1 Lesson 8 - Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Acknowledgement: Ed Sexton and Kerry Webb were the primary authors of the material contained in this lesson. Section 1: Aggregate Demand The second macroeconomic model that we need to explore is known as the Aggregate Demand/Aggregate Supply Model. This model is important to us because, unlike in the Aggregate Expenditures Model, we do not hold prices constant. This is a significant flaw of the Aggregate Expenditures Model. As a result, this model is useful in helping us understand the inflationary impacts of various policy options. The supply and demand schedules in macroeconomics differ however, from those in your microeconomics class, in that they relate the aggregate quantity of goods and services supplied and the aggregate quantity of goods and services demanded not to a single price, but to a price level or price index, such as the GDP Deflator. The Aggregate Demand curve (AD) represents, in that sense, an even more appropriate model of aggregate output, because it shows the various amounts of goods and services which domestic consumers (C), businesses (I), the government (G), and foreign buyers (NX) collectively will desire at each possible price level. Such a curve is inversely related to changes in the overall price level existing in the economy. Let's begin by showing the relationship between the aggregate expenditures model and the AD curve. In the graph below, we show the standard aggregate expenditures curve at three different price levels. The graph starts at a position where the economy is at full employment. Notice the dot on the lower graph. It represents the current level of real GDP and current price level. If the price level increases (click on "P.L.Æ"), then we have lower real GDP at a higher price level. Notice the second dot that has appeared on the lower graph. The higher prices will lower consumption and result in lower real GDP. If the price level decreases (click on "P.L. "), then we have higher real GDP at a lower price level. Notice the third dot and the aggregate demand (AD) curve that has appeared on the lower graph. The lower prices increase consumption and result in higher real GDP.
2 2 Lesson 8 - ECO 151- Master.nb Deriving the Aggregate Demand Curve from the Aggregate Expenditures Model This graph demonstrates the derivation of the aggregate demand curve using the aggregate expenditures model. The graph starts out at full employment. Notice there is a dot in the lower graph for that point. If price level increases click 'P.L.Æ', notice that AE shifts down and another dot appears. If price level decreases click 'P.L. ', notice that AE shifts up and another dot appears along with the aggregate demand curve. Changes in Price Level P.L.Æ P.L. To more fully understand the nature of AD, it is useful to know how changes in economic conditions affect the aggregate demand in the economy. For example, when the general price level falls (rises), certain economic conditions will cause people in the economy to purchase more (less) goods and services. When that happens, it will then result in a movement along the AD curve. However, changes in other types of economic variables will actually cause the AD curve to shift. Policy makers (and economics students!) should know the difference between, and the effects of, movements along the AD curve and shifts of the AD curve. First, we will suggest three different rationales for the downward sloped curve: the real balances effect, the interest rate effect, and the foreign purchases effect. There are three main economic conditions that are affected by changes in the general price-level, and which lead to an inverse relationship between the general price level and the amount of total goods and services demanded in the economy (i.e., movements along the curve). In common-sense terms, if prices in general go up, people buy less stuff; if prices go down, people buy more stuff. The three conditions are: The Real Balances Effect (Wealth Effect)
3 Lesson 8 - ECO 151- Master.nb 3 "Real balances" refers to the purchase power of a given amount of money in circulation. We make the assumption that at any given point in time, there is a fixed amount of money in circulation. At higher price levels, the money in circulation can purchase fewer items. Think of the simple of example of having $1,000 in circulation and the average price of the goods and services in the economy being $10. A total of 100 items could be purchased under these conditions. If the average price level were to rise to $20 per item, then the $1,000 in circulation would only allow us to purchase 50 items. At higher prices, the money in circulation will spread over fewer goods. When prices fall, the purchasing power of the money in circulation goes up, and people can buy more goods and services. This relationship between prices and the amount of goods and services that can be purchased with a given money supply is called the real balances effect or wealth effect. It justifies our depiction of the AD curve as a downward sloping curve. The Interest Rate Effect The interest rate effect explains the impact that the price level has on interest rates, and thus on certain components of AD. When the price level goes up, people need more money to transact their daily purchases. Therefore, higher prices lead to an increase in the demand for money. With a fixed amount of money in circulation, increasing the demand for money will cause the interest rate to go up. Think of how you would behave if you were running a bank and the demand for money increased. You would try to encourage additional people to deposit money into the bank, and at the same time discourage people from coming into the bank to demand money. The way to do both simultaneously would be to increase the interest rate. As interest rates go up, investment demand and certain interest-rate sensitive consumption purchases will fall. Thus, increases in the price lead to increases the interest rate, which reduces the demand for both consumption and investment, and thus real output. The interest rate effect is therefore an additional justification for the downward sloping AD curve. The Foreign Purchases Effect (International Effect) Domestic prices also have an impact on net exports (NX) through what is called the foreign purchases or international effect. When US prices rise relative to world prices, foreigners buy fewer US goods and Americans buy more foreign goods, so NX fall. Since NX are part of AD, this contributes to an inverse relationship between the price level and the demand for our real domestic output. The opposite is also true. The foreign purchases effect contributes to our argument for why the AD is downward sloping. Some text books list another effect. This is the Multiplier Effect which comes from the Aggregate Expenditure Model. A multiplier effect amplifies the initial changes in expenditures caused by the above three effects. Anything that changes the price level triggers these three effects and is represented by movement along a given AD curve. There are other factors that influence aggregate demand besides the price level, and these factors are referred to as determinants of AD. When these other factors change, they cause a shift in the entire AD curve and are sometimes called aggregate demand shifters. These aggregate demand shifters include anything that will influence the levels of consumption, investment, government spending, or net exports OTHER THAN changes in the price level. Let's consider each in turn. Section 2: Aggregate Demand Shifters The graph below illustrates what a change in a determinant of aggregate demand will do to the position of the aggregate demand curve. As we consider each of the determinants remember that those factors that cause an increase in AD will shift the curve outward and to the right and those factors that cause a decrease in AD will shift the curve inward and to the left. Use the slider to shift the AD curve to the right or left.
