3 Learning Outcomes Theory. Extend ISLM to account for Imports/Exports Practice. Show effects of shocks on the Small Open Economy Relevance. Relate to Ireland s Recent Experience
4 Trade Balance Trade deficit :net exports (NX) are negative. Imports > Exports Trade surplus net exports (NX) are positive. Exports > Imports Balanced trade net exports are zero exports and imports are exactly equal.
5 NX=NCO Net exports (NX) and net capital ouhlow (NCO) are closely linked. For an economy as a whole, NX and NCO must balance each other so that: NCO = NX This holds true because every transacnon that affects one side must also affect the other side by the same amount.
6 S=I + NCO Net exports is a component of GDP: Y = C + I + G + NX National saving is the income of the nation that is left after paying for current consumption and government purchases: S=Y - C - G = I + NX S=I + NCO National Saving = Investment + Net Capital Outflow
7 Private Balance of Payments Deficit If the private balance of payments is in deficit, current account + private capital account < 0 supply of currency>demand for currency With a flexible exchange rate, the currency depreciates until current account + private capital account = 0 demand for currency = supply of currency With a fixed exchange rate, the country must buy up the excess supply of its currency.
8 ISLM INTEREST RATE, i LM IS: Goods Market EQM LM: Money Markets IS GNP, Y
9 ISLM BP Macro Balance Condition: Y = C+I+G+X-M X-M = Net Exports/Imports (Balance of Payments) Also consider Exchange Rate, E Assume flexible exchange rates, because then Current account surplus=capital account deficit.
10 Current Account Exports - Imports Exports are Exogenous Imports Increase as Income Increases Private Capital Account BP s Components Capital Inflows - Capital Outflows Capital Inflows Increase as Interest Rates Increase For BP equilibrium, interest rates must increase with income so that a deficit in the current account is offset with a capital account surplus.
11 Ireland s Current Account Balance Current Account Balance (Euro Million) Source: Database Direct.
12 Beware: Contrary to the general perception, the existence of a current account deficit is not in itself a sign of bad economic policy or bad economic conditions. If the United States has a current account deficit, all this means is that the United States is importing capital.
13 Breakdown of Current Account Balance 1. current account balance - $13.88 billion per year (US dollars per year) (2008 estimate) 2. total consumption 59.76% 3. household consumption 43.93% 4. government consumption 15.84% 5. gross investment 26.9% 6. fixed investment 26.9% 7. inventory change 0% 8. export value 80.4% 9. import value 67.2% (2005 estimate) See hxp://
14 Adding BP Line to ISLM 1. Draw reference line BP = BP shows combinations of GNP and interest rate For BOP=0. 3. BP = 0 line slopes upwards because increases in the interest rate and in GNP have opposing effects on the balance of payments. 4. BP = 0 assumes a given level of exports and imports, world interest rates, and exchange rate expectations.
15 ISLM-BP INTEREST RATE, i LM BP=0 IS GNP, Y
16 Applications 1: Fiscal Policy Fiscal Policy. Assume G is decreased because of budget cuts. IS shifts back. There is a BOP deficit, economy is below BP=0 line. If Exchange rates fixed, Central Bank must intervene to prop up exchange rate. Now LM shifts backward. Current account is in surplus, but capital account is in deficit
17 Contractionary Fiscal Policy INTEREST RATE, i LM2 LM C B A BP=0 GNP IS 2 IS GNP, Y
18 ApplicaNon 2: Monetary Policy Say there is a huge increase in the money supply, as we see happening now:
19 Expansionary Monetary Policy Increase money supply shifts the LM curve from LM1 to LM2. Economy moves from A to B. At B, GNP has increased and a deficit exists on both the current and capital accounts of the balance of payments. The exchange rate now depreciates, this increases net exports. IS curve shifts from IS1 to IS2, economy moves from B to C. GNP again increases and equilibrium is restored to the balance of payments. Monetary policy is very effective when exchange rates are floating, capital is perfectly mobile, and there are no supply-side constraints.
20 ISLM- BP INTEREST RATE, i LM LM2 A B C BP=0 IS IS2 GNP GNP, Y
21 Practice Questions (In Class) 1. True/False: "A currency devaluation will lead to a deterioration of the current account. 2. Using IS-LM-BP analysis compare and contrast the effectiveness of fiscal and monetary policies at influencing the level of real output in an open economy under floating exchange rates. Discuss the limitations of the IS-LM-BP framework.
22 Q: WHAT IF BP ISN T FLAT?
23 Slope of BP Curve The responsiveness of capital flows to differences between domestic and world interest rates The BP curve is flatter if capital flows are more responsive to interest rate differences. The responsiveness of imports to income The BP curve is steeper if imports are more responsive to changes in income.
24 Policies to Shift BP Exchange Rate Policies Import Controls Capital Controls
25 Currency DepreciaNon Real Interest Rate (%) Starting at A, depreciation causes the BP curve to shift down and/or A r 0 right. r 1 B Y 0 C BP 0 BP 1 At C, the same interest rate requires a higher income for equilibrium. At B, the same income requires at lower interest rate for equilibrium. Y 1 Aggregate Output
26 Trade balance J- Curve Initially a depreciation of a country s currency can worsen the trade deficit until people adjust their buying patterns. Trade balance improves T1 T2 Time in years
27 Import Controls Import controls are policies that forbid or discourage the importing of goods. Tariffs are taxes on imports. Quotas are quantitative limits on imports. Voluntary restraint agreements are informal agreements to limit exports. Import controls create surpluses and shift the BP curve to the right.
28 Capital Controls Capital outflow controls are policies that limit the amount of capital that can leave the country. Capital controls are meant to reduce the demand for foreign currency and keep the domestic currency from depreciating. If the capital controls do not affect capital inflows, the BP curve will shift to the right.
29 Policy Analysis When the government achieves its short-run goals for interest rates and output, the economy is in internal balance. When the government achieves its goals for its trade balance or balance of payments, it is in external balance. If all goals are met simultaneously, the country is in internal and external balance.
30 Recall The real exchange rate depends on the nominal exchange rate and the prices of goods in the two countries measured in local currencies. The real exchange rate is a key determinant of how much a country exports and imports. Real exchange rate = Nominal exchange rate Domestic price Foreign price
31 Depreciation in Real Exchange Rate A depreciation (fall) in Ireland s real exchange rate means that Irish goods have become cheaper relative to foreign goods. This encourages consumers both at home and abroad to buy more Irish goods and fewer goods from other countries. As a result, Irish exports rise, and Irish imports fall, and both of these changes raise Irish net exports.
32 Appreciation in Real Exchange Rate Conversely, an appreciation in the Irish real exchange rate means that Irish goods have become more expensive compared to foreign goods, so Irish net exports fall.
33 shocks through internal flexibility will be severely tested over the next few years. Stefan Gerlach University of Frankfurt Chart 1: Nominal and real effective exchange rates - Ireland Irish Real/Nominal Exchange Rates Paul de Grauwe K. U. Leuven Jürgen von Hagen University of Bonn Patrick Minford Cardiff Business School Manfred Neumann University of Bonn Roberto
34 QuesNon for Review Excessive monetary growth leads to balance of payments problems under fixed exchange rates, and a currency problem under floanng exchange rates." Discuss this statement with reference to the monetary approach to the balance of payments.
35 Summary: Current Challenges for Small Open Ireland Realign Current Account through export- led growth Reduce wage and capital costs to encourage compennveness
36 Learning Outcomes ü Theory. Extend ISLM to account for Imports/Exports ü PracNce. Show effects of shocks on the Small Open Economy ü Relevance. Relate to Ireland s Recent Experience
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