# Course CME 310 Solar Power For Africa

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1 Course CME 310 Solar Power For Africa ENERGY RESOURCES, ENERGY PRODUCTION AND ENERGY DISTRIBUTION by Prof. Margit Harting NanoSciences Innovation Centre Department of Physics University of Cape Town South Africa

2 ENERGY CONSUMPTION: TO GET THE IDEA energy consumption of a nation is proportional to its Gross National Product (GNP) (the higher the GNP of a nation, the higher its consumption) in a technological society, the average individual uses 230,000 calories per day minimun energy needed by an individual is 2000 calories per day average consumption calories per day purpose 10,000 preparing food 66,000 home and commerce 91,000 industry and agriculture 63,000 transportation Source: EARTH SCIENCE AUSTRAILIA WHERE DO WE GET THIS HUGE AMOUNT OF ENERGY FROM?

3 ENERGY AND ENERGY UNITS what is energy? ENERGY IS THE ABILITY TO DO WORK energy causes things to happen e.g. the sun delivers light and heat, a moving car is powered by gasoline, a pencil falling of the table due to gravity what is electricity? electricity is a general term to describe all phenomena related to stationary and moving electric charges!!! what is power? power is the rate of generating, using or transferring energy what is electric power? electric power is the transfer of energy by the movement of electric charges (in very simple terms) energy units (electric) power unit 1 Joule (J) = force of one Newton acting through one meter 1 calorie (cal) = J (the Calories in food ratings are actually kilocalories.) 1 Watt (W) = a Joule of energy per second

4 WHERE WE GET ELECTRICITY FROM? transforming the energy stored in our energy resources to generate electric power hydroelectric power nuclear power wind power solar power tidal power fossil fuel wave power biofuels geothermal power

5 FOSSIL FUELS mostly methane COAL OIL (CRUDE OIL) GAS (NATURAL GAS) coal, oil and gas are called "fossil fuels" because they have been formed from the organic remains of prehistoric plants and animals ENERGY IS STORED IN FORM OF CHEMICAL ENERGY to release the stored energy you have to it

6 FOSSIL FUELS: COAL use of coal: producing heat for production of e.g. electricity and steel. Separated ingredients of coal (methanol and ethylene) are used in making plastics, tar, synthetic fibers, fertilizers, and medicines surface mining underground mining transportation Source: Stock photography (copyrighted) shipping coal can cost more than the cost of mining it processing of coal after coal comes out of the ground, in a preparation plant other rocks and dirt, ash, sulfur, and unwanted materials are removed Source: National Energy Education Development Project

7 FOSSIL FUELS: COAL Coal in electricity generation South Africa 93% Poland 92% PR China 79% Australia 77% Kazakhstan 70% India 69% Israel 63% Czech Rep 60% Morocco 55% Greece 52% USA 49% Germany 46% Source: IEA 2010

8 FOSSIL FUELS: OIL ("petroleum") products: range from fuels, to tar and asphalt for roads, to plastic goods only a small amount is used for electric power generation crude oil has to be processed to be used!!! it is heated and the vapors are sorted with a distillation column depending on the temperature in the distillation process different products are extracted for electrical power production

9 FOSSIL FUELS: OIL

10 a natural gas processing plant FOSSIL FUELS: GAS use of coal: burned in power stations to produce heat and electricity, also used by people to heat their homes natural gas has to be cleaned before it can be used!!! Source: Duke Energy Gas Transmission Canada

11 natural gas provides around 20% of the world's consumption of energy FOSSIL FUELS: GAS

12 FOSSIL FUELS: ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION principles of a steam power plant oil and gas can be burnt directly coal is crushed to a fine dust and burnt source: world coal association chemical heat mechanical electrical energy!!!

13 FOSSIL FUELS PRO AND CONS ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES fossil fuels are relatively cheap advanced technologies have been developed to allow efficient extraction the technology already exists for their use e.g. petrol-driven engines the means of controlling pollution from these fuels exists the income from the sale of the fuels can help a country's economy fossil fuels will become more and more expensive to extract and will be scarce extracting fuel will become more dangerous as the mines get deeper or the oil-rigs go further out to sea pollution from these fuels is said to be responsible for global warming, acid rain, and oil spillage it is very expensive to control the pollution and the price of fuel would have to rise NOT RENEWABLE ENERGY at present, no other energy source can fully replace fossil fuels

14 HYDROELECTRIC POWER principle: a dam is built to trap water, usually in a valley where there is an existing lake, the gravitational energy of the water is used to turn the turbine directly Courtesy of City of Tallahassee, Florida, Copyright 2001 gravitational mechanical electrical energy gravitational energy is stored in the water in the dam high pressure of water at turbine large amount of mechanical energy large amount electrical energy note: in mountainous countries such as Switzerland and New Zealand, hydroelectric power provides more than half of the country's energy needs

15 HYDROELECTRIC POWER PRO AND CONS ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Cheap energy even if high construction costs are taken into account RENEWABLE ENERGY constant water due to regulation of the dam s water flow control of flooding & recreational activities can be provided turbines can be shut down and turned on instantly (where thermal plants take hours, and nuclear plants can take days) peaking power easily provided very few breakdowns flooding of large area can change the microclimate dams can disrupt natural seasonal changes in the river, and ecosystems can be destroyed production of green house gases due to plant decay in the dam (after flooding)

16 BIOFUELS biofuels are fuels made from recently living organisms. They can be divided into three categories: first-generation biofuels are made largely from edible sugars and starches. second-generation biofuels are made from nonedible plant materials. third-generation biofuels are made from algae and other microbes. CHANGE DIESEL FOR BIOFUELS diesel generator in Egypt a diesel engine converts the diesel fuel s energy into mechanical energy in the form of rotation of a shaft. The shaft turns a generator to produce electrical energy chemical heat mechanical electrical energy

17 BIOFUELS PRO AND CONS ADVANTAGES NOTE: this is an emerging technology DISADVANTAGES biofuels are carbon neutral (amount of carbon dioxide created by the burning = CO 2 absorption capacity of the plants) planting crops to make biofuels loss of habitat for various species of animals and plants. RENEWABLE ENERGY farmers may grow crops meant for biofuel production rather than food crops reduced food production increase the prices causes inflation to rise problems for developing countries (estimated that a total of 100 million people may suffer from the increase in the food prices) possibly less greenhouse gas emissions in comparison to fossil fuels may be cost efficient in production of biofuels nitrous oxide is emitted (greenhouse gas effect) no method of biofuel production has been discovered that does not cause any environmental problems

18 TIDAL POWER NOTE: this is an emerging technology mostly in research phase tidal power station in the Rance estuary in northern France, near St. Malo (built in 1966) a dam (called a "barrage") is built across a river estuary when the tide goes in and out, the water flows through tunnels in the dam and power turbines Source: darvill.clara.net mechanical electrical energy

19 WAVE POWER NOTE: this is an emerging technology mostly in research phase principle: ocean waves are a powerful source of energy the problem is that it's not easy to harness this energy and convert it into electricity in large amounts Wavegen operate a commercial wave power station on the Scottish island of Islay two commercial examples Pelamis Wave Power are developing an offshore method to generate electricity from waves long, hinged tube (length of about 5 railway carriages) bobs up and down in the waves, as the hinges bend they pump hydraulic fluid which drives generators. mechanical electrical energy

20 WIND POWER principle: wind blows the propeller round, which turns a generator to produce electricity Source: US Department of Energy Source: Darling Wind Farm, South Africa the more towers, the more wind, and the larger the propellers, the more electricity is generated requirements: strong, steady winds high towers, at coastal areas, at the tops of rounded hills, open plains and gaps in mountains - places where the wind is strong and reliable, also offshore mechanical electrical energy

21 WIND POWER PRO AND CONS ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES wind is free, no need for fuel wind is not always available RENEWABLE ENERGY altering landscape, eyesore no waste or greenhouse gases agricultural use of land beneath is possible supply of energy to remote areas negative environmental impact: constant, low, "swooshing" noise can kill birds high maintenance high installation costs

22 NUCLEAR POWER principle: nuclear power stations similar to fossil fuel-burning stations, except that the power comes from nuclear fission 235U + 1 neutron 2 neutrons + 92Kr + 142Ba + ENERGY Koeberg nuclear plant (South Africa) nuclear fission is the process of splitting atoms (and gaining energy) and appears in a chain reaction Source: atomic archive.com How it works: uranium fuel rods (with about 4% fissile 235U isotope) are the energy source if control rods made of cadmium (an efficient neutron capturer ) are fully inserted into the core, fission cannot occur (all neutrons are captured) raising the control rods controls the chain reaction

23 NUCLEAR POWER PRO AND CONS ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES energy price as low (similar to coal) NOT RENEWABLE ENERGY no greenhouse gas emission large scale energy from small amounts of fuel small amounts of waste waste is radioactive and therefore dangerous (radioactivity decay only in thousands of years waste must be sealed up and buried) expansive safety measures (plant have to sustain earthquakes, flooding, and terrorists attacks) accidents in plants can be a major disasters reliable power production

24 photovoltaic SOLAR POWER solar thermal Source: Strasskirchen solarpark (54MW) one of the 10 biggest PV plants (230,000 crystalline solar modules on an area approximately of the size of 195 soccer pitches) solar radiation is concentrated with mirrors to heat a liquid, with powers a steam turbine principle: a solar thermal plants is similar to fossil fuel-burning stations, except that the power comes from the sun or somewhat smaller: solar panels on a roof top Source: solarnavigator.net Fuentes de Andalucia, Spain

25 SOLAR POWER PROS AND CONS ADVANTAGES no noise pollution no greenhouse gases renewable energy new technologies allow for a more efficient energy production on overcast/dull days electricity production in remote locations DISADVANTAGES initial cost of solar panels is high solar energy is only able to generate electricity during daylight hours solar farms need large areas

26 ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION IN THE USA In 2001, total US generation of electricity was 3,777 billion kilowatthours. The % of electricity produced from each source of energy is shown above in a pie chart. Source: Community Science Action Guides

27 ENERGY COSTS calculating the per Kilowatt-Hour cost of energy construction cost per kwh + production costs per kwh + decommissioning costs per kwh (nuclear only) = total cost per kwh. calculating the per Kilowatt-hour construction cost of a project [(MW rating x 1,000) x Useful Life x (Capacity Factor x 8,760)] per kilowatt-hour production costs: estimates from NEI2008 data nuclear: \$0.019 coal: \$0.027 natural Gas: \$0.081 wind: \$0.030 hydroelectric: \$0.009 solar: no estimate found Note: the MW rating is multiplied by 1,000 to convert to kw and capacity factor by 8,760 to convert to number of hours of energy produced in a year. source:

28 ENERGY DISTRIBUTION power grid supplies electricity to (industrial, commercial and private) consumers through interconnected networks the grid consists of: power generating plants transformers (low to high; and high to low voltage transmission lines (high and low voltage)

29 HIGH VOLTAGE TRANSMISSION LINES Source: NASA Earth Observatory high voltage, long distance transmission lines in South Africa Source: Government of Canada high voltage, long distance transmission lines in Canada

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