# Oral and mental starter

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1 Lesson Objectives Order fractions and position them on a number line (Y6) Vocabulary gauge, litre numerator, denominator order Resources OHT. individual whiteboards (optional) Using fractions Oral and mental starter 5 minutes Show OHT.. Ask pupils to read the question. Wait a few minutes then take responses. Q How did you work out the answer? Some pupils may consider the gauge to be a 0 to 60 number line and work out 45. Others may say that the tank is three-quarters full, and then calculate 4 of 60. Repeat for tanks of different sizes. Clarify the meaning of a fraction as a number, with a position on a number line, and a fraction as an operator a fraction of a quantity. On the board draw a 0 to number line and ask a pupil to estimate where 8 lies on it. Repeat for other unitary fractions (numerator = ) and then fractions such as 5 7 8, 0. You may prefer pupils to do this individually, displaying their answers on whiteboards. Using a 0 to 0 number line, repeat the process with examples of fractions greater 2 than (e.g. 2, ). 4 5 Main teaching 5 minutes Objectives Calculate simple fractions of quantities and measurements (Y7) Order fractions (Y6) Use names and abbreviations of units of measurement (Y7) Vocabulary kilogram kg, gram g kilometre km hour h, minute min order Resources OHT.2 Springboard 7 Unit OHT. (Plenary) Begin by chanting fractions: 2 of = of 2 = of = of 4 = 2 2 of 5 = of 6 = 2 of 7 = 2 of 8 = 2 2 of 9 = of 0 = of = of 2 = 4 Explain how to find a fraction of a quantity. 4 Q Find 5 of 20 litres. 7 Q Find 0 of 200 metres. Take pupils suggestions. Check that they have a reliable method for calculation, 7 for example find 5 of 20, then multiply by 4; to find 0 of 200, find 0 of 200, then 7 multiply by 7, or find 0 of 00, then multiply by 2. Emphasise that the answer should be expressed in the correct units. OHT.2 contains a set of similar questions. Emphasise the need to calculate the numerical answer and state the appropriate units. Discuss which are mental calculations and which require some written working. Explain the difference between the question types: find [fraction] of and what fraction of... is...? Springboard 7 Unit pages provide further examples involving money, time and measures. Plenary 0 minutes By the end of the lesson pupils should be able to: order simple fractions; work out fractions of quantities and measurements. Framework supplement of examples pages Level 4 Use the test question on OHT.. Ask pupils to order the fractions, starting with the smallest. Rectify any errors, distinguishing between careless errors and misconceptions. A common misconception is for pupils to order the denominators ignoring the numerators. Use a list of fractions with the same denominator but different numerators to check pupils understanding. Ask pupils to draw a picture to explain that of is. Share their explanations

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3 OHT. Fractions A car s petrol tank holds 60 litres when it is full. How much petrol is in the tank now?

4 OHT.2 More fractions What is of 600 m? 2 What is 0 of 5 m? Give your answer in centimetres. What fraction of a leap year is week? 4 What is of 6 litres? 5 What is of 2 m? 6 What fraction of kilogram is 400 grams? 7 What is of 8.80? 8 Find of What fractions of these shapes are shaded? a b c

5 OHT. Ordering fractions Put these fractions in order. Explain your reasoning

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7 Lesson 4 Fractions and decimals Oral and mental starter 5 minutes Objectives Reduce a fraction to its simplest form by cancelling common factors in the numerator and denominator (Y6) Recognise the equivalence between decimal and fraction forms (Y6) Vocabulary fraction, equivalent, numerator, denominator Resources OHT 4. 4 Show OHT 4. with written in the centre. Ask pupils to suggest equivalent fractions to 4. Through a series of questions lead pupils to the idea of a multiplier for both numerator and denominator to obtain equivalent fractions. 9 Q How do you get from 4 to 2? Q If the numerator is 5, what will the denominator be? How do you know? Extend so that pupils see the equivalence between fraction and decimal forms. Q Can you write 4 in another way? as a decimal? (0.75) Repeat with 0. written in the centre of OHT 4., looking for fraction equivalents. 0 Ensure pupils see that 0. is equivalent to 0 and Ask pupils, working in pairs, to do the same with Draw this together and show that the key equivalent fractions are 5 and 0.4. Discuss how pupils arrived at these. Check that pupils can obtain equivalent fractions by dividing numerator and denominator by the same divisor. Main teaching 5 minutes Objectives Recognise the equivalence between decimal and fraction forms (Y6) Vocabulary fraction, equivalent, numerator, denominator Resources 4 counting sticks Springboard 7 Unit 5 OHTs 4.2 and 4. (Plenary) Use three counting sticks divided into ten sections. Ask pupils to arrange the following sets of fractions on separate sticks , 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 2 4 0, 5, 5, 5, 5, 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, Compare the counting sticks by aligning them beneath each other. 4 Q What do you notice about 0 and 0.4? Q Is any other fraction the same as 0.4? Q What do you notice about 0? Between which two values does it lie? Q What is the decimal equivalent of 0? Repeat for other values. Ask a pupil to place the numbers 0, 4, 2, 4, on a fourth counting stick. Line up this stick with the others. Q Which values are the same as 2? Q Between which two decimal values does a quarter lie? Q What is the decimal equivalent of 4?... of 4? Ask pupils to imagine a 0 to number line with 00 divisions. Count from 0 to 0.2 together (0, 0.0, ). Q What is the first number after zero on the line? (0.0) Q What is the middle number? (0.5) Q What is the number on the line immediately before the middle? (0.49) 9 Q Where would 00 be? 7 Q Where would 0 be? Repeat for other fractions. Springboard 7 Unit 5 pages 89 and 90 provide further practice examples.