4 4 Lesson 8 - ECO 151- Master.nb Shifting Aggregate Demand AD Use the slider bar to shift the demand curve from left to right. Shifts in the Demand Curve Left...Right Shifting Aggregate Demand 1. Changes in Consumption 4 factors 2. Changes in Investment 4 factors 3. Changes in Government Spending 1 factor 4. Changes in Net Exports 2 factors Notice that there are four main categories of factors that shift AD to the right and left. These changes in consumption, investment, and net exports are unrelated to changes in the price level. Remember that when there are changes in the price level it causes a movement along the AD curve. Changes in the factors below lead to shifts of the AD curve to the right or left. Changes in Consumption There are several factors that could increase or decrease consumption that are unrelated to changes in the price level. For instance, increases in consumer wealth would increase consumption at each price level and would be illustrated by a rightward shift in AD. Decreases in consumer wealth would have the opposite effect. Increases in consumer borrowing would increase consumption and shift the aggregate demand curve to the right, while decreases in borrowing (or increases in consumers paying off their debt) would have the opposite effect. Increases in taxes will decrease consumption (and shift the AD curve to the left) while decreases in taxes will increase consumption and shift the AD curve to the right. Taxes are change by the U.S. Congress or individual State legislatures. Consumer expectations about the future of the economy can have a strong impact on consumption. Optimism about the economy will increase consumption and shift the AD curve to the right, while widespread pessimism dampens consumer spending and shifts the AD curve to the left. You can probably think of other factors that will shift the AD curve because they impact consumption independent of the price level. Changes in Investment There are several factors unrelated to changes in the price level that could increase or decrease Investment and thereby shift the AD curve. For instance, any change in the interest rate not brought about by a change in the price level would change the level of investment in the economy, and shift the AD curve. Increases in the interest rate will reduce investment demand; decreases in the interest rate will increase investment demand. The interest rate can be influenced by monetary policy by the Federal Reserve. Business taxes can be structured to either encourage investment (shifting the AD to the right) or discourage investment (shifting AD to the left). Taxes are change by the U.S. Congress or individual State legislatures. Technological improvements in an industry might make old equipment obsolete and stimulate investment, shifting AD to the right. Finally, like the impact of expectations on consumers, optimism (or pessimism) on the part of business owners (expectations of businesses) can lead to increases (or decreases) in investment activity and shift the AD curve to the right (or left). Changes in Government Spending
5 Lesson 8 - ECO 151- Master.nb 5 The political process will sometimes lead to increases or decreases in the level of government spending. Government spending is changed by the U.S. Congress or individual State legislatures. Increases in government spending will shift the AD curve to the right; decreases in government spending will shift the AD curve to the left. Changes in Net Exports There are two important factors unrelated to the price level that could increase or decrease the level of net exports and thereby shift the AD curve. The first has to do with changes in national income (GDP) abroad. As income abroad grows relative to income in the United States, foreigners are able to buy U.S. products more easily and Americans can afford fewer foreign goods. Net exports will go up, shifting the AD curve to the right. If incomes abroad fall relative to income in the US, the AD curve will shift left due to a decrease in net exports. The second factor has to do with exchange rates, or the relative value of our currency to the currency of a trading partner. As an example, let's say that it takes 90 Japanese Yen to buy one US dollar. If the value of the yen relative to the dollar changes so that it takes 100 Yen to buy one US dollar, this will decrease the amount that Japanese citizens will buy in the US, and increase the amount that US citizens can buy in Japan. This change in the exchange rate will cause net exports to fall and the AD curve to shift to the left. If the Japanese Yen were to appreciate relative to the dollar, net exports would rise and the AD curve would shift to the right. Summary of Aggregate Demand Shifts Below is a table that summarizes the different aggregated demand shifters. Factors That Shift Aggregate Demand Below is a summary of the factors that shift aggregate demand. The second column shows the factor increasing and its impact on aggregate demand. The third column shows the factor decreasing and its impact on aggregate demand. Changes in Consumption Consumer Wealth Æ; AD Shifts Right ; AD Shifts Left Household Borrowing Æ; AD Shifts Right ; AD Shifts Left Taxes Æ; AD Shifts Left ; AD Shifts Right Consumer Expectations Æ; AD Shifts Right ; AD Shifts Left Changes in Investment Interest Rates Æ; AD Shifts Left ; AD Shifts Right Business Taxes Æ; AD Shifts Left ; AD Shifts Right Technology Æ; AD Shifts Right ; AD Shifts Left Business Expectations Æ; AD Shifts Right ; AD Shifts Left Changes in Government Spending Government Spending Æ; AD Shifts Right ; AD Shifts Left Changes in Net Exports Foreign National Income Æ; AD Shifts Right ; AD Shifts Left Exchange Rates $ Appreciates; AD Shifts Left $ Depreciates; AD Shifts Right
