1. Various shocks on a small open economy

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "1. Various shocks on a small open economy"

Transcription

1 Problem Set 3 Econ 122a: Fall 2013 Prof. Nordhaus and Staff Due: In class, Wednesday, September 25 Problem Set 3 Solutions Sebastian is responsible for this answer sheet. If you have any questions about the solutions, please him at ==================================================================== 1. Various shocks on a small open economy Assume for the purpose of this question that the United States is a small classical open economy (Mankiw ). Use the model in Chapter 6 to predict what would happen to the US trade balance (NX) in response to the following events: a. Wages in developing countries exporting to the U.S. rise sharply. Net exports unchanged. We assume that the U.S. is importing labor-intensive products from developing countries. An increase in foreign wages will make these products more expensive, leading the U.S. to reduce its imports from the developing countries. Since neither domestic savings nor domestic investments change, the S-I schedule stays unchanged and the real exchange rate appreciates to offset the reduced demand for foreign goods. This causes exports to decline, and overall net exports stay unchanged. See diagram. b. Americans decide that they want to reduce their carbon footprint and reduce their consumption sharply. Net exports increase. The reduction in consumption leads to an increase in domestic savings, since S = Y C G. This increases net exports. Intuitively, the country doesn t need to borrow as much from abroad and therefore imports less, or can lend more to foreigners and exports more. The figure illustrates the case where consumption falls so much that net exports become positive. 1

2 Note also that the real exchange rate depreciates, making domestic goods cheaper relative to foreign goods and supporting the expansion of exports. c. The Congress puts a large tariff on imports from developing countries to punish countries with low wages and to reduce the trade deficit. Net exports unchanged. The tariff reduces imports from foreign countries, since their products are now more expensive. This sets in motion the same mechanism as in part a., and net exports remain unchanged. d. The US Congress cuts federal military purchases to reduce the budget deficit. Net exports increase. The reduction in military purchases leads to a fall in government spending, G, and hence an increase in domestic savings. As illustrated in part b., this implies an increase in net exports. As before, the real exchange rate falls. 2. Lilliputian economics Lilliputia is a small open economy, described by the following set of equations: Y = C + I + G + NX Y = 5000, G = 1000, T = 1000 C = (Y-T) I = r NX = R r = r* = 5% per year In these equations, R is the real exchange rate, and r* is the world interest rate. Suppose that a large number of foreign countries begin to subsidize investment, but Lilliputia does not institute such an investment subsidy. 2

3 a. Solve for Lilliputia s national saving, investment, the trade balance, and the equilibrium exchange rate before the investment subsidy. We have that C = ( ) = Then national saving is S = Y C G = = 750. Investment is I = *5 = 750. It follows that NX = S I = 0. The real exchange rate is therefore R = 1. b. How will the investment subsidy of the foreign countries influence foreign countries investment demand function (as a function of the interest rate)? What happens to the world interest rate? Draw a hypothetical world supply and demand for savings and investment. The investment subsidy will increase the foreign countries investment at any interest rate. Therefore, the investment curve in the S-I diagram for the world shifts upward. This is illustrated in the diagram. Since the world supply of savings is assumed fixed, the subsidy will just lead to an increase in the world interest rate to r**. Note that r* would also increase if we assumed that savings were not perfectly inelastic (i.e., the savings curve is not vertical, but with finite positive slope). In that case investment and savings expand, and so the rise in r* would not be as large as in the perfectly inelastic case. c. Assume that as a result of the investment subsidies, r* rises to 10%. How is investment in Lilliputia affected by this change in the world interest rate? Investment is now I = *10 = 500. Intuitively, investment has declined because firm now have to pay higher interest rates to finance their projects. d. What happens to Lilliputia s trade balance (NX) and the real exchange rate (R) after the investment subsidies? Interpret. Assuming that S did not change, we now have NX = S I = = 250. Thus, Lilliputia is now running a trade surplus. Its excess savings are exported (capital exports), and are used to finance other countries imports of Lilliputia s goods. Since the supply of Lilliputia s currency has increased, the real exchange rate depreciates to R =

4 3. A large open economy prepares for war (You will need to study the Appendix to Chapter 6 for this question.) We now realistically assume that the US is a large classical open economy. It faces the prospect of military conflict. For each of these events, describe the effect on the US national savings, domestic investment, the trade balance, the US interest rate, and the exchange rate of the dollar. To keep things simple, consider each of the following effects separately. a. Negotiations in the Mideast break down. The US, fearing it may need to engage in prolonged hostilities, increases its purchases of military equipment. Government expenditures G increase. This lowers US national savings since S = Y C G. Reduced savings lead to excess demand in the market for loanable funds and raise the US interest rate to equilibrate supply and demand. Higher interest rates mean that domestic investments fall, and furthermore the net flow of capital to other countries declines. Consequently foreign countries receive less US currency and the dollar appreciates. Net exports fall. See diagram. b. Other countries worry about their own security. As a result, they increase their purchases of high-technology weapons, which are a major export of the United States. Foreign governments increase their expenditures, leading them to reduce government savings. This leads to excess demand for savings abroad and raises the foreign interest rate. The rise in the foreign interest rate increases the net flow of capital, which means that less capital is available domestically. This raises the domestic interest rate. Domestic investment falls, but this fall just mitigates the interest rate rise and is not enough to offset it. Domestic savings are unaffected. The net outflows of capital increase the supply of dollars, which depreciates the real exchange rate. Net exports increase. c. The prospect of war frightens US consumers, and they increase their savings rate in response. 4

