# TESTING DRY ICE IN DIFFERENT LIQUIDS. Aditya S. Cary Academy ABSTRACT

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1 TESTING DRY ICE IN DIFFERENT LIQUIDS Aditya S Cary Academy ABSTRACT The purpose of this experiment was to see how dropping dry ice into