6 6 Lesson 8 - ECO 151- Master.nb Section 3: Aggregate Supply Different Short-run Aggregate Supply Curves The Aggregate Supply (AS) curve reflects the production of goods and services by business in response to higher prices. Consensus about the shape of the AS curve among economists is somewhat hard to come by. For example, most economists believe that the long-run aggregate supply (LRAS) curve is vertical at the full-employment level of real GDP because both product prices and input prices rise and fall to match changes in the overall price level. Since such changes do not affect real profits, there is no change in real GDP. In the short-run however, there is disagreement as to the degree of steepness in the AS curve, ranging from flat (Keynesian or immediate short-run) to nearly vertical (Classical short-run). Generally, the short-run aggregate supply (SRAS) curve is thought to be upward sloping to the right (intermediate short-run), with a direct relationship between the amounts of goods and services being produced and various price levels (movements along the curve). Such a curve indicates that short-run price changes can and do affect short-run real profits. As a result, producers change their output levels in accordance with their perceived profit opportunities based on various market prices. The figure below allows you to see the different types of short-run curves. In this section, we will have the short-run aggregate supply curve (SRAS) in the intermediate short-run; therefore, it will be upward sloping. Different Types of Short-run Aggregate Supply SRAS Curves Click on the different buttons to see the different short-run aggregate supply SRAS curves. Different Types of Short-run Curves Keynesian Intermediate Classical Keynesian (Immediate) SRAS Curve In the Keynesian or immediate short-run aggregate supply curve (click the Keynesian button in the figure above), the aggregate supply curve is horizontal. This horizontal range implies an economy in severe recession or depression. Typically the levels of real GDP in this economy are well below long-run aggregate supply (potential GDP). Remember that Keynes wrote his General Theory during the heights of the Great Depression, so the range of AS that is associated with his name corresponds to such an economy. Assume that you were running a factory during a severe recession with high unemployment, and you decided that you would like to increase output. You realize that, to increase output, you are going to have to employ more inputs, primarily more labor however, a similar argument could be made about high unemployment of any of the other factors of production. You go to the factory door, open it, and find thousands of unemployed workers standing in line, wanting to work at your factory. How much would you have to pay them to get them to go to work for you? Certainly, you would not have to pay them
7 Lesson 8 - ECO 151- Master.nb 7 more than the going wage rate in the market, right? Essentially, you could hire as many unemployed resources as you would like without bidding up wages and prices, because of the substantial unemployment. The horizontal or Keynesian AS illustrates the idea of the economy being able to increase real output with no increase in the price level during periods of high unemployment. This range of the AS curve is also sometimes referred to as the Short Run AS curve. Classical SRAS Curve In the Classical Range of short-run aggregate supply (click the Classical button in the figure above), we are at or very near long-run aggregate supply or the full-employment level of output. This range is named after the Classical Economists who assumed that the economy, in the long run, would always achieve full employment. The Classical AS curve is sometimes very similar to the long-run AS (LRAS) curve. Assume again that you are running a factory, only this time, the economy is at full-employment. Let s say again that you want to increase output, and that in order to do so you have to increase the number of workers at your factory. You go to the factory door and open it to find nobody waiting in line. There does not appear to be anyone looking for a job because everyone already has one! In order to hire additional workers, you go to other employers workers, and ask them to leave their job to work for you. How much are you going to have to pay these workers to get them to do that? Most likely you will have to pay them more than they are currently making. As you bid up wages in the labor market to attract additional workers, prices in the economy will also rise, because now it costs more to produce your product. That additional cost is passed to the consumer in the form of higher prices, to the extent possible. Attempts to increase output when there is a Classical short-run aggregate supply curve leads to higher price levels in the economy but what about real GDP? Does it actually increase? Well, your output may go up, but the output of the factory where your new workers used to work will go down, so the overall output in the economy stays the same. Intermediate SRAS Curve With the Intermediate SRAS curve increasing output is possible, but only at the expense of rising prices. While that Keynesian Range is a rare short-run occurrence, and the Classical Range is the almost like long-run aggregate supply, an economy with the Intermediate SRAS curve is probably where we find ourselves most often. For this lesson the SRAS curve we will be using is the intermediate short-run aggregate supply curve. Long-run Aggregate Supply (LRAS) Curve Long-run aggregate supply (LRAS) curve is vertical at the full-employment level of real GDP because both product prices and input prices rise and fall to match changes in the overall price level. Since such changes do not affect real profits, there is no change in real GDP. We will refer to LRAS as potential GDP or the level of full employment in this class. Depending on the state of the economy, any attempt to change the output of the economy will move us along a given AS curve. There are factors that influence aggregate supply, illustrated by shifting the AS curve these factors are referred to as determinants of AS. When these other factors change, they cause a shift in the entire AS curve and are sometimes called aggregate supply shifters and are discussed in the next section. Section 4: Aggregate Supply Shifters The graph below illustrates what a change in a determinants or shifters of aggregate supply will do to the position of the aggregate supply curve. As we consider each of the determinants remember that those factors that cause an increase in AS will shift the curve outward and to the right and those factors that cause a decrease in AS will shift the curve upward and to the left.