5 The mechanics are just the reverse as in part a. The domestic savings rate increases. This leads to an excess supply of savings and reduces the domestic interest rate. Therefore, domestic investment and the net flow of capital to other countries increase. This reduces the real exchange rate and raises net exports. d. Investors around the world also get frightened and move massive quantities of their financial portfolios into good old safe US Treasury securities. The capital inflows lead to a reduction of the net flow of capital (CF). This increases the supply of capital in the US and depresses the domestic interest rate. Note that while this in turn tends to raise capital outflows again, this is only a partial effect and therefore the net flow of capital still falls. Domestic savings remain unchanged, while the decline in the interest rate raises domestic investment. The reduced level of capital outflows lowers the supply of US dollars and appreciates the foreign exchange rate, which reduces net exports. 5

dr Bartłomiej Rokicki Chair of Macroeconomics and International Trade Theory Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw

dr Bartłomiej Rokicki Chair of Macroeconomics and International Trade Theory Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw Chair of Macroeconomics and International Trade Theory Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw The small open economy The small open economy is an economy that is small enough compared to the

More information

3. a. If all money is held as currency, then the money supply is equal to the monetary base. The money supply will be $1,000.

3. a. If all money is held as currency, then the money supply is equal to the monetary base. The money supply will be $1,000. Macroeconomics ECON 2204 Prof. Murphy Problem Set 2 Answers Chapter 4 #2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 9 (on pages 102-103) 2. a. When the Fed buys bonds, the dollars that it pays to the public for the bonds increase

More information

1. a. Interest-bearing checking accounts make holding money more attractive. This increases the demand for money.

1. a. Interest-bearing checking accounts make holding money more attractive. This increases the demand for money. Macroeconomics ECON 2204 Prof. Murphy Problem Set 4 Answers Chapter 10 #1, 2, and 3 (on pages 308-309) 1. a. Interest-bearing checking accounts make holding money more attractive. This increases the demand

More information

Agenda. Saving and Investment in the Open Economy. Balance of Payments Accounts. Balance of Payments Accounting. Balance of Payments Accounting.

Agenda. Saving and Investment in the Open Economy. Balance of Payments Accounts. Balance of Payments Accounting. Balance of Payments Accounting. Agenda. Saving and Investment in the Open Economy Goods Market Equilibrium in an Open Economy. Saving and Investment in a Small Open Economy. Saving and Investment in a Large Open Economy. 7-1 7-2 Balance

More information

1) Explain why each of the following statements is true. Discuss the impact of monetary and fiscal policy in each of these special cases:

1) Explain why each of the following statements is true. Discuss the impact of monetary and fiscal policy in each of these special cases: 1) Explain why each of the following statements is true. Discuss the impact of monetary and fiscal policy in each of these special cases: a) If investment does not depend on the interest rate, the IS curve

More information

Econ 202 Section 2 Final Exam

Econ 202 Section 2 Final Exam Douglas, Fall 2009 December 17, 2009 A: Special Code 0000 PLEDGE: I have neither given nor received unauthorized help on this exam. SIGNED: PRINT NAME: Econ 202 Section 2 Final Exam 1. The present value

More information

Econ 202 Final Exam. Table 3-1 Labor Hours Needed to Make 1 Pound of: Meat Potatoes Farmer 8 2 Rancher 4 5

Econ 202 Final Exam. Table 3-1 Labor Hours Needed to Make 1 Pound of: Meat Potatoes Farmer 8 2 Rancher 4 5 Econ 202 Final Exam 1. If inflation expectations rise, the short-run Phillips curve shifts a. right, so that at any inflation rate unemployment is higher. b. left, so that at any inflation rate unemployment

More information

Ch. 38 Practice MC 1. In international financial transactions, what are the only two things that individuals and firms can exchange? A.

Ch. 38 Practice MC 1. In international financial transactions, what are the only two things that individuals and firms can exchange? A. Ch. 38 Practice MC 1. In international financial transactions, what are the only two things that individuals and firms can exchange? A. Currency and real assets. B. Services and manufactured goods. C.