8 By the end of the lesson pupils should be able to: find equivalent fractions; convert between decimals and fractions. Framework supplement of examples pages Level 4 Plenary 0 minutes Use OHT 4.2 to make connections between equivalent fractions. Pupils should learn key conversions and order simple fractions. Use OHT 4., which is based on a test question on equivalent fractions. Ask pupils to answer the questions, then discuss their responses. What errors did pupils make? Correct any misconceptions. 4

9 Equivalent fractions OHT 4.

10 OHT 4.2 More equivalent fractions

11 OHT 4. Fraction problems Look at these fractions Mark each fraction on the number line. The first one is done for you. The first one is done for you. 0 2 mark 2 Fill in the missing numbers in the boxes marks

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13 Lesson 5 Probability Oral and mental starter 5 minutes Objectives Use vocabulary and ideas of probability drawing on experience (Y7) Vocabulary certain, uncertain, good chance, no chance impossible, even chance equally likely, possible likely, unlikely, not likely, fair unfair, random, risk Resources Resource sheet 5.a d, possibly made into word cards Objectives Use vocabulary and ideas of probability drawing on experience (Y7) Vocabulary as above Resources OHTs 5.2a and b and 5. Springboard 7 Unit 7 By the end of the lesson pupils should: understand equally likely events; be able to use correctly the vocabulary of probability. Framework supplement of examples pages Level 4 You may want to cut out the words on Resource sheet 5.a d or enlarge and mount them on card. Show pupils one of the words. In pairs, invite them to prepare an explanation or example to illustrate the meaning of the word. Discuss pupils suggestions. Explore, clarify and consolidate the meaning of each word. Ideally you should build up this vocabulary through a series of small inputs before the lesson. You can then use this starter to revise the vocabulary and meanings. Main teaching 40 minutes Introduce OHT 5.2a Cards, which has been adapted from a test question and builds on the vocabulary and explanations in the starter. Pupils might attempt the question individually. Encourage pupils to read each part and produce clear written explanations. Discuss the written explanations in pairs, and consider how to improve them; emphasise that marks are awarded for giving clear written explanations. Explain and clarify any issues that arise. Explore the common misconception of equally likely events through discussion of this example: John says: To throw a six or not to throw a six, each has a probability of as either you do it or you don t. 2 Q Is he correct? Ask pupils to explain their answer. OHT 5. Tokens develops this understanding. Encourage pupils to produce clear written explanations. Springboard 7 Unit 7 pages provide further examples. Plenary 5 minutes Ask pupils to give examples of: events that are equally likely; events that are not equally likely. Q Is it equally likely that the next baby born in the local hospital is a boy or girl? Discuss the question and answer. You might go on to use these ideas in simple probability calculations. Springboard 7 Unit 7 page 255 introduces the probability scale. 9

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15 Resource sheet 5.a Probability words certain uncertain good chance no chance

16 Resource sheet 5.b Probability words impossible even chance equally likely possible

17 Resource sheet 5.c Probability words likely unlikely not likely fair

18 Resource sheet 5.d Probability words unfair random risk

19 OHT 5.2a Cards (a) Joe has these cards: Sara takes a card without looking. Joe says: On Sara s card, is more likely than. Explain why Joe is wrong. mark (b) Here are some words and phrases: impossible not likely certain likely Choose a word or a phrase to fill in the gaps below. It is... that the number on Sara s card will be smaller than 0. mark It is... that the number on Sara s card will be an odd number. mark

20 OHT 5.2b Cards (c) Joe still has these cards: Joe mixes them up and puts them face down on the table. He turns over the first card, like this: Joe is going to turn the next card over. Complete this sentence: On the next card,... is less likely than... mark The number on the next card could be higher than 5 or lower than 5. Which is more likely? Tick the correct box. higher than 5 lower than 5 cannot tell Explain your answer. mark

21 OHT 5. Tokens A class has some gold tokens and some silver tokens. The tokens are all the same size. (a) The teacher puts four gold tokens and one silver token in a bag. Leah is going to take one token out of the bag without looking. She says: There are two colours, so it is just as likely that I will get a gold token as a silver token. Explain why Leah is wrong. mark (b) (c) How many more silver tokens should the teacher put in the bag to make it just as likely that Leah will get a gold token as a silver token? mark Jack has a different bag with 8 tokens in it. It is more likely that Jack will take a gold token than a silver token from his bag. How many gold tokens might there be in Jack s bag? mark

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25 Rounding numbers OHT

26 Estimating OHT

27 OHT 6. Problems to solve Janine buys 8 books at 4.95 each. Work out the total cost. 2 Gareth has in his bank. He withdraws What is his bank balance now? Start with 4. Divide by 7 and then multiply your answer by 5. What is the final answer? 4 I have 60 bags each containing 24 sweets. The sweets are shared equally among 6 people. How many sweets would each person get? 5 Indra buys five bulbs at 85p each, three plugs at.05 each and an adaptor at How much change does she get from a 20 note?

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