8 8 Lesson 8 - ECO 151- Master.nb Shifting Short-run Aggregate Supply SRAS Use the slider bar to shift the supply curve from left to right. Shifts in the SRAS Left...Right Shifting Short-run Aggregate Supply 1. Changes in Input Prices 2 factors 2. Changes in Productivity Technology 1 factor 3. Changes in Business Taxes & Subsidies 2 factors 4. Changes in Government Regulations 1 factor 5. Supply Shock 1 factor Changes in Input Prices Anything that causes input prices to rise will decrease SRAS and shift the SRAS curve to the left. Anything that causes input prices to fall will increase SRAS and shift the SRAS curve to the right. For instance, if a particular input into the production process is readily available from domestic suppliers, it will generally be cheaper, holding all else constant (cet. par.). If for no other reason, transportation costs of delivering a domestic resource to a domestic producer will be less than delivering the identical resource from a foreign supplier. That does not even take into account the problems of getting a foreign resource such as duties and tariffs, political or social instability abroad, or other international disruptions. Another factor that can influence input prices would be the market power of the suppliers of the resource. The more competition in the supply of a resource, the cheaper that resource will be, cet. par. If the resource is supplied by a monopolist or a cartel (think OPEC oil), the price of that resource will be higher than if the resource is supplied by a more competitive industry (think corn-produced ethanol). Changes in Technology/Productivity Independent of its price, anything that makes resources more productive (i.e. produce more with the same level of outputs) will increase SRAS and shift the SRAS curve to the right; anything that makes resources less productive will decrease SRAS and shift the SRAS curve to the left. If workers become more productive because of investments in physical or human capital, the economy will be able to produce more and the SRAS curve will shift to the right. If workers become less productive because of outmoded equipment, insufficient training, or excessive union interference in their workplace, the economy will be less productive, and the SRAS curve will shift to the left. Changes in Business Taxes and Subsidies In brief, business taxes increase the cost of production and shift the SRAS curve to the left; subsidies decrease the cost of production and shift the AS curve to the right. Changes in Government Regulations Government regulations also influence the costs of production. Increasing government regulations makes it more expensive to produce the nation's output and shifts the SRAS curve to the left; reducing government regulations lessens the burden of business and shifts the SRAS curve to the right.
9 Lesson 8 - ECO 151- Master.nb 9 Supply Shocks Supply shocks are events that impact the ability to supply inputs or outputs to various markets. For instance, a hurricane or major earthquake is a supply shock. This disrupts the ability to make inputs and/or outputs or increases the cost of an input such as oil. A negative supply shock shifts SRAS Shifts in Long-run Aggregate Supply (LRAS) Determinants that shift long-run aggregate supply (SRAS) curve is technology, levels of labor, and levels of capital. Typically as an economy moves through time levels of labor and capital are increasing. Technology will typically be increasing during this period of time. There are of course exceptions that could slow growth in long-run aggregate supply or even cause it to be reduced. In the next section we will put AD, SRAS, and LRAS together in one graph and find short-run and long-run macroeconomic equilibrium. Summary of Short-run Aggregate Supply Shifts Below is a table that summarizes the different aggregated demand shifters. Factors That Shift Short-Run Aggregate Supply SRAS Below is a summary of the factors that shift short-run aggregate supply. The second column shows the factor increasing and its impact on short-run aggregate supply. The third column shows the factor decreasing and its impact on short-run aggregate supply. Changes in Input Prices Availablity of Domestic Inputs Æ; SRAS Shifts Right ; SRAS Shifts Left Market Power of Input Supplier Æ; SRAS Shifts Left ; SRAS Shifts Right Changes in Productivity Technology Productivity Technology Æ; SRAS Shifts Right ; SRAS Shifts Left Changes in Business Taxes and Subsidies Business Taxes Æ; SRAS Shifts Left ; SRAS Shifts Right Business Subsidies Æ; SRAS Shifts Right ; SRAS Shifts Left Changes in Government Regulations Government Regulations Æ; SRAS Shifts Left ; SRAS Shifts Right Supply Shock Supply Shock Positive; SRAS Shifts Right Negative; SRAS Shifts Left Section 5: Equilibrium - One-Period Model Equilibrium in the Aggregate Demand/Aggregate Supply model is achieved at the intersection of AD and AS, resulting in an equilibrium price level and an equilibrium real GDP (GDP) level. As you can readily see, shifts in one or both of the curves will change the equilibrium price and/or output. Use the graph below to shift the AD and SRAS curves. If the economy achieves equilibrium GDP below the full-employment GDP, then the economy s performance
10 10 Lesson 8 - ECO 151- Master.nb is faltering and it may be in recession. On the other hand, if the equilibrium GDP is higher than the full-employment level of GDP, then the economy may be overheating, putting upward pressure on prices. Looking at the graph, unemployment is determined by looking at the distance between the equilibrium GDP and the potential GDP (LRAS). As you move the sliders notice what happens to unemployment as the equilibrium changes. One-Period Model Static - AD AS The graph below illustrates a one-time period model where maroeconomic equilibrium is at potential GDP GDP=LRAS, where macroeconomic equilibrium is above potential GDP GDP>LRAS, and where macroeconomic equilibrium is less than potential GDP GDP<LRAS. One of the purposes of macroeconomics policy is to get macroeconomic equilibrium to potential GDP LRAS. Use the slider bar to shift the aggregate demand AD and short-run aggregate supply curve SRAS to the left or the right to try bring macroeconomic equilibrium to potential GDP LRAS. Watch what happens to equilibrium price level and real GDP. The arrows in the table indicate if the equilibrium price level and real GDP has increased Æ, decreased, or stayed at the same value õ. LRAS GDP=LRAS GDP>LRAS GDP<LRAS Shifts in AD Left...Right Shifts in SRAS Left...Right Æ,,õ Eq. Price Level = Eq. Real GDP = Unemployment Rate = õ õ õ Shifts in AD Curve Let s review all of the possible impacts on the price level and the level of real GDP from a shift in the AD curve. An increase in AD when SRAS is upward sloping will increase real GDP and increase the price level; a decrease in AD will decrease real GDP and decrease the price level. Notice that when short-run aggregate supply is upward sloping, there is a trade off between two of the key economic variables that concern US citizens: inflation and unemployment. Typically, we would like both inflation and unemployment to be low. However, if we increase AD, inflation will go up as unemployment falls (notice that if real GDP is going up, unemployment is going down: in order to increase GDP, you have to hire more workers). The price increases that result from increases in AD are examples of demand-pull Inflation. On the other hand, if we decrease AD, inflation will fall but unemployment will rise. There is no way to simultaneously decrease inflation and decrease unemployment using demand side shifts. Do you think that decreases in AD have exactly the opposite effects as the increases? Typically they do, but there is a possibility of inflexibility downward of prices due to the "ratchet effect." In economics, the ratchet effect states that while prices are quick to increase, they are very slow to fall. Why do you think that prices would go up very easily but fall only slowly? Part of the answer has to do with the fact that it actually costs businesses money to change their prices (think of printing new catalogs, printing new menus, recoding prices in a computer and on scanners, or sending a worker out to change the prices on a marquee). It is worth it to the business to incur this expense when the price is going up, but when the price is going down they are hesitant to take on the expense of changing prices.