More information

Econ 102 The Open Economy

Econ 102 The Open Economy Winter 2007 Econ 102 The Open Economy 1. Be sure to read your copy of the Wall Street Journal every weekday, looking especially for items related to the material in this course. Find an article in this

More information

7. Which of the following is not an important stock exchange in the United States? a. New York Stock Exchange

7. Which of the following is not an important stock exchange in the United States? a. New York Stock Exchange Econ 20B- Additional Problem Set 4 I. MULTIPLE CHOICES. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement to answer the question. 1. Institutions in the economy that help to match one person's

More information

Thank You for Attention

Thank You for Attention Thank You for Attention Explain how the foreign exchange market works. Examine the forces that determine exchange rates. Consider whether it is possible to predict future rates movements. Map the business

More information

CHAPTER 15 EXCHANGE-RATE ADJUSTMENTS AND THE BALANCE OF PAYMENTS

CHAPTER 15 EXCHANGE-RATE ADJUSTMENTS AND THE BALANCE OF PAYMENTS CHAPTER 15 EXCHANGE-RATE ADJUSTMENTS AND THE BALANCE OF PAYMENTS MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. According to the absorption approach, the economic circumstances that best warrant a currency devaluation is

More information

Econ 202 Section 4 Final Exam

Econ 202 Section 4 Final Exam Douglas, Fall 2009 December 15, 2009 A: Special Code 00004 PLEDGE: I have neither given nor received unauthorized help on this exam. SIGNED: PRINT NAME: Econ 202 Section 4 Final Exam 1. Oceania buys $40

More information

Practice Problems on Current Account

Practice Problems on Current Account Practice Problems on Current Account 1- List de categories of credit items and debit items that appear in a country s current account. What is the current account balance? What is the relationship between

More information

0 100 200 300 Real income (Y)

0 100 200 300 Real income (Y) Lecture 11-1 6.1 The open economy, the multiplier, and the IS curve Assume that the economy is either closed (no foreign trade) or open. Assume that the exchange rates are either fixed or flexible. Assume

More information

Pre-Test Chapter 11 ed17

Pre-Test Chapter 11 ed17 Pre-Test Chapter 11 ed17 Multiple Choice Questions 1. Built-in stability means that: A. an annually balanced budget will offset the procyclical tendencies created by state and local finance and thereby

More information

1 Multiple Choice - 50 Points

1 Multiple Choice - 50 Points Econ 201 Final Winter 2008 SOLUTIONS 1 Multiple Choice - 50 Points (In this section each question is worth 1 point) 1. Suppose a waiter deposits his cash tips into his savings account. As a result of only

More information

Pre-Test Chapter 10 ed17

Pre-Test Chapter 10 ed17 Pre-Test Chapter 10 ed17 Multiple Choice Questions 1. Refer to the above diagrams. Assuming a constant price level, an increase in aggregate expenditures from AE 1 to AE 2 would: A. move the economy from

More information

CHAPTER 14 BALANCE-OF-PAYMENTS ADJUSTMENTS UNDER FIXED EXCHANGE RATES

CHAPTER 14 BALANCE-OF-PAYMENTS ADJUSTMENTS UNDER FIXED EXCHANGE RATES CHAPTER 14 BALANCE-OF-PAYMENTS ADJUSTMENTS UNDER FIXED EXCHANGE RATES MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Which of the following does not represent an automatic adjustment in balance-of-payments disequilibrium?

More information

Refer to Figure 17-1

Refer to Figure 17-1 Chapter 17 1. Inflation can be measured by the a. change in the consumer price index. b. percentage change in the consumer price index. c. percentage change in the price of a specific commodity. d. change

More information

The level of price and inflation Real GDP: the values of goods and services measured using a constant set of prices

The level of price and inflation Real GDP: the values of goods and services measured using a constant set of prices Chapter 2: Key Macroeconomics Variables ECON2 (Spring 20) 2 & 4.3.20 (Tutorial ) National income accounting Gross domestic product (GDP): The market value of all final goods and services produced within

More information

Midterm Exam I: Answer Sheet

Midterm Exam I: Answer Sheet Econ 434 Professor Ickes Fall 2001 Midterm Exam I: Answer Sheet 1. (20%) Suppose that I have a short position in yen and I wish to hedge my currency risk over the next three months. Carefully explain how

More information

What three main functions do they have? Reducing transaction costs, reducing financial risk, providing liquidity

What three main functions do they have? Reducing transaction costs, reducing financial risk, providing liquidity Unit 4 Test Review KEY Savings, Investment and the Financial System 1. What is a financial intermediary? Explain how each of the following fulfills that role: Financial Intermediary: Transforms funds into

More information

Economics 380: International Economics Fall 2000 Exam #2 100 Points

Economics 380: International Economics Fall 2000 Exam #2 100 Points Economics 380: International Economics Fall 2000 Exam #2 100 Points Name (ID) YOU SHOULD HAVE 7 PAGES FOR THIS EXAM. EXAM WILL END AT 1:50. MAKE SURE YOUR NAME IS ON THE FIRST AND LAST PAGE OF THE EXAM.

More information

13 EXPENDITURE MULTIPLIERS: THE KEYNESIAN MODEL* Chapter. Key Concepts

13 EXPENDITURE MULTIPLIERS: THE KEYNESIAN MODEL* Chapter. Key Concepts Chapter 3 EXPENDITURE MULTIPLIERS: THE KEYNESIAN MODEL* Key Concepts Fixed Prices and Expenditure Plans In the very short run, firms do not change their prices and they sell the amount that is demanded.

More information

PRACTICE- Unit 6 AP Economics

PRACTICE- Unit 6 AP Economics PRACTICE- Unit 6 AP Economics Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The term liquid asset means: A. that the asset is used in a barter exchange.

