1 Glencoe Science Chapter Resources Energy Sources Includes: Reproducible Student Pages ASSESSMENT Chapter Tests Chapter Review HANDS-ON ACTIVITIES Lab Worksheets for each Student Edition Activity Laboratory Activities Foldables Reading and Study Skills activity sheet MEETING INDIVIDUAL NEEDS Directed Reading for Content Mastery Directed Reading for Content Mastery in Spanish Reinforcement Enrichment Note-taking Worksheets TRANSPARENCY ACTIVITIES Section Focus Transparency Activities Teaching Transparency Activity Assessment Transparency Activity Teacher Support and Planning Content Outline for Teaching Spanish Resources Teacher Guide and Answers
2 Directed Reading for Content Mastery Overview Energy Sources Directions: Complete the concept map using the terms in the list below. gravitation tidal renewable solar moving water geothermal Energy sources can be nonrenewable or such as which is caused by which is caused by which is produced which is from the magma of the Sun and Moon hydroelectric Sun Energy Sources 19
3 Directed Reading for Content Mastery Section 1 Section 2 Fossil Fuels Nuclear Energy Directions: For each of the following, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes the sentence. 1. is not a fossil fuel. a. Coal b. Wind 2. All fossil fuels are. a. nonrenewable b. renewable 3. Nuclear fusion converts to. a. oxygen; hydrogen b. hydrogen; helium 4. About percent of the energy used in the United States comes from burning fossil fuels. a. 50 b The many different compounds that are found in are separated in a process called fractional distillation. a. petroleum b. natural gas Directions: Determine whether the italicized term makes each statement true or false. If the statement is true, write true in the blank. If the statement is false, write the term that makes the statement true. 6. Nuclear wastes must be disposed of carefully so radiation will not leak into the environment. 7. Fossil fuels form from nuclear chain reactions. 8. Coal has uses other than energy, such as plastics and lubricants. 9. When fossil fuels are burned to produce electricity, more energy is lost in the process than is delivered to homes, schools, and businesses. 10. In a nuclear reactor, the actual fission of the radioactive fuel occurs in the part of the reactor called the control rod. 20 Energy Sources
4 Directed Reading for Content Mastery Section 3 Renewable Energy Sources Directions: Complete the following sentences using the terms listed below. batteries geothermal windmill solar energy tidal energy radiant hydroelectric renewable resource solar cell pollution hydrogen gas potential energy 1. A is replaced nearly as quickly as it is used. 2. A photovoltaic cell converts into electricity. 3. A photovoltaic cell is also called a. 4. Electricity generated by solar cells must be stored in for use when the Sun is not shining. 5. If water is retained by a high dam, its gravitational is increased. 6. Dams built to generate energy from water are called dams. 7. Only a few places on Earth have large enough tidal differences for to be useful. 8. A generates electricity when wind spins its propeller, which is connected to an electric generator. 9. At a power plant, water pumped into a well in the ground makes contact with hot rock, and rises as steam and is used to rotate turbines that spin electric generators. 10. An alternative fuel that produces only water vapor when it burns and creates no pollution is. 11. The energy from the Sun can be used to heat homes and provide hot water. 12. Hydroelectric power plants are an efficient way to produce electricity with almost no. Energy Sources 21
5 Directed Reading for Content Mastery Key Terms Energy Sources Directions: Match the term in Column I with the definition in Column II by writing the correct letter in the space provided. Column I 1. fossil fuels 2. petroleum 3. nonrenewable resource 4. nuclear reactor 5. nuclear waste 6. renewable resource 7. photovoltaic cell 8. hydroelectricity 9. geothermal energy 10. biomass 11. radiant energy 12. solar cell Column II a. uses energy from controlled nuclear reactions to generate electricity b. resources that are replaced nearly as quickly as they are used c. thermal energy that is contained in hot magma d. thick, greenish-brown, highly flammable liquid that contains hydrocarbons e. any radioactive by-product that results when radioactive materials are used f. electricity produced from the energy of moving water g. renewable organic matter that can be used to generate thermal energy h. resources that cannot be replaced by natural processes as quickly as they are used i. device that is used to convert solar energy into electricity j. formed from the decaying remains of ancient plants and animals k. another name for a photovoltaic cell l. energy from the Sun that can be used to heat homes and provide hot water 22 Energy Sources