11 Lesson 8 - ECO 151- Master.nb 11 Shifts in SRAS Curve A decrease in SRAS will increase the price level and decrease real GDP. An increase in SRAS will reduce the price level and increase real GDP. The inflation that is associated with a decrease in the SRAS is called cost-push inflation. During the 1970s, a variety of factors shifted the AS curve to the left. The high inflation that was combined with a stagnant economy (low levels of output and high unemployment) gave rise to the term stagflation. When Ronald Reagan was elected President in 1980, the inflation rate was 13.5% and the unemployment rate was 7.5%. Reagan employed supply-side policies that were designed to shift the SRAS curve to the right and reduce both inflation and unemployment simultaneously. Only by supply-side policies can you decrease both inflation and unemployment at the same time. By the time that Reagan left office eight years later, the inflation rate in the economy was 4.1% and the unemployment rate of 5.3%. Section 6: (Optional) Equilibrium: Two-Period Model The one-period model in section 5 helps show how the economy responds to changes in AD and/or SRAS. The only problem is that throughout time the United States has seldom had deflation. Typically from one-period to the next prices are rising. By adding time to the model we can see how an economy can still have inflation even if the economy is suffering from a recession. The graph below illustrates a two-period model. The benefit of this model is to show how policy can influence the macroeconomy based on a particular forecast for the second period. Under the normal functioning of a market economy, the potential GDP (LRAS), short-run aggregate supply (SRAS), and aggregate demand (AD) will shift to the right from period 1 to period 2. The average economic trend for the United States over the last 50 years is continued economic growth from one period to the next. One other important feature is that price level rises from one period to the next. The price level is the GDP price index (GDP deflator), and it has not experienced deflation (or decline of the price level) since the Great Depression (1930s).
12 12 Lesson 8 - ECO 151- Master.nb Two-Period Model Dynamic - AD AS The graph below illustrates a two-period model. The benefit of this model is to show how policy can influence the macroeconomy based on a particular forecast for the second period. Under the normal functioning of a market economy, the potential GDP LRAS, short-run aggregate supply SRAS, and aggregate demand AD will shift to the right from period 1 to period 2. The average economic trend for the United States over the last 50 years is continued economic growth from one period to the next. One other important feature is that price level rises from one period to the next. The price level is the GDP price index GDP deflator and it has not experienced deflation or decline of the price level since the Great Depression 1930s. As you click the button 'Period 2' button for AD, SRAS, and LRAS, notice that AD shifts more than SRAS. This gives us inflation from period 1 to period 2. Also notice that LRAS shifts just enough for the macroeconomic equilibrium to stay at potential GDP LRAS. The end result is that real GDP increases, price level increases, and unemployment stays the same. AD Period 1 Period 2 SRAS Period 1 Period 2 LRAS Period 1 Period 2 Æ,,õ Eq. Price Level = Eq. Real GDP = Unemployment = õ õ õ The power of this model is that we can model different situations in the economy. Recessions, demand-pull inflation, cost-inflation (stagflation), and slow economic growth will be demonstrated using the two-period model. Inflation The two-period model below illustrates demand-pull inflation and cost-push inflation. In this specific example the cost-push inflation results in a recession (decline of real GDP from one period to the next) called stagflation. When inflation rates are really high and real GDP is declining it can be problematic for a policy maker to implement a policy. Contractionary policy could send the economy into a deeper recession and expansionary policy could make the inflation rates to increase. We will discuss specific policy in Lesson 9 and Lesson 11.
13 Lesson 8 - ECO 151- Master.nb 13 Two-Period Model Dynamic - Inflation The graph below illustrates a two-period model. We are currently in period 1. The LRAS for period 2 is already on the graph. Each scenario illustrates what the economy looks like when there is demand-pull inflation scenario 1 and cost-push inflation scenario 2. Click on 'AD Period 2' and 'SRAS Period 2' under scenarios 1 and 2 to see how AD and SRAS move. Also notice what happens to unemployment, inflation, and real GDP from period 1 to period 2. Notice that cost-push inflation leads to a recession and high inflation rates. We call this stagflation. Scenario 1: Demand-Pull Inflation AD Period 2 SRAS Period 2 Scenario 2: Cost-Push Inflation AD Period 2 SRAS Period 2 Slow Economic Growth and Recessions The two-period model below illustrates slow economic growth and recessions while still having and increase in price level from period 1 to period 2. Policy makers would forecast what the economy will be like in the next period and then try to enact policy today to keep the economy growing at a reasonable pace. We will discuss more of the policy options in Lesson 9 and Lesson 11.
