked hard for it. The pronoun she takes the place of the noun graduate. The pronoun it takes the place of the noun diploma.

3 THERE ARE SEVERAL KINDS OF PRONOUNS: 1. Personal 2. Personal: Nominative (Subject, Pronoun Predicate) 3. Personal: Objective 4. Possessive 5. Possessive: Intensive 6. Possessive: Reflexive 7. Relative 8. Indefinite 9. Interrogative 10. Demonstrative

4 1. PERSONAL PRONOUNS

5 1. PERSONAL PRONOUNS A pronoun is a word that takes the place of one or more nouns. The most frequently used pronouns are called personal pronouns. They refer to people or things.

6 LIST OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS Singular Plural Subject Pronouns I we you he, she, it you they Object Pronouns me you him, her, it us you them

7 2. NOMINATIVE PRONOUNS

8 2. (NOMINATIVE) SUBJECT PRONOUNS A subject pronoun is used as the subject of a sentence. She is my best friend. It is my dog. Does he know the answer? You and I will meet later.

9 3. OBJECTIVE PRONOUNS

10 3. OBJECT PRONOUNS An object pronoun is used as the direct/indirect object or the object of a preposition. Give the book to me. The teacher gave her a reprimand. I will tell you a story. Susan read it to them.

11 ACTIVITY 1 1. Write sentences using each of the subject pronouns. Underline each subject pronoun. 2. Write sentences using each of the object pronouns. Circle each object pronoun.

12 PRONOUNS & ANTECEDENTS

13 PRONOUNS AND ANTECEDENTS Read the following sentences. Can you tell to whom the word She refers? Arachne competes with Athena. She weaves skillfully. The sentence is not clear because the word She could refer to either Arachne or Athena. Sometimes you must repeat a noun or rewrite the sentence. Arachne competes with Athena. Athena weaves skillfully.

14 PRONOUNS AND ANTECEDENTS The noun or group of words that a pronoun refers to is called its antecedent. When you use a pronoun, you should be sure that it refers to its antecedent clearly. Be especially careful when you use the pronoun they. Read the following sentence. They have several books about Greek myths at the library.

15 PRONOUNS AND ANTECEDENTS The meaning of They is unclear. The sentence can be improved by rewriting it in the following manner. Several books about myths are available at the library.

16 PRONOUNS AND ANTECEDENTS When using pronouns, you must also make sure that they agree with their antecedents in number (singular or plural) and gender. The gender of a noun may be masculine (male), feminine (female), or neuter (referring to things). Notice how the pronouns on the next slide agree with their antecedents.

17 PRONOUNS AND ANTECEDENTS 1. The myth of Arachne is amusing. I enjoyed it. 2. The bystanders see Athena. They watch her at the loom. In the first sentence, myth is the antecedent of the pronoun it. In the second sentence, bystanders is the antecedent of They, and Athena is the antecedent of her.

18 SO, AN ANTECEDENT IS Antecedent- The word whose place a pronoun takes is called its antecedent. In the above example, the noun graduate is the antecedent of she, and diploma is the antecedent of it. Note: A pronoun may also take the place of another pronoun. Example: Some of the students wore red sweaters. They were celebrating Valentine s Day. The pronoun they takes the place of the pronoun some.

19 USING PRONOUNS CORRECTLY

20 USING PRONOUNS CORRECTLY Subject pronouns are used in compound subjects, and object pronouns are used in compound objects. He and Carmen wrote a report on the subject. (Not Him and Carmen) Tell John and me about Hercules. (Not John and I)

21 USING PRONOUNS CORRECTLY A preposition takes an object, just as many verbs do. The object of a preposition can be simple or compound. In either case, use an object pronoun as the object of the preposition. Lee read a famous myth to me. Lee read a famous Roman myth to John and me.

22 USING PRONOUNS CORRECTLY If you are not sure of which form of the pronoun to use, say the sentence aloud with only the pronoun as the subject or the object. Your ear will tell you which form is correct. Whenever the pronoun I is part of a compound subject, it should always be placed after the other parts of the subject. Similarly, when the pronoun me is part of a compound object, it should go after the other parts of the object.