More information

LECTURE NOTES ON MACROECONOMIC PRINCIPLES

LECTURE NOTES ON MACROECONOMIC PRINCIPLES LECTURE NOTES ON MACROECONOMIC PRINCIPLES Peter Ireland Department of Economics Boston College peter.ireland@bc.edu http://www2.bc.edu/peter-ireland/ec132.html Copyright (c) 2013 by Peter Ireland. Redistribution

More information

These are some practice questions for CHAPTER 23. Each question should have a single answer. But be careful. There may be errors in the answer key!

These are some practice questions for CHAPTER 23. Each question should have a single answer. But be careful. There may be errors in the answer key! These are some practice questions for CHAPTER 23. Each question should have a single answer. But be careful. There may be errors in the answer key! 67. Public saving is equal to a. net tax revenues minus

More information

The Open Economy. Nominal Exchange Rates. Chapter 10. Exchange Rates, Business Cycles, and Macroeconomic Policy in the Open Economy

The Open Economy. Nominal Exchange Rates. Chapter 10. Exchange Rates, Business Cycles, and Macroeconomic Policy in the Open Economy Chapter 10 Exchange Rates, Business Cycles, and Macroeconomic Policy in the Open Economy Economics 282 University of Alberta The Open Economy Two aspects of the interdependence of the world economies:

More information

Savings, Investment Spending, and the Financial System

Savings, Investment Spending, and the Financial System Savings, Investment Spending, and the Financial System 1. Given the following information about the closed economy of Brittania, what is the level of investment spending and private savings, and what is

More information

Economics 152 Solution to Sample Midterm 2

Economics 152 Solution to Sample Midterm 2 Economics 152 Solution to Sample Midterm 2 N. Das PART 1 (84 POINTS): Answer the following 28 multiple choice questions on the scan sheet. Each question is worth 3 points. 1. If Congress passes legislation

More information

Agenda. Saving and Investment in the Open Economy, Part 2. Globalization and the U.S. economy. Globalization and the U.S. economy

Agenda. Saving and Investment in the Open Economy, Part 2. Globalization and the U.S. economy. Globalization and the U.S. economy Agenda Globalization and the U.S. Economy Saving and Investment in the Open Economy, Part 2 Saving and Investment in Large Open Economies (LOE) The U.S. Current Account Deficit Fiscal Policy and the Current

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Chatper 34 International Finance - Test Bank MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The currency used to buy imported goods is A) the

More information

Practice Problems on the Capital Market

Practice Problems on the Capital Market Practice Problems on the Capital Market 1- Define marginal product of capital (i.e., MPK). How can the MPK be shown graphically? The marginal product of capital (MPK) is the output produced per unit of

More information

Econ 102 Aggregate Supply and Demand

Econ 102 Aggregate Supply and Demand Econ 102 ggregate Supply and Demand 1. s on previous homework assignments, turn in a news article together with your summary and explanation of why it is relevant to this week s topic, ggregate Supply

More information

Econ 202 Final Exam. Douglas, Fall 2007 Version A Special Codes 00000. PLEDGE: I have neither given nor received unauthorized help on this exam.

Econ 202 Final Exam. Douglas, Fall 2007 Version A Special Codes 00000. PLEDGE: I have neither given nor received unauthorized help on this exam. , Fall 2007 Version A Special Codes 00000 PLEDGE: I have neither given nor received unauthorized help on this exam. SIGNED: PRINT NAME: Econ 202 Final Exam 1. On average over the past 50 years, the U.S.

More information

Econ 202 H01 Final Exam Spring 2005

Econ 202 H01 Final Exam Spring 2005 Econ202Final Spring 2005 1 Econ 202 H01 Final Exam Spring 2005 1. Which of the following tends to reduce the size of a shift in aggregate demand? a. the multiplier effect b. the crowding-out effect c.

More information

2.5 Monetary policy: Interest rates

2.5 Monetary policy: Interest rates 2.5 Monetary policy: Interest rates Learning Outcomes Describe the role of central banks as regulators of commercial banks and bankers to governments. Explain that central banks are usually made responsible

More information

Part A: Use the income identities to find what U.S. private business investment, I, was in 2004. Show your work.

Part A: Use the income identities to find what U.S. private business investment, I, was in 2004. Show your work. Exercise 1 Due: Preliminary figures (in billions of dollars) for 2004 taken from the 2005 Economic Report of the President showed that: Y = 11,728.0, C = 8,231.1, EX = 1,170.2, IM = 1,779.6, G = 2,183.8

More information

CHAPTER 32 EXCHANGE RATES, BALANCE OF PAYMENTS, AND INTERNATIONAL DEBT

CHAPTER 32 EXCHANGE RATES, BALANCE OF PAYMENTS, AND INTERNATIONAL DEBT CHAPTER 32 EXCHANGE RATES, BALANCE OF PAYMENTS, AND INTERNATIONAL DEBT Chapter in a Nutshell Along with the flows of goods and services being traded between countries, there are corresponding flows of