14 14 Lesson 8 - ECO 151- Master.nb Two-Period Model Dynamic - Slow Growth and Recessions The graph below illustrates a two-period model. We are currently in period 1. The LRAS for period 2 is already on the graph. Each scenario illustrates what the economy looks like when there is slow economic growth scenario 1 and recessions scenario 2. Click on 'AD Period 2' and SRAS Period 2' under scenarios 1 and 2 to see how AD and SRAS move. Also notice what happens to unemployment, inflation, and real GDP from period 1 to period 2. Notice that in both scenarios prices are still increasing in the economy. Scenario 1: Slow Growth AD Period 2 SRAS Period 2 Scenario 2: Recession AD Period 2 SRAS Period 2 Summary Key Terms AD Aggregate Demand Curve Aggregate Demand/Aggregate Supply Model Aggregate Supply Curve AS Business Taxes Changes in Business Taxes and Subsidies Changes in Government Regulations Changes in Government Spending Changes in Input Prices Changes in Investment Changes in National Income (GDP) Abroad Changes in Technology/Productivity Classical Short-run Aggregate Supply Curve Consumer Borrowing Consumer Expectations about the Future Consumer Wealth Cost-Push Inflation Demand-Pull Inflation Deriving Aggregate Demand Domestic Input Availability
15 Lesson 8 - ECO 151- Master.nb 15 Dynamic Model Equilibrium Exchange Rates Foreign Purchases Effect Full Employment Government Regulations Government Spending Immediate Short-run Aggregate Supply Curve Interest Rate Interest Rate Effect Intermediate Short-run Aggregate Supply Curve International Effect Keynesian Short-run Aggregate Supply Curve Level of Full Employment Long-run Aggregate Supply Curve LRAS Macroeconomic Equilibrium Multiplier Effect One-Period Model Potentail GDP Ratchet Effect Real Balances Real Balances Effect Recessions Resource Supplier s Market Power Shifts in Long-run Aggregate Supply Short-run Aggregate Supply Curve Slow Economic Growth SRAS Static Model Subsidies Summary of Aggregate Demand Shifters Summary of Short-run Aggregate Supply Shifts Supply Shocks Taxes Technological Improvments Two-Period Model Wealth Effect 2013 by Brigham Young University-Idaho. All rights reserved.
Chapter 13. Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Analysis Instructor: JINKOOK LEE Department of Economics / Texas A&M University ECON 203 502 Principles of Macroeconomics In the short run, real GDP and
15 In this chapter, look for the answers to these questions: What are economic fluctuations? What are their characteristics? How does the model of demand and explain economic fluctuations? Why does the
CHAPTER 7: AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY Learning goals of this chapter: What forces bring persistent and rapid expansion of real GDP? What causes inflation? Why do we have business cycles? How
The AD-AS Model The Aggregate Demand- Aggregate Supply (AD-AS) Model Chapter 9 The AD-AS Model addresses two deficiencies of the AE Model: No explicit modeling of aggregate supply. Fixed price level. 2
The Circular Flow of Income and Expenditure Imports HOUSEHOLDS Savings Taxation Govt Exp OTHER ECONOMIES GOVERNMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS Factor Incomes Taxation Govt Exp Consumer Exp Exports FIRMS Capital
University of California-Davis Economics 1B-Intro to Macro Handout 8 TA: Jason Lee Email: firstname.lastname@example.org I. Introduction to Aggregate Demand/Aggregate Supply Model In this chapter we develop a model
Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Ing. Mansoor Maitah Ph.D. et Ph.D. Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Economic fluctuations, also called business cycles, are movements of GDP away from potential
LECTURE NOTES ON MACROECONOMIC PRINCIPLES Peter Ireland Department of Economics Boston College email@example.com http://www2.bc.edu/peter-ireland/ec132.html Copyright (c) 2013 by Peter Ireland. Redistribution
Lesson 7 - The Aggregate Expenditure Model Acknowledgement: Ed Sexton and Kerry Webb were the primary authors of the material contained in this lesson. Section : The Aggregate Expenditures Model Aggregate
Pre-Test Chapter 10 ed17 Multiple Choice Questions 1. Refer to the above diagrams. Assuming a constant price level, an increase in aggregate expenditures from AE 1 to AE 2 would: A. move the economy from
Chapter 7 AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND AGGREGATE DEMAND* Key Concepts Aggregate Supply The aggregate production function shows that the quantity of real GDP (Y ) supplied depends on the quantity of labor (L ),
Economics 152 Solution to Sample Midterm 2 N. Das PART 1 (84 POINTS): Answer the following 28 multiple choice questions on the scan sheet. Each question is worth 3 points. 1. If Congress passes legislation
33 Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply R I N C I L E S O F ECONOMICS FOURTH EDITION N. GREGOR MANKIW Long run v.s. short run Long run growth: what determines long-run output (and the related employment
THE OPEN AGGREGATE DEMAND AGGREGATE SUPPLY MODEL. Introduction. This model represents the workings of the economy as the interaction between two curves: - The AD curve, showing the relationship between
ECON 3312 Macroeconomics Exam 3 Fall 2014 Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Everything else held constant, an increase in net
Chapter 17 1. Inflation can be measured by the a. change in the consumer price index. b. percentage change in the consumer price index. c. percentage change in the price of a specific commodity. d. change
CONCEPT OF MACROECONOMICS Macroeconomics is the branch of economics that studies economic aggregates (grand totals):e.g. the overall level of prices, output and employment in the economy. If you want to
Econ 202 Final Exam 1. If inflation expectations rise, the short-run Phillips curve shifts a. right, so that at any inflation rate unemployment is higher. b. left, so that at any inflation rate unemployment
Macroeconomics ECON 2204 Prof. Murphy Problem Set 4 Answers Chapter 10 #1, 2, and 3 (on pages 308-309) 1. a. Interest-bearing checking accounts make holding money more attractive. This increases the demand