6 1 Reinforcement Fossil Fuels Directions: Complete the table below by placing a check mark ( ) beneath the headings of the substances that have each characteristic described in the first column. Characteristic Petroleum Natural gas Coal 1. is a fossil fuel 2. forms from plants and animals 3. forms only from plants 4. is a solid 5. is a liquid 6. is a gas 7. is made up of hydrocarbons 8. is a source of energy 9. is a nonrenewable resource 10. is pumped from wells 11. is separated using fractional distillation 12. is also called crude oil 13. is transported long distances through pipes 14. is mined from Earth 15. produces polluting substances when burned 16. produces thermal energy when burned 17. can be used to produce electricity 18. is the least polluting fossil fuel Energy Sources 27
7 2 Reinforcement Nuclear Energy 1. Place the following events describing the production of electrical energy from a nuclear fission reactor in the correct order. Write the numbers 1 (first) through 7 (last) in the spaces provided. a. Steam produced by boiling water causes the blades of a turbine to rotate. b. A neutron bombards a uranium-235 isotope. c. Thermal energy released by the reaction is added to water. d. Electricity from the generator is carried to the community through wires. e. A uranium-235 atom splits, producing two atoms with smaller nuclei, three neutrons, and thermal energy. f. The mechanical energy of the rotating turbine blades is transferred to an electric generator. g. Superheated water passes through a heat exchanger, where the thermal energy released boils a separate system of water to produce steam. Directions: Answer the following questions on the lines provided. 2. How does using nuclear energy harm the environment? 3. How is using nuclear energy less harmful to the environment than using fossil fuels? 4. How does the half-life of a radioactive waste affect the type of container in which the waste will be stored? 5. Why is nuclear fusion not currently used as an energy source on Earth? 6. How do the products of a fusion reaction differ from the products of a fission reaction? 28 Energy Sources
8 3 Reinforcement Renewable Energy Sources Directions: Provide the information requested for each alternative energy source listed. 1. Solar energy a. What is solar energy? b. What is a photovoltaic cell? 2. Hydroelectricity a. What is hydroelectricity? b. What is one economic advantage to hydroelectricity? 3. Tidal energy a. What is tidal energy? b. Why is tidal energy a limited source of energy? 4. Wind energy a. What device is used to harness the energy in wind and convert it into electricity? b. Why is the wind an energy source with limited uses? Energy Sources 29
9 1 Enrichment Oil from the Arctic Oil is the leading source of energy in the United States. It supplies about 40 percent of our total energy needs. One of our largest domestic sources of crude oil comes from the icy, frigid area of Alaska called the North Slope. Under the North Slope s frozen ground, called permafrost, lies the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field. It is the largest oil deposit ever discovered on the North American continent. It holds over 22 billion barrels of oil. About half of this oil is expected to be recovered by current methods of production. The Alaskan Pipeline The Alaskan Pipeline was built to carry the oil from Prudhoe Bay to the port of Valdez, Alaska. The pipeline was completed in 1977, cost $8 billion, and took three years to build. The 1,300 km pipeline is 1.25 m in diameter. It has 1.25 cm thick walls designed to withstand the extreme Alaskan environment. The pipe is insulated with 10 cm of fiberglass and jacketed with galvanized steel. It carries 1.6 million barrels of oil per day, about 15 percent of the total United States production. Above Ground Portions On its way from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez, the pipeline crosses three mountain ranges and hundreds of running rivers and streams. Only half of it is buried. The above-ground portion snakes along on its supports 3 to 4.5 m above the ground. Each support consists of steel posts with a crossbeam between them. The reinforced pipeline rests on the supports with room to sway from side to side in the event of earthquakes or expansions or contractions caused by temperature changes. The Design of the Pipeline The pipeline wasn t placed above ground just because it was easier to build that way. The reasons for this related mainly to environmental and safety concerns. Oil travels through the pipeline at about 60 C. In order to prevent the permafrost from thawing, which would make the pipeline unstable, the pipeline was elevated. At points where caribou migration routes would have crossed the elevated pipeline, it has been buried and refrigerated to leave these routes undisturbed. A series of safety valves provides further protection to the environment. These valves close automatically if the oil flow stops or reverses on uphill stretches. It is also possible to shut off whole sections of the line if leaks or spills should occur. 1. Look at a map of Alaska. Find Prudhoe Bay and Valdez. What type of terrain does the Alaskan Pipeline travel through? 2. Many people feared that the Alaskan pipeline would damage the environment that it passed through. What precautions have been taken to protect the environment along its route? 3. Do you think that all of the planning, work, and cost of building the Alaskan pipeline was worth the final product domestic oil? Explain your answer. 30 Energy Sources