More information

a) Aggregate Demand (AD) and Aggregate Supply (AS) analysis

a) Aggregate Demand (AD) and Aggregate Supply (AS) analysis a) Aggregate Demand (AD) and Aggregate Supply (AS) analysis Determinants of AD: Aggregate demand is the total demand in the economy. It measures spending on goods and services by consumers, firms, the

More information

AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY The Influence of Monetary and Fiscal Policy on Aggregate Demand

AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY The Influence of Monetary and Fiscal Policy on Aggregate Demand AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY The Influence of Monetary and Fiscal Policy on Aggregate Demand Suppose that the economy is undergoing a recession because of a fall in aggregate demand. a. Using

More information

D) surplus; negative. 9. The law of one price is enforced by: A) governments. B) producers. C) consumers. D) arbitrageurs.

D) surplus; negative. 9. The law of one price is enforced by: A) governments. B) producers. C) consumers. D) arbitrageurs. 1. An open economy is one in which: A) the level of output is fixed. B) government spending exceeds revenues. C) the national interest rate equals the world interest rate. D) there is trade in goods and

More information

Homework #6 - Answers. Uses of Macro Policy Due April 20

Homework #6 - Answers. Uses of Macro Policy Due April 20 Page 1 of 8 Uses of Macro Policy ue April 20 Answer all questions on these sheets, adding extra sheets where necessary. 1. Suppose that the government were to increase its purchases of goods and services

More information

Econ 336 - Spring 2007 Homework 5

Econ 336 - Spring 2007 Homework 5 Econ 336 - Spring 2007 Homework 5 Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The real exchange rate, q, is defined as A) E times P B)

More information

SHORT-RUN FLUCTUATIONS. David Romer. University of California, Berkeley. First version: August 1999 This revision: January 2012

SHORT-RUN FLUCTUATIONS. David Romer. University of California, Berkeley. First version: August 1999 This revision: January 2012 SHORT-RUN FLUCTUATIONS David Romer University of California, Berkeley First version: August 1999 This revision: January 2012 Copyright 2012 by David Romer CONTENTS Preface vi I The IS-MP Model 1 I-1 Monetary

More information

Answers to Text Questions and Problems in Chapter 11

Answers to Text Questions and Problems in Chapter 11 Answers to Text Questions and Problems in Chapter 11 Answers to Review Questions 1. The aggregate demand curve relates aggregate demand (equal to short-run equilibrium output) to inflation. As inflation

More information

EC2105, Professor Laury EXAM 2, FORM A (3/13/02)

EC2105, Professor Laury EXAM 2, FORM A (3/13/02) EC2105, Professor Laury EXAM 2, FORM A (3/13/02) Print Your Name: ID Number: Multiple Choice (32 questions, 2.5 points each; 80 points total). Clearly indicate (by circling) the ONE BEST response to each

More information

. In this case the leakage effect of tax increases is mitigated because some of the reduction in disposable income would have otherwise been saved.

. In this case the leakage effect of tax increases is mitigated because some of the reduction in disposable income would have otherwise been saved. Chapter 4 Review Questions. Explain how an increase in government spending and an equal increase in lump sum taxes can generate an increase in equilibrium output. Under what conditions will a balanced

More information

1. If net capital outflow is positive, then: A. exports must be positive. B. exports must be negative.

1. If net capital outflow is positive, then: A. exports must be positive. B. exports must be negative. 1. If net capital outflow is positive, then: A. exports must be positive. B. exports must be negative. C. the trade balance mustbe positive. D. the trade balance mustbe negative. 2. In a small open economy,

More information

FLEXIBLE EXCHANGE RATES

FLEXIBLE EXCHANGE RATES FLEXIBLE EXCHANGE RATES Along with globalization has come a high degree of interdependence. Central to this is a flexible exchange rate system, where exchange rates are determined each business day by

More information

Chapter 16 THE FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKET AND TRADE ELASTICITIES

Chapter 16 THE FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKET AND TRADE ELASTICITIES Chapter 16 THE FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKET AND TRADE ELASTICITIES The model presented in Chapter 16 considers trade in goods and money. Money can be thought of as a particular type of asset that earns no nominal

More information

e) Permanent changes in monetary and fiscal policies (assume now long run price flexibility)

e) Permanent changes in monetary and fiscal policies (assume now long run price flexibility) Topic I.4 concluded: Goods and Assets Markets in the Short Run a) Aggregate demand and equilibrium b) Money and asset markets equilibrium c) Short run equilibrium of Y and E d) Temporary monetary and fiscal

More information

MONEY, INTEREST, REAL GDP, AND THE PRICE LEVEL*

MONEY, INTEREST, REAL GDP, AND THE PRICE LEVEL* Chapter 11 MONEY, INTEREST, REAL GDP, AND THE PRICE LEVEL* Key Concepts The Demand for Money Four factors influence the demand for money: The price level An increase in the price level increases the nominal

More information

Lecture 7: Savings, Investment and Government Debt

Lecture 7: Savings, Investment and Government Debt Lecture 7: Savings, Investment and Government Debt September 18, 2014 Prof. Wyatt Brooks Problem Set 1 returned Announcements Groups for in-class presentations will be announced today SAVING, INVESTMENT,