Agenda What is a Business Cycle? Business Cycles.. 11-1 11-2 Business cycles are the short-run fluctuations in aggregate economic activity around its long-run growth path. Y Time 11-3 11-4 1 Components
1 Objectives for Chapter 9 Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply At the end of Chapter 9, you will be able to answer the following: 1. Explain what is meant by aggregate demand? 2. Name the four categories
CH 10 - REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. The short-run aggregate supply curve is horizontal at: A) a level of output determined by aggregate demand. B) the natural level of output. C) the level of output at which the
BADM 527, Fall 2013 Name: Midterm Exam 2 November 7, 2013 Multiple Choice: 3 points each. Answer the questions on the separate bubble sheet. NAME 1. According to classical theory, national income (Real
Chapter 12 Unemployment and Inflation Multiple Choice Questions 1. The origin of the idea of a trade-off between inflation and unemployment was a 1958 article by (a) A.W. Phillips. (b) Edmund Phelps. (c)
KrugmanMacro_SM_Ch14.qxp 10/27/05 3:25 PM Page 165 Monetary Policy 1. Go to the FOMC page of the Federal Reserve Board s website (http://www. federalreserve.gov/fomc/) to find the statement issued after
2 0 0 0 E D I T I O N CLEP O F F I C I A L S T U D Y G U I D E College Level Examination Program The College Board Principles of Macroeconomics Description of the Examination The Subject Examination in
Pre-Test Chapter 11 ed17 Multiple Choice Questions 1. Built-in stability means that: A. an annually balanced budget will offset the procyclical tendencies created by state and local finance and thereby
roblem Set #4: Aggregate Supply and Aggregate Demand Econ 100B: Intermediate Macroeconomics 1) Explain the differences between demand-pull inflation and cost-push inflation. Demand-pull inflation results
The Fiscal Policy and The Monetary Policy Ing. Mansoor Maitah Ph.D. Government in the Economy The Government and Fiscal Policy Fiscal Policy changes in taxes and spending that affect the level of GDP to
Econ 111 Summer 2007 Final Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The classical dichotomy allows us to explore economic growth
Chapter 12: Gross Domestic Product and Growth Section 1 Key Terms national income accounting: a system economists use to collect and organize macroeconomic statistics on production, income, investment,
Chapter 11 MONEY, INTEREST, REAL GDP, AND THE PRICE LEVEL* The Demand for Topic: Influences on Holding 1) The quantity of money that people choose to hold depends on which of the following? I. The price
Chapter 12 Monetary Policy and the Phillips Curve By Charles I. Jones Media Slides Created By Dave Brown Penn State University The short-run model summary: Through the MP curve the nominal interest rate
Government Budget and Fiscal Policy 11 CHAPTER The National Budget The national budget is the annual statement of the government s expenditures and tax revenues. Fiscal policy is the use of the federal
Economics 101 Multiple Choice Questions for Final Examination Miller PLEASE DO NOT WRITE ON THIS EXAMINATION FORM. 1. Which of the following statements is correct? a. Real GDP is the total market value
Chapter 30 Fiscal Policy, Deficits, and Debt QUESTIONS 1. What is the role of the Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) as it relates to fiscal policy? Use an Internet search to find the names and university
EC2105, Professor Laury EXAM 2, FORM A (3/13/02) Print Your Name: ID Number: Multiple Choice (32 questions, 2.5 points each; 80 points total). Clearly indicate (by circling) the ONE BEST response to each
26 Aggregate Supply and Aggregate Demand Learning Objectives Explain what determines aggregate supply Explain what determines aggregate demand Explain what determines real GDP and the price level and how
Practiced Questions Chapter 20 1. The model of aggregate demand and aggregate supply a. is different from the model of supply and demand for a particular market, in that we cannot focus on the substitution
Chapter 11 Keynesianism: The Macroeconomics of Wage and Price Rigidity Chapter Outline Real-Wage Rigidity Price Stickiness Monetary and Fiscal Policy in the Keynesian 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights
Fill in the Blanks. Module 1 S.Y.B.COM. (SEM-III) ECONOMICS 1. The continuous flow of money and goods and services between firms and households is called the Circular Flow. 2. Saving constitute a leakage
Chapter 7: Classical-Keynesian Controversy John Petroff The purpose of this topic is show two alternative views of the business cycle and the major problems of unemployment and inflation. The classical
Name: _ Days/Times Class Meets: Today s Date: Macroeconomics, Fall 2007 Exam 3, TTh classes, various versions Read these Instructions carefully! You must follow them exactly! I) On your Scantron card you
SHORT-RUN FLUCTUATIONS David Romer University of California, Berkeley First version: August 1999 This revision: January 2012 Copyright 2012 by David Romer CONTENTS Preface vi I The IS-MP Model 1 I-1 Monetary
Chapter 18 MODERN PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS Third Edition Fiscal Policy Outline Fiscal Policy: The Best Case The Limits to Fiscal Policy When Fiscal Policy Might Make Matters Worse So When Is Fiscal Policy
Chapter 12. Aggregate Expenditure and Output in the Short Run Instructor: JINKOOK LEE Department of Economics / Texas A&M University ECON 203 502 Principles of Macroeconomics Aggregate Expenditure (AE)
10 MEASURING A NATION S INCOME WHAT S NEW IN THE FIFTH EDITION: There is more clarification on the GDP deflator. The Case Study on Who Wins at the Olympics? is now an FYI box. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: By the
Economics 2 Spring 2016 Professor Christina Romer Professor David Romer LECTURE 17 MACROECONOMIC VARIABLES AND ISSUES March 17, 2016 I. MACROECONOMICS VERSUS MICROECONOMICS II. REAL GDP A. Definition B.