10 2 Enrichment Types of Nuclear Waste The federal government has classified radioactive wastes as follows: 1. Spent fuel consists of fuel exposed to radiation which is removed from a commercial reactor (after three or four years in use) or special fuels from test or research reactors. Spent fuel is highly radioactive and generates a lot of heat. It requires heavy shielding (concrete, water, or lead) and remote handling (no human contact). Most spent fuel is stored in on-site pools at nuclear power plants. 2. High-level waste is generated by the reprocessing of either commercial spent fuel or defense production reactor fuel. It is liquid, but can be chemically treated to make a sludge or solid. It is highly radioactive, generates a lot of heat, and requires shielding and remote handling. 3. Transuranic waste comes from the reprocessing of spent fuel and from the use of plutonium in making nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy defines it as waste contaminated with alpha-emitting radio nuclides of atomic number greater than 92 and half-lives of greater than 20 years. It is less radioactive and generates less heat than fission products. It requires long-term isolation, but requires very little or no shielding. 4. Low-level waste is short-lived and has low radioactivity. It is generated by hospitals, laboratories, industrial plants, and nuclear reactors. It comes in a variety of forms which include animal carcasses, medical equipment, contaminated wiping rags, paper towels, protective clothing, hand tools, and old equipment. Radiation can be high enough to require shielding for handling and shipment of this waste. 5. Uranium mill tailings include earthen residues, usually in the form of fine sand, that remain after mining and extraction of uranium from ores. These mill tailings contain low concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive materials, including thorium-230 and radium-226, which decays to emit the radioactive gas radon Naturally occurring and acceleratorproduced radioactive material includes radium-226 which is found in smoke detectors and watch dials, polonium-210 which is found in industrial gauges, and cobalt-57 which is produced in linear accelerators for making medical instruments. This type of nuclear waste is not regulated. 1. The information on a smoke detector says that it should be returned to the manufacturer and not thrown away in the trash. Why is this so? 2. Compare and contrast the sources of and disposal/storage requirements for high-level waste and transuranic waste. Energy Sources 31
11 3 Enrichment Wind Energy U.S. federal tax credits supported the early growth of the wind energy industry. The nation s capacity to produce electricity from wind was only 10,000 kilowatt-hours (kwh) in That is about enough to provide power for two homes. Despite the 1985 expiration of these tax credits, by 1989 the capacity had increased to more than 2 billion kwh. That is enough to power the residential energy needs of a major city the size of Washington, D.C. or San Francisco. The majority of the growth in wind energy use occurred in California. Over 14,000 privately owned and operated wind turbines are located there. These turbines are located in three mountain passes and make up about 80 percent of the world s current wind-energy capacity. Use the library, or sources such as your state s energy department, NASA, or the American Wind Energy Association to answer the following questions. 1. Where are the best places to put wind turbines to efficiently produce electricity? 2. What does it cost to produce electricity using wind turbines? 3. What are some of the advantages of using wind turbines to produce electricity? 4. What are some of the disadvantages of using wind turbines? 5. What applications, other than producing electricity, can wind turbines be used for? 32 Energy Sources