More information

This paper is not to be removed from the Examination Halls

This paper is not to be removed from the Examination Halls This paper is not to be removed from the Examination Halls UNIVERSITY OF LONDON EC2065 ZA BSc degrees and Diplomas for Graduates in Economics, Management, Finance and the Social Sciences, the Diplomas

More information

Practice Problems Mods 25, 28, 29

Practice Problems Mods 25, 28, 29 Practice Problems Mods 25, 28, 29 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Scenario 25-1 First National Bank First National Bank has $80 million in

More information

MGE#12 The Balance of Payments

MGE#12 The Balance of Payments MGE#12 The Balance of Payments The Current Account, the Capital Account and the Balance of Payments Introduction to the Foreign Exchange Market Savings, Investment and the Current Account 1 From last session

More information

Lecture 1: current account - measurement and theory

Lecture 1: current account - measurement and theory Lecture 1: current account - measurement and theory What is international finance (as opposed to international trade)? International trade: microeconomic approach (many goods and factors). How cross country

More information

International Economic Relations

International Economic Relations nswers to Problem Set #5 International conomic Relations Prof. Murphy Chapter 5 Krugman and Obstfeld. Relative PPP predicts that inflation differentials are matched by changes in the exchange rate. Under

More information

Lecture 2. Output, interest rates and exchange rates: the Mundell Fleming model.

Lecture 2. Output, interest rates and exchange rates: the Mundell Fleming model. Lecture 2. Output, interest rates and exchange rates: the Mundell Fleming model. Carlos Llano (P) & Nuria Gallego (TA) References: these slides have been developed based on the ones provided by Beatriz

More information

Macroeconomics, 10e, Global Edition (Parkin) Chapter 26 The Exchange Rate and the Balance of Payments

Macroeconomics, 10e, Global Edition (Parkin) Chapter 26 The Exchange Rate and the Balance of Payments Macroeconomics, 10e, Global Edition (Parkin) Chapter 26 The Exchange Rate and the Balance of Payments 1 The Foreign Exchange Market 1) The term "foreign currency" refers to foreign I. coins II. notes III.

More information

GOVERNMENT ECONOMIC OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES. Textbook, Chapter 26 [pg 317-328]

GOVERNMENT ECONOMIC OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES. Textbook, Chapter 26 [pg 317-328] GOVERNMENT ECONOMIC OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES Textbook, Chapter 26 [pg 317-328] Name: Class: Learning outcomes: Identify government economic objectives. Explain the main stages of the business cycle. Explain

More information

Answers to Text Questions and Problems. Chapter 22. Answers to Review Questions

Answers to Text Questions and Problems. Chapter 22. Answers to Review Questions Answers to Text Questions and Problems Chapter 22 Answers to Review Questions 3. In general, producers of durable goods are affected most by recessions while producers of nondurables (like food) and services

More information

Homework Assignment #3: Answer Sheet

Homework Assignment #3: Answer Sheet Econ 434 Professor Ickes Homework Assignment #3: Answer Sheet Fall 2009 This assignment is due on Thursday, December 10, 2009, at the beginning of class (or sooner). 1. Consider the graphical model of

More information

Lecture 10-1. The Twin Deficits

Lecture 10-1. The Twin Deficits Lecture 10-1 The Twin Deficits The IS-LM model of the previous lectures endogenised the interest rate while assuming that the portion (NX 0 ) of net exports not dependent on income was exogenously fixed.

More information

FISCAL POLICY* Chapter. Key Concepts

FISCAL POLICY* Chapter. Key Concepts Chapter 11 FISCAL POLICY* Key Concepts The Federal Budget The federal budget is an annual statement of the government s expenditures and tax revenues. Using the federal budget to achieve macroeconomic

More information

Answer: Long term, because it is more likely that you may need to sell the long-term bond at a depressed price prior to maturity.

Answer: Long term, because it is more likely that you may need to sell the long-term bond at a depressed price prior to maturity. Chapter 26 1. Fly-by-night Corporation is in need of capital funds to expand its production capacity. It is selling short- and long-term bonds and is issuing shares. You are considering the prospect of

More information

Lecture 10: Open Economy & Crises

Lecture 10: Open Economy & Crises Lecture 10: Open Economy & Crises Today Open Economy Macroeconomics Key Readings Mishkin, Cht 24, Leddin/Walsh Cht 18. Learning Outcomes Theory. Extend ISLM to account for Imports/Exports Practice. Show

More information

University of Lethbridge Department of Economics ECON 1012 Introduction to Macroeconomics Instructor: Michael G. Lanyi

University of Lethbridge Department of Economics ECON 1012 Introduction to Macroeconomics Instructor: Michael G. Lanyi University of Lethbridge Department of Economics ECON 1012 Introduction to Macroeconomics Instructor: Michael G. Lanyi CH 25 Exch Rate & BofP 1) Foreign currency is A) the market for foreign exchange.