Chapter 13, Business Cycles, and Macroeconomic Policy in the Open Economy Chapter Outline How Are Determined: A Supply-and-Demand Analysis The IS-LM Model for an Open Economy Macroeconomic Policy in an
2.5 Monetary policy: Interest rates Learning Outcomes Describe the role of central banks as regulators of commercial banks and bankers to governments. Explain that central banks are usually made responsible
Introduction to Macroeconomics 1012 Final Exam Spring 2013 Instructor: Elsie Sawatzky Name Time: 2 hours Marks: 80 Multiple choice questions 1 mark each and a choice of 2 out of 3 short answer question
7 The labour market, I: real wages, productivity and unemployment 7.1 INTRODUCTION Since the 1970s one of the major issues in macroeconomics has been the extent to which low output and high unemployment
Exchange rates are a confusing concept despite the fact that we have to deal with exchange rates whenever we travel abroad. The handout will tackle the common misconceptions with exchange rates and simplify
Douglas, Fall 2009 December 15, 2009 A: Special Code 00004 PLEDGE: I have neither given nor received unauthorized help on this exam. SIGNED: PRINT NAME: Econ 202 Section 4 Final Exam 1. Oceania buys $40
Macroeconomics Revision Essay Plan (2): Inflation and Unemployment and Economic Policy (a) Explain why it is considered important to control inflation (20 marks) (b) Discuss how a government s commitment
Economics 101 Quiz #1 Fall 2002 1. Assume that there are two goods, A and B. In 1996, Americans produced 20 units of A at a price of $10 and 40 units of B at a price of $50. In 2002, Americans produced
Chapter 3 EXPENDITURE MULTIPLIERS: THE KEYNESIAN MODEL* Key Concepts Fixed Prices and Expenditure Plans In the very short run, firms do not change their prices and they sell the amount that is demanded.
Econ 303: Intermediate Macroeconomics I Dr. Sauer Sample Questions for Exam #3 1. When firms experience unplanned inventory accumulation, they typically: A) build new plants. B) lay off workers and reduce
Name: Date: 1 A measure of how fast prices are rising is called the: A growth rate of real GDP B inflation rate C unemployment rate D market-clearing rate 2 Compared with a recession, real GDP during a
Lecture 11-1 6.1 The open economy, the multiplier, and the IS curve Assume that the economy is either closed (no foreign trade) or open. Assume that the exchange rates are either fixed or flexible. Assume
1. Leading economic indicators are: A) the most popular economic statistics. B) data that are used to construct the consumer price index and the unemployment rate. C) variables that tend to fluctuate in
Using Policy to Stabilize the Economy Since the Employment ct of 1946, economic stabilization has been a goal of U.S. policy. Economists debate how active a role the govt should take to stabilize the economy.
The Short-Run Macro Model In the short run, spending depends on income, and income depends on spending. The Short-Run Macro Model Short-Run Macro Model A macroeconomic model that explains how changes in
1.The aggregate demand curve shows the relationship between inflation and: A) the nominal interest rate. D) the exchange rate. B) the real interest rate. E) short-run equilibrium output. C) the unemployment
APPENDIX 3 TO CHAPTER 4 Supply and Demand in the arket for oney: The Liquidity Preference Framework Whereas the loanable funds framework determines the equilibrium interest rate using the supply of and
3 Macroeconomics LESSON 8 Fiscal Policy Introduction and Description Fiscal policy is one of the two demand management policies available to policy makers. Government expenditures and the level and type
AP Macroeconomics Study Guide Version 1.00 Created by Charles Feng I. Basic Economic Concepts Economic Goals 1. Economic growth produce more and better goods and services 2. Full employment suitable jobs
1 Econ 302 Intermediate Macroeconomics Chul-Woo Kwon Ch.6 Aggregate Supply, Wages, rices, and Unemployment I. Introduction A. The dynamic changes of and the price adjustment B. Link between the price change
Econ 336 - Spring 2007 Homework 5 Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The real exchange rate, q, is defined as A) E times P B)
Chapter 11 Keynesianism: The Macroeconomics of Wage and Price Rigidity Chapter Outline Real-Wage Rigidity Price Stickiness Monetary and Fiscal Policy in the Keynesian Model The Keynesian Theory of Business
Chapter 12: Aggregate Supply and Phillips Curve In this chapter we explain the position and slope of the short run aggregate supply (SRAS) curve. SRAS curve can also be relabeled as Phillips curve. A basic
Part I. True/False/Uncertain Justify your answer with a short argument. 14.02 Principles of Macroeconomics Problem Set 1 Fall 2005 ***Solution*** Posted: Monday, September 12, 2005 Due: Wednesday, September
THE ECONOMY AT 29 FULL EMPLOYMENT CHAPTER Objectives After studying this chapter, you will able to Describe the relationship between the quantity of labour employed and real GDP Explain what determines
Agenda The IS-LM/AD-AS Model: A General Framework for Macroeconomic Analysis, art 3 rice Adjustment and the Attainment of General Equilibrium 13-1 13-2 General equilibrium in the AD-AS model Disequilibrium
ECON 410.502 Macroeconomic Theory Spring 2010 Instructor: Guangyi Ma Extra Problems #3 Notice: (1) There are 25 multiple-choice problems covering Chapter 6, 9, 10, 11. These problems are not homework and
Macroeconomics ECON 2204 Prof. Murphy Problem Set 2 Answers Chapter 4 #2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 9 (on pages 102-103) 2. a. When the Fed buys bonds, the dollars that it pays to the public for the bonds increase
CHAPTER 20 Aggregate Demand and Supply A s explained in the previous two chapters, before British economist John Maynard Keynes, classical economic theory argued that the economy would bounce back to full