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2 Introduction Canadians are among the highest energy consumers in the world. Why? (list 3 possible reasons) Northern climate/very cold temperatures Transportation small population spread over large area Advanced industrial economy Energy is cheap so we tend to waste it

3 Our Energy sources can be divided into two categories: 1. Conventional Energy Sources Examples: oil, natural gas, hydroelectricity, nuclear electricity, and coal. These comprise 98% of our energy use. 2. Alternative Energy Sources Examples: solar, wind, biomass energy, tidal power

4 How Energy is Used 1. Industrial : 30% 2. Transportation: 28% 3. Commercial: 18% 4. Residential: 18% 5. Agricultural: 3% 6. Public administration: 2%


6 Coal Mostly mined in the West Plays big role in economy $4.5 billion annually jobs Used for fuel in the generation of electricity

7 Oil and Gas Come mostly from the Plains/Prairie ecozones (out West and Newfoundland and Labrador) Removal of oil and gas from the ground: 1. Flowing wells have enough natural pressure to force oil or gas to surface 2. Non-flowing wells not enough pressure to make oil and gas flow to surface, electric or gasoline powered pumps are used

8 Electricity Produced by generators which convert mechanical energy (ex. rotating turbines) into electrical energy Types: 1. Moving water in a hydroelectric generating station - can be built anywhere there are rivers with changes in elevation and large reliable waterflow - the force of the water moving from higher to lower elevation drives the generator (pg. 359)

9 Hydroelectricity Pros/Cons Pros - Cheap to operate - No air pollution or carbon dioxide - Uses a renewable resource (flowing water) - The reservoir may also be used for recreation Cons - Expensive to build - Suitable sites far from need = $ for lines - Most suitable sites already developed - Dams cause flooding = destruction; may cause release of chemicals

10 2. Thermoelectricity pg Expanding steam produced by burning coal, oil, or natural gas turns turbines in a thermoelectric generating station Pros - Plants can be built near need and where fuel is available - Less expensive to build Cons - Fuel costs are high - Use non-renewable resources (will run out) - Air pollution (global warming, acid precipitation)

11 3. Nuclear Electricity pg Expanding steam from nuclear fission in a nuclear-electric generating station to turn turbines (like thermoelectricity but uses heat to produce steam) - Heat comes from the breakdown (fission) of radioactive uranium atoms

12 Nuclear Electricity Pros/Cons Pros can be built where energy is needed - Operating costs relatively low - Canada has plenty of uranium - No air pollution Cons - Construction costs high - Radioactive fuel is hazardous to human health - Waste products remain dangerous for 100,000 yrs - Reactors become unreliable with age =replace=$


14 Solar Energy Solar Energy: Energy harnessed from the sun. Solar energy is clean, inexhaustible, and renewable. 3 kinds: 1.Passive 2.Solarthermal 3.Photovoltaic

15 Solar Energy: Passive Passive Solar: to take advantage of the sun s energy, buildings using passive solar are designed so as to best absorb the sun s heat and light.

16 Solar Energy: Passive Walls are designed to absorb and store the sun s energy and thus reduce heat loss. Windows are placed to receive the most light throughout the day. Air flow is regulated so as to increase distribution of heat more evenly.

17 Solar Energy: Solarthermal Solarthermal: Uses the sun to heat fluids or air, thus driving turbines and generating electricity. Solar panels are an example of a solarthermal energy generator.

18 Solar Energy: Photovoltaic Photovoltaic, or Solarelectric energy, harnesses the sun s energy directly and converts this energy to electricity. Solar photovoltaic panels can be added to any building to provide a source of electrical generation from the sun.

19 Wind Power Wind turbines converts the kinetic energy from the wind into mechanical or electrical energy. Wind energy is a pollution free, infinitely sustainable form of energy. It doesn t use fuel; it doesn t produce greenhouse gasses, and it doesn t produce toxic or radioactive waste (CanREN).

20 Biomass Biomass energy refers to fuels made from plants and animal wastes. The most common kinds of biomass are wood and wood chips, animal manure and crop wastes (CanREN).

21 Biomass To harness Biomass energy, these wood, plant or animal waste products are burned. Burning releases the stored chemical energy in the product. Depending on the product, this can be used to create either heat or electricity.

22 Geothermal Magma from the earth s core gasifies water into steam, and the pressure from that steam is used to power steam turbines that turn generators to create electricity or to heat buildings. Geothermal power is a clean, renewable, and sustainable energy source (Contact Canada 238).

23 Tidal Power Tidal power is created by harnessing the gravitational pull created by the moon over the ocean tides. Hydroelectric power can be created by damming that tidal flow and converting the concentrated energy of the moving water into electricity.

24 Which is Best? 1. Consider the pros and cons of each form of energy generation (conventional and alternative). Is there any best way or ways to generate energy? 2. How can you reduce your energy use? Come up with list of 10 ways. Discuss your answers in groups and explain to class.

25 Energy and the Economy We want an abundant, reliable, and low-cost energy supply (it is important to our economy)