More information

Big Concepts. Balance of Payments Accounts. Financing International Trade. Economics 202 Principles Of Macroeconomics. Lecture 12

Big Concepts. Balance of Payments Accounts. Financing International Trade. Economics 202 Principles Of Macroeconomics. Lecture 12 Economics 202 Principles Of Macroeconomics Professor Yamin Ahmad Big Concepts Balance of Payments Equilibrium The relationship between the current account, capital account and official settlements balance

More information

Business Conditions Analysis Prof. Yamin Ahmad ECON 736

Business Conditions Analysis Prof. Yamin Ahmad ECON 736 Business Conditions Analysis Prof. Yamin Ahmad ECON 736 Sample Final Exam Name Id # Instructions: There are two parts to this midterm. Part A consists of multiple choice questions. Please mark the answers

More information

3) The excess supply curve of a product we (H) import from foreign countries (F) increases as B) excess demand of country F increases.

3) The excess supply curve of a product we (H) import from foreign countries (F) increases as B) excess demand of country F increases. International Economics, 8e (Krugman) Chapter 8 The Instruments of Trade Policy 8.1 Basic Tariff Analysis 1) Specific tariffs are A) import taxes stated in specific legal statutes. B) import taxes calculated

More information

Econ 202 Section H01 Midterm 2

Econ 202 Section H01 Midterm 2 , Spring 2010 March 16, 2010 PLEDGE: I have neither given nor received unauthorized help on this exam. SIGNED: PRINT NAME: Econ 202 Section H01 Midterm 2 Multiple Choice. 2.5 points each. 1. What would

More information

Formulas for the Current Account Balance

Formulas for the Current Account Balance Formulas for the Current Account Balance By Leigh Harkness Abstract This paper uses dynamic models to explain the current account balance in a range of situations. It starts with simple economies with

More information

ANSWERS TO END-OF-CHAPTER QUESTIONS

ANSWERS TO END-OF-CHAPTER QUESTIONS ANSWERS TO END-OF-CHAPTER QUESTIONS 9-1 Explain what relationships are shown by (a) the consumption schedule, (b) the saving schedule, (c) the investment-demand curve, and (d) the investment schedule.

More information

International Economic Relations

International Economic Relations nternational conomic Relations Prof. Murphy Chapter 12 Krugman and Obstfeld 2. quation 2 can be written as CA = (S p ) + (T G). Higher U.S. barriers to imports may have little or no impact upon private

More information

Cosumnes River College Principles of Macroeconomics Problem Set 11 Will Not Be Collected

Cosumnes River College Principles of Macroeconomics Problem Set 11 Will Not Be Collected Name: Solutions Cosumnes River College Principles of Macroeconomics Problem Set 11 Will Not Be Collected Fall 2015 Prof. Dowell Instructions: This problem set will not be collected. You should still work

More information

Balance of Payments Accounting. (guidelines recommended by the IMF International Monetary Fund )

Balance of Payments Accounting. (guidelines recommended by the IMF International Monetary Fund ) Balance of Payments Accounting (guidelines recommended by the IMF International Monetary Fund ) To understand the factors that affect international trade and lending first requires basic knowledge of Balance

More information

ECON 4423: INTERNATIONAL FINANCE

ECON 4423: INTERNATIONAL FINANCE University of Colorado at Boulder Department of Economics ECON 4423: INTERNATIONAL FINANCE Final Examination Fall 2005 Name: Answer Key Student ID: Instructions: This test is 1 1/2 hours in length. You

More information

real r = nominal r inflation rate (25)

real r = nominal r inflation rate (25) 3 The price of Loanable Funds Definition 19 INTEREST RATE:(r) Charge per dollar per period that borrowers pay or lenders receive. What affects the interest rate: inflation. risk. taxes. The real interest

More information

Exercises Lecture 8: Trade policies

Exercises Lecture 8: Trade policies Exercises Lecture 8: Trade policies Exercise 1, from KOM 1. Home s demand and supply curves for wheat are: D = 100 0 S = 0 + 0 Derive and graph Home s import demand schedule. What would the price of wheat

More information

Expenditure Changing and Expenditure Switching policies. In an open economy setting, policymakers need to achieve two goals of

Expenditure Changing and Expenditure Switching policies. In an open economy setting, policymakers need to achieve two goals of World Economy Expenditure Changing 1 Expenditure Changing and Expenditure Switching policies In an open economy setting, policymakers need to achieve two goals of macroeconomic stability, viz. internal

More information

Chapter Outline. Chapter 13. Exchange Rates. Exchange Rates

Chapter Outline. Chapter 13. Exchange Rates. Exchange Rates Chapter 13, Business Cycles, and Macroeconomic Policy in the Open Economy Chapter Outline How Are Determined: A Supply-and-Demand Analysis The IS-LM Model for an Open Economy Macroeconomic Policy in an

More information

= C + I + G + NX ECON 302. Lecture 4: Aggregate Expenditures/Keynesian Model: Equilibrium in the Goods Market/Loanable Funds Market

= C + I + G + NX ECON 302. Lecture 4: Aggregate Expenditures/Keynesian Model: Equilibrium in the Goods Market/Loanable Funds Market Intermediate Macroeconomics Lecture 4: Introduction to the Goods Market Review of the Aggregate Expenditures model and the Keynesian Cross ECON 302 Professor Yamin Ahmad Components of Aggregate Demand

More information

THE OPEN AGGREGATE DEMAND AGGREGATE SUPPLY MODEL.

