# Measurement with Reasoning

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1 compare, describe and solve practical problems for: * lengths and heights [e.g. long/short, longer/shorter, tall/short, double/half] * mass/weight [e.g. heavy/light, heavier than, lighter than] * capacity and volume [e.g. full/empty, more than, less than, half, half full, quarter] * time [e.g. quicker, slower, earlier, later] Measurement with Reasoning Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 COMPARING AND ESTIMATING compare and order estimate, compare and calculate and compare the lengths, mass, calculate different area of squares and volume/capacity and measures, including rectangles including using record the results using >, money in pounds and standard units, square < and = pence (also included in Measuring) centimetres (cm 2 ) and Top tips How do you know that this (object) is heavier / longer / taller than this one? Explain how you know. Top tips Put these measurements in order starting with the smallest. 75 grammes 85 grammes 100 grammes Position the symbols Place the correct symbol between the measurements > or < 36cm 63cm Top Tips Put these measurements in order starting with the largest. Half a litre Quarter of a litre 300 ml Position the symbols Place the correct symbol between the measurements > or < Top Tips Put these amounts in order starting with the largest. Half of three litres Quarter of two litres 300 ml Position the symbols Place the correct symbols between the measurements > or < square metres (m 2 ) and estimate the area of irregular shapes (also included in measuring) estimate volume (e.g. using 1 cm 3 blocks to build cubes and cuboids) and capacity (e.g. using water) Top Tips Put these amounts in order starting with the largest cm m 2 13 m 2 calculate, estimate and compare volume of cubes and cuboids using standard units, including centimetre cubed (cm 3 ) and cubic metres (m 3 ), and extending to other units such as mm 3 and km 3. Top Tips Put these amounts in order starting with the largest. 100 cm mm 3 1 m 3

2 130ml 103ml 306cm Half a metre 930 ml 1 litre p 2623p sequence events in chronological order using language [e.g. before and after, next, first, today, yesterday, tomorrow, morning, afternoon and evening] Explain thinking Ask pupils to reason and make statements about to the order of daily routines in school e.g. daily timetable e.g. we go to PE after we go to lunch. Is this true or false? compare and sequence intervals of time The film finishes two hours after it starts. It finishes at What time did it start? Draw the clock at the start and the finish of the film. compare durations of events, for example to calculate the time taken by particular events or tasks estimate and read time with increasing accuracy to the nearest minute; record and compare time in terms of seconds, minutes, hours and o clock; use vocabulary such as a.m./p.m., morning, afternoon, noon and midnight (appears also in Telling the Time) A programme lasting 45 minutes finishes at At what time did it start? Draw the clock at the start and finish time. Imran s swimming lesson lasts 50 mins and it takes 15 mins to change and get ready for the lesson. What time does Imran need to arrive if his lesson finishes at 6.15pm? A school play ends at 6.45pm. The play lasted 2 hours and 35 minutes. What time did it start? A film lasting 200 minutes finished at 17:45. At what time did it start?

3 What do we do before break time? etc. measure and begin to record the following: * lengths and heights * mass/weight * capacity and volume * time (hours, minutes, seconds) Application (Can be practical) Which two pieces of string are the same length as this book? Explain thinking The time is 3:15pm. Kate says that in two hours she will be at her football game which starts at 4:15. Is Kate right? Explain why. choose and use appropriate standard units to estimate and measure length/height in any direction (m/cm); mass (kg/g); temperature ( C); capacity (litres/ml) to the nearest appropriate unit, using rulers, scales, thermometers and measuring vessels Application (Practical) Draw two lines whose lengths differ by 4cm. Explain thinking Salha says that 100 minutes is the same as 1 hour. Is Salha right? Explain why. Explain thinking The time is 10:35 am. Jack says that the time is closer to 11:00am than to 10:00am. Is Jack right? Explain why. MEASURING and CALCULATING measure, compare, add and subtract: lengths (m/cm/mm); mass (kg/g); volume/capacity (l/ml) Write more statements (You may choose to consider this practically) If there are 630ml of water in a jug. How much water do you need to add to end up with a litre of water? What if there was 450 ml estimate, compare and calculate different measures, including money in pounds and pence (appears also in Comparing) Write more statements One battery weighs the same as 60 paperclips; One pencil sharpener weighs the same as 20 paperclips. Write down some more things you know. How many pencil Other possibilities (links with geometry, shape and space) A cuboid is made up of 36 smaller cubes. If the cuboid has the length of two of its sides the same what could the dimensions be? Convince me use all four operations to measure (e.g. length, mass, volume, money) using decimal notation including scaling. Write more statements Mr Smith needs to fill buckets of water. A large bucket holds 6 litres and a small bucket holds 4 litres. If a jug holds 250 ml and a bottle holds 500 ml suggest some ways of using the jug and bottle to Other possibilities (links with geometry, shape and space) A cuboid has a volume between 200 and 250 cm cubed. Each edge is at least 4cm long. List four possibilities for the dimensions of the cuboid.. the calculation and conversion of units of measure, using decimal notation up to three decimal places where appropriate Write more statements Chen, Megan and Sam have parcels. Megan s parcel weighs 1.2kg and Chen s parcel is 1500g and Sam s parcel is half the weight of Megan s parcel. Write down some other statements about the