23 USING PRONOUNS CORRECTLY Lee and I read some ancient Roman myths. (Not I and Lee) Mythology interests Lee and me. (Not me and Lee).

24 USING PRONOUNS CORRECTLY In formal writing and speech use a subject pronoun after a linking verb. The writer of this report was she. It is I.

25 4. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS 5. Reflexive & 6. Intensive

26 4. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS A possessive pronoun is a pronoun that shows who or what has something. A possessive pronoun may take the place of a possessive noun. Read the following sentences. Notice the possessive nouns and the possessive pronouns that replace them.

27 4. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS Homer s story is famous. His story is famous. This story is Homer s. This story is his. Possessive nouns are in green. Possessive pronouns are in red.

28 4. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS Possessive pronouns have two forms. One form is used before a noun. The other form is used alone. Used before nouns Used alone Singular my your his, her, its mine yours his, hers, its Plural our your their ours yours theirs

29 4. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS Possessive pronouns are not written with apostrophes. The pronoun its, for example, shows possession. The word it s, on the other hand, is a contraction of it is. Read the following sentences. Notice the meaning of the words in red type. Its central character is Odysseus. (possessive pronoun) It s about the adventures of Odysseus. (contraction of It is)

30 2 TYPES OF POSSESSIVE: Personal pronouns combined with self, -selves may be used in two ways: Reflexively Example: Jack burned himself during the experiment. Intensively Example: Maria herself is directing the entire play. Reflexive and Intensive forms: Myself, himself, herself, ourselves, themselves, yourself, itself, yourselves

31 5. INTENSIVE PRONOUNS An intensive pronoun is a pronoun that adds emphasis to a noun or pronoun already named. George himself bought a copy of American Tall Tales. He himself paid for the book.

32 6. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS A reflexive pronoun refers to a noun or another pronoun and indicates that the same person or thing is involved. Reflexive pronouns are formed by adding self or selves to certain personal and possessive pronouns The woman found herself a book of folktales. Reflexive Pronoun

33 6. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS ***Sometim es hisself is mistakenly used for himself and theirselves for themselves. Avoid using hisself and theirselves! Singular myself yourself himself, herself, itself Plural ourselves yourselves themselves

34 7. RELATIVE PRONOUNS

35 7. RELATIVE PRONOUNS Relative pronouns are used to introduce subordinate clauses (clauses that cannot stand alone as sentences). Examples: Who, whose, that, whom, which. Sentence Example 1: The book that you gave me was the one I wanted. Sentence Example 2: The woman whose name is one the program is running for mayor.

36 8. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS

37 8. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun that does not refer to a particular person, place, or thing. Does anyone know the story of Midas? Most indefinite pronouns are either singular or plural.

38 SOME INDEFINITE PRONOUNS Singular another everybody no one anybody everyone nothing anyone everything one anything much somebody each neither someone either nobody something Plural both few many others several All, any, most, none and some can be singular or plural, depending on the phrase that follows them.

39 SOME INDEFINITE PRONOUNS When an indefinite pronoun is used as the subject, the verb must agree with it in number. Everyone discusses the plot. (singular) Both talk about King Minos. (plural) All of mythology is about beliefs and ideals. (singular) All of the myths are about beliefs and ideals. (plural)

40 SOME INDEFINITE PRONOUNS Possessive pronouns often have indefinite pronouns as their antecedents. In such cases, the pronouns must agree in number. Note that in the first example the intervening prepositional phrase does not affect the agreement. Each of the characters has his or her motive. Several have conflict with their rivals.

41 9. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS

42 9. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS Interrogative pronouns are used in questions. Examples: Who, which, whose, whom, what Sentence Example 1: What will you give her now?

43 10. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

44 10. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Demonstrative pronouns point out a particular person or thing. When used before nouns, however, they are considered adjectives (these books, those houses, that flag). Example: This, these, that, those. Sentence Example 1: These are her books. Sentence Example 2: That is the road she took.

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