THE OPEN AGGREGATE DEMAND AGGREGATE SUPPLY MODEL. THE OPEN AGGREGATE DEMAND AGGREGATE SUPPLY MODEL. Introduction. This model represents the workings of the economy as the interaction between two curves: - The AD curve, showing the relationship between

More information

Name: Date: 3. Variables that a model tries to explain are called: A. endogenous. B. exogenous. C. market clearing. D. fixed.

Name: Date: 3. Variables that a model tries to explain are called: A. endogenous. B. exogenous. C. market clearing. D. fixed. Name: Date: 1 A measure of how fast prices are rising is called the: A growth rate of real GDP B inflation rate C unemployment rate D market-clearing rate 2 Compared with a recession, real GDP during a

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Econ 111 Summer 2007 Final Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The classical dichotomy allows us to explore economic growth

More information

The Fiscal Policy and The Monetary Policy. Ing. Mansoor Maitah Ph.D.

The Fiscal Policy and The Monetary Policy. Ing. Mansoor Maitah Ph.D. The Fiscal Policy and The Monetary Policy Ing. Mansoor Maitah Ph.D. Government in the Economy The Government and Fiscal Policy Fiscal Policy changes in taxes and spending that affect the level of GDP to

More information

National Income Accounting and the Balance of Payments

National Income Accounting and the Balance of Payments National Income Accounting and the Balance of Payments Graciela L. Kaminsky Department of Economics George Washington University Lecture Notes 1 Questions The US current account deficit is about 7 percent

More information

Reading the balance of payments accounts

Reading the balance of payments accounts Reading the balance of payments accounts The balance of payments refers to both: All the various payments between a country and the rest of the world The particular system of accounting we use to keep

More information

Lecture 3: Int l Finance

Lecture 3: Int l Finance Lecture 3: Int l Finance 1. Mechanics of foreign exchange a. The FOREX market b. Exchange rates c. Exchange rate determination 2. Types of exchange rate regimes a. Fixed regimes b. Floating regimes 3.

More information

QUESTION 1: SHORT VERSUS MEDIUM RUN. 30 points

QUESTION 1: SHORT VERSUS MEDIUM RUN. 30 points QUESTION 1: SHORT VERSUS MEDIUM RUN. 30 points Consider an economy that fits the AS-AD model. The labor market equilibrium is given by the AS curve. The equilibrium in the goods market is given by the

More information

Commentary: What Do Budget Deficits Do?

Commentary: What Do Budget Deficits Do? Commentary: What Do Budget Deficits Do? Allan H. Meltzer The title of Ball and Mankiw s paper asks: What Do Budget Deficits Do? One answer to that question is a restatement on the pure theory of debt-financed

More information

MGE #13 Capital mobility and interest rates

MGE #13 Capital mobility and interest rates MGE #13 Capital mobility and interest rates Loanable funds market and interest rates in the long-run Capital flows and monetary policy, with fixed exchange rates The Mexican crisis of 1994 1 From the last

More information

2 0 0 0 E D I T I O N CLEP O F F I C I A L S T U D Y G U I D E. The College Board. College Level Examination Program

2 0 0 0 E D I T I O N CLEP O F F I C I A L S T U D Y G U I D E. The College Board. College Level Examination Program 2 0 0 0 E D I T I O N CLEP O F F I C I A L S T U D Y G U I D E College Level Examination Program The College Board Principles of Macroeconomics Description of the Examination The Subject Examination in

More information

Econ 202 Final Exam. Douglas, Spring 2006 PLEDGE: I have neither given nor received unauthorized help on this exam.

Econ 202 Final Exam. Douglas, Spring 2006 PLEDGE: I have neither given nor received unauthorized help on this exam. , Spring 2006 PLEDGE: I have neither given nor received unauthorized help on this exam. SIGNED: PRINT NAME: Econ 202 Final Exam 1. When the government spends more, the initial effect is that a. aggregate

More information

Assessment Schedule 2014 Economics: Demonstrate understanding of macro-economic influences on the New Zealand economy (91403)

Assessment Schedule 2014 Economics: Demonstrate understanding of macro-economic influences on the New Zealand economy (91403) NCEA Level 3 Economics (91403) 2014 page 1 of 10 Assessment Schedule 2014 Economics: Demonstrate understanding of macro-economic influences on the New Zealand economy (91403) Assessment criteria with Merit

More information

Jacob: If there is a tax, there is a dead weight loss; why do we speak of a social gain?

Jacob: If there is a tax, there is a dead weight loss; why do we speak of a social gain? Microeconomics, sales taxes, final exam practice problems (The attached PDF file has better formatting.) *Question 1.1: Social Gain Suppose the government levies a sales tax on a good. With the sales tax,

More information