4 to start with? Make up some more questions like this sharpeners weigh the same as a battery? fill the buckets. parcels. How much heavier is Megan s parcel than Chen s parcel? measure the perimeter of simple 2-D shapes Testing conditions A square has sides of a whole number of centimetres. Which of the following measurements could represent its perimeter?8cm 18cm 24cm 25cm measure and calculate the perimeter of a rectilinear figure (including squares) in centimetres and metres Testing conditions If the width of a rectangle is 3 metres less than the length and the perimeter is between 20 and 30 metres, what could the dimensions of the rectangle lobe? Convince me. measure and calculate the perimeter of composite rectilinear shapes in centimetres and metres Testing conditions Shape A is a rectangle that is 4m long and 3m wide. Shape B is a square with sides 3m. The rectangles and squares are put together side by side to make a path which has perimeter between 20 and 30 m. For example recognise that shapes with the same areas can have different perimeters and vice versa Testing conditions A square has the perimeter of 12 cm. When 4 squares are put together, the perimeter of the new shape can be calculated. For example: recognise and know the value of different denominations of coins and notes recognise and use symbols for pounds ( ) and pence (p); combine amounts to make a particular value add and subtract amounts of money to give change, using both and p in practical contexts Can you draw some other arrangements where the perimeter is between 20 and 30 metres? What arrangements will give the maximum perimeter?

5 find different combinations of coins that equal the same amounts of money Possibilities Ella has two silver coins. How much money might she have? solve simple problems in a practical context involving addition and subtraction of money of the same unit, including giving change Possibilities How many different ways can you make 63p using only 20p, 10p and 1p coins? Possibilities I bought a book which cost between 9 and 10 and I paid with a ten pound note. My change was between 50p and 1 and was all in silver coins. What price could I have paid? Possibilities Adult tickets cost 8 and Children s tickets cost 4. How many adult and children s tickets could I buy for 100 exactly? Can you find more than one way of doing this?

6 find the area of rectilinear shapes by counting squares Always, sometimes, never If you double the area of a rectangle, you double the perimeter. See also Geometry Properties of Shape calculate and compare the area of squares and rectangles including using standard units, square centimetres (cm 2 ) and square metres (m 2 ) and estimate the area of irregular shapes recognise and use square numbers and cube numbers, and the notation for squared ( 2 ) and cubed ( 3 ) (copied from Multiplication and Division) Always, sometimes, never When you cut off a piece of a shape you reduce its area and perimeter. See also Geometry Properties of Shape calculate the area of parallelograms and triangles calculate, estimate and compare volume of cubes and cuboids using standard units, including cubic centimetres (cm 3 ) and cubic metres (m 3 ), and extending to other units [e.g. mm 3 and km 3 ]. recognise when it is possible to use formulae for area and volume of shapes Always, sometimes, never The area of a triangle is half the area of the rectangle that encloses it:

7 See also Geometry Properties of Shape tell the time to the hour and half past the hour and draw the hands on a clock face to show these times. recognise and use language relating to dates, including days of the week, weeks, months and years tell and write the time to five minutes, including quarter past/to the hour and draw the hands on a clock face to show these times. know the number of minutes in an hour and the number of hours in a day. tell and write the time from an analogue clock, including using Roman numerals from I to XII, and 12-hour and 24-hour clocks estimate and read time with increasing accuracy to the nearest minute; record and compare time in terms of seconds, minutes, hours and o clock; use vocabulary such as a.m./p.m., morning, afternoon, noon and midnight (appears also in Comparing and Estimating) TELLING THE TIME read, write and convert time between analogue and digital 12 and 24-hour clocks converting from hours to minutes; minutes to seconds; years to months; weeks to days converting between units of time

8 Working backwards Draw hands on the clock faces to show when break started and when it finished 15 minutes later at 10:35. know the number of minutes in an hour and the number of hours in a day. (appears also in Telling the Time) Working backwards Tom s bus journeytakes half an hour. He arrives at his destination at 9:25. At what time did his bus leave? 9:05 8:55 8:45 know the number of seconds in a minute and the number of days in each month, year and leap year CONVERTING Working backwards Put these times of the day in order, starting with the earliest time. A: Quarter to four in the afternoon B: 07:56 C: six minutes to nine in the evening D: 14:36 convert between different units of measure (e.g. kilometre to metre; hour to minute) read, write and convert time between analogue and digital 12 and 24-hour clocks converting from hours to Working backwards Put these lengths of time in order starting with the longest time. 105 minutes 1 hour 51 minutes 6360 seconds convert between different units of metric measure (e.g. kilometre and metre; centimetre and metre; centimetre and millimetre; gram and kilogram; litre and millilitre) converting between units of time understand and use equivalences between use, read, write and convert between standard units, converting measurements of length, mass, volume and time from a smaller unit of measure to a larger unit, and vice versa, using decimal notation to up to three decimal places the calculation and conversion of units of measure, using decimal notation up to three decimal places where appropriate (appears also in Measuring and Calculating) convert between miles and kilometres

9 minutes; minutes to seconds; years to months; weeks to days (appears also in Telling the Time) metric units and common imperial units such as inches, pounds and pints 3 hours 25 minutes 225 metres 0.3km 24 metres cubed 1 hour = 60 minutes ½ hour = 30 minutes ¼ hour = 15 minutes Write down some more time facts like these 1 minute = 60 seconds 2 minutes = 120 seconds Continue the pattern Write down some more time facts like these 1:00pm = 13:00 2:00pm = 14:00 Continue the pattern What do you notice?what do you notice? 1 minute = 60 seconds 60 minutes = seconds Fill in the missing number of seconds down some more time facts like this. 8 km = 5 miles 16km = miles 4 km = miles Fill in the missing number of miles. Write down some more facts connecting kilometres and miles.

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