12 Note-taking Worksheet Energy Sources Section 1 Fossil Fuels A. Energy cannot be created or destroyed according to the law of conservation of energy, but energy can be from one form to another. B. formed from decaying remains of ancient plants and animals 1. Burning fossil fuels converts energy from bonds to heat and light. 2. Chemical energy in fossil fuels is more that in other fuels such as wood. C. thick, greenish-brown, highly flammable liquid formed by decayed ancient organisms 1. A process called fractional separates the compounds in petroleum. 2. Petroleum is used for, synthetic fabrics, and other products in addition to its use as a fuel. D. is also a product of decayed ancient organisms. 1. It contains more per kilogram than petroleum or coal. 2. It burns more than other fossil fuels. 3. It provides about one-fourth of the energy consumed in the. E. a solid fossil fuel found underground 1. It produces more when burned than petroleum or natural gas 2. It provides about of the energy produced in the United States. 3. About 90 percent of coal burned in the United States is used to produce. F. Electricity is generated when fuels are burned. 1. The burned fuel releases energy. 2. The thermal energy produces high pressure. 3. The steam spins a. 4. The spinning turbine produces an electric. 5. The electric current is through power lines to consumers. G. Only about 35% of the energy in fossil fuel reaches consumers since some energy is in every stage of the process. Energy Sources 33
13 Note-taking Worksheet (continued) H. Fossil fuels have some side effects. 1. Fossil fuels the environment and increase carbon monoxide in the atmosphere. 2. Mining coal can cause problems for miners. I. Fossil fuels are, so it is important to not waste energy. Section 2 Nuclear Energy A. About 20% of the electricity in the U.S. comes from power plants. B. contain a fuel, rods to control nuclear reactions, and a cooling system. 1. Heat is produced by nuclear energy is released when U-235 nuclei split in two after being struck by a neutron. 2. Special rods absorb excess to prevent dangerous chain reactions. C. Nuclear power plants use the heat of nuclear fission to produce. 1. The steam drives a. 2. The turbine rotates an electric. D. Nuclear power plants produce radioactive by-products from radioactive materials. 1. wastes contain only a small amount of radioactive material. 2. wastes must be disposed of extremely carefully because they will remain radioactive for tens of thousands of years. E. Nuclear the joining together of nuclei is not a practical energy source due to the high temperature fusion requires. Section 3 Renewable Energy Sources A. A can be replaced almost as quickly as it is used. B. Solar energy is converted into electricity by a cell or solar cell. 1. A solar cell converts only 15 to 20 percent of the sun s energy into. 2. Energy produced by solar cells is more than energy produced with fossil fuels. 3. Energy from solar cells must be in batteries when the Sun is not shining. 34 Energy Sources
14 Note-taking Worksheet (continued) C. is produced by moving water; it is about twice as efficient as fossil fuels or nuclear power. D. uses moving water, but it can only be used in places where high and low tides are different enough. E. can be used to generate electricity, but are useful only when the wind blows consistently. F. thermal energy contained in hot magma; limited to areas where magma is close to the surface G. Alternative fuels include hydrogen gas and renewable organic matter such as wood or animal manure Energy Sources 35
15 Chapter Review Energy Sources Part A. Vocabulary Review Directions: In each of the following statements, a term has been scrambled. Unscramble the term and write it on the line provided. 1. The place where controlled fission reactions are used to produce electricity is called a nuclear raceort. 2. A method of separating liquid crude oil into its component parts is craftonial distillation. 3. Because they cannot be replaced after they are used, fossil fuels and uranium are nowableneren resources. 4. A liquid fossil fuel formed from the remains of plants and animals is lorpumete. 5. The radioactive by-products of nuclear energy are clearun twases. 6. Thermal energy found in the inner parts of Earth is called rehgotelam energy. 7. Electricity produced from kinetic energy of moving water is itytricyceelhodr. 8. Electricity can be produced from solar energy by a device called a oclottphavoi cell. 9. A fossil fuel closely associated with petroleum is taanrlu sag. 10. The generation of electricity from the rising and falling of ocean waters is called laitd energy. Part B. Concept Review Directions: Determine which of the following statements apply to nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, or both. Write your answers on the blank lines to the left of the statements. 1. A chain reaction starts when a nuetron bombards a single uranium-235 isotope that spontaneously splits into two parts, releasing three neutrons. 2. The waste products are not radioactive. 3. Hydrogen nuclei are joined together at high temperatures. 4. Large amounts of thermal energy are produced. Assessment 5. Control rods are used to absorb some of the neutrons. 6. Reaction can be used to generate electricity. Energy Sources 37
16 Chapter Review (continued) Directions: Decide whether each statement below describes an advantage of the energy source or a disadvantage of the energy source. If the statement describes an advantage, write A in the blank. If the statement describes a disadvantage, write D in the blank. 7. Passive solar energy does not require the use of fans or other electrical devices and does not pollute the environment. 8. Tidal energy is limited in use to places that are located along coastlines. 9. Wind energy can be used for power only in places where there are consistent winds. 10. A nuclear reactor produces wastes that are radioactive. 11. Energy produced by a fusion reaction is nonpolluting. 12. Nuclear fusion uses hydrogen as a fuel. 13. Like fossil fuels, uranium is a nonrenewable resource. 14. Using alternatives to fossil fuels helps to conserve natural resources. 15. Scientists have not developed the technology to produce sustained nuclear fusion reactions in the laboratory. Directions: Answer the following questions in the spaces provided. Use complete sentences in your answers. 16. How does a nuclear reactor generate energy? Assessment 17. How is the chemical energy contained in fossil fuels converted to electrical energy in an electric power station? Where is energy lost? 38 Energy Sources
17 1 Section Focus Transparency Activity For Peat s Sake Dried peat has been used as fuel in many parts of the world for hundreds of years. Given enough time and pressure, peat will form a fuel you are probably more familiar with coal! Transparency Activities 1. How might peat be used for fuel? 2. Peat comes from swampy areas called bogs. What do you think peat is composed of? 3. How do people use energy in their everyday lives? 44 Energy Sources
18 2 Section Focus Transparency Activity Atomic Core The first self-sustaining nuclear reaction was achieved in 1942 by a team of scientists led by Enrico Fermi. Today, nuclear power plants use the energy released by nuclear reactions to create electricity. The photo below shows the core of a nuclear reactor waiting to be lowered into position underwater. 1. How might nuclear energy be transformed into electrical energy? 2. How might nuclear power plants reduce pollution from fossil fuels? Do you think there are any disadvantages to nuclear power? Transparency Activities Energy Sources 45
19 3 Section Focus Transparency Activity Sun Power! NASA is developing solar-powered aircraft that have the ability to stay in the air for months at a time! They can be used for studying the atmosphere, storms, crop damage, or fires. Transparency Activities 1. What might be a big difficulty for solar-powered aircraft? What are the advantages? 2. Name some organisms that collect the Sun s energy. 3. What other uses of solar power can you name? 46 Energy Sources
20 2 Teaching Transparency Activity Nuclear Power Plant Containment shell High pressure steam Control rod Turbine Boiler Condenser Pump Pump Reactor core Transparency Activities Pump Generator Low preasure steam Cooling water Energy Sources 47
21 Teaching Transparency Activity (continued) 1. In what part of a nuclear reactor does the fission of radioactive fuel take place? 2. What is the function of the control rods in a nuclear reactor? 3. Identify the energy transformations that take place from the time a uranium atom is split until electricity is produced. Transparency Activities 4. What happens to the excess thermal energy that is produced by a nuclear reactor? 48 Energy Sources
22 Assessment Transparency Activity Energy Sources Directions: Carefully review the tables and answer the following questions. Group A Group B Energy Percent of energy consumed in U.S. Energy Percent of energy consumed in U.S. Coal 23% Hydroelectric 3% Natural gas 23% Wind less than 1% Petroleum 39% Solar less than 1% Nuclear 8% Geothermal less than 1% Biomass less than 1% 1. The energy sources in Group A are different from the energy sources in Group B because only the energy sources in Group B are. A renewable resources C fossil fuels B nonrenewable resources D harmful to the environment 2. According to the tables, which energy source supplies greater than 25% of the energy consumed in the U.S.? F Coal H Nuclear G Hydroelectric J Petroleum 3. According to the tables, what percent of the energy used in the U.S. comes from fossil fuels? A 50% C 85% B 60% D 93% Transparency Activities Energy Sources 49
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413 POWER PLANT ENGINEERING PART-A 1. Define Power. Power is the rate at which energy is used (or) Energy/time. 2. What are the types of fuels? Solid fuel Liquid fuel Gaseous fuel (Any one among the above
Energy and Energy Transformations Test Review Completion: 1. Mass 13. Kinetic 2. Four 14. thermal 3. Kinetic 15. Thermal energy (heat) 4. Electromagnetic/Radiant 16. Thermal energy (heat) 5. Thermal 17.
www.waterplanetchallenge.org Lesson Plan Grades 6-8 Investigating How Electricity is Generated Electrically Speaking: How Does it Get From There to Here? Introduction Here are the facts. First, civilization
Centre Number Surname Candidate Number Specimen Paper For Examiner s Use Other Names Candidate Signature Examiner s Initials General Certificate of Secondary Education Foundation Tier Question 1 Mark Science
Energy Sources: The Pros and Cons A Reading A Z Level Z Leveled Book Word Count: 1,803 LEVELED BOOK Z Energy Sources: The Pros and Cons Written by David L. Dreier Visit www.readinga-z.com for thousands
Chapter 13 Quiz Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following is the correct type of energy utilized to produce tidal power? a.
T E A C H E R S N O T E S Focus: Students explore energy: its sources, forms, and transformations. Students also consider the benefits of energy-efficient technologies and energy conservation. Learning
SECTION TWO PACKAGING, TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this section, participants will be able to: Identify three types of packaging for radioactive
310 Exam Questions 1) Discuss the energy efficiency, and why increasing efficiency does not lower the amount of total energy consumed. 2) What are the three main aspects that make an energy source sustainable?
Attenzione: l'allievo ha risposto usando il colore rosso. Allievo: Francesco B. 1. Read 1. Energy basics Energy is in everything. We use energy for everything we do, from making a jump shot to baking cookies
THERMAL TO MECHANICAL ENERGY CONVERSION: ENGINES AND REQUIREMENTS Oleg N. Favorsky Russian Academy of Science, Division of Physical-Technical Problems of Energetics, Moscow, Russia Keywords: Power, heat,
Energy: renewable sources of energy Energy Sources 1 It is technically and economically feasible to phase out net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions almost entirely by 2050. A report by energy consulting firm
SECOND GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES WATER CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SECOND GRADE WATER WEEK 1. PRE: Exploring the properties of water. LAB: Experimenting with different soap mixtures. POST: Analyzing
1. In the general symbol cleus, which of the three letters Z A X for a nu represents the atomic number? 2. What is the mass number of an alpha particle? 3. What is the mass number of a beta particle? 4.
SPQ Module 3 Solar Power The sun is the source of all life on earth. Yet we sometimes forget how central it is to our every activity. We stumble through our daily routine worrying about the mundane tribulations
Introduction to Nuclear Physics 1. Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table According to the Bohr-Rutherford model of the atom, also called the solar system model, the atom consists of a central nucleus
Vocabulary Slap Game ( Flyswatter Game ) Directions: Project a Vocabulary Scramble sheet on a projection screen or Smart Board. Divide the class into two teams. Each team sends one person up to the screen.
GCSE PHYSICS Foundation Tier Paper 1F F Specimen 2018 Time allowed: 1 hour 45 minutes Materials For this paper you must have: a ruler a calculator the Physics Equation Sheet (enclosed). Instructions Answer
.1.1 Measure the motion of objects to understand.1.1 Develop graphical, the relationships among distance, velocity and mathematical, and pictorial acceleration. Develop deeper understanding through representations
Physics 114 Midterm 2 Review: Solutions These review sheets cover only selected topics from the chemical and nuclear energy chapters and are not meant to be a comprehensive review. Topics covered in these
Module 2.2 Heat transfer mechanisms Learning Outcomes On successful completion of this module learners will be able to - Describe the 1 st and 2 nd laws of thermodynamics. - Describe heat transfer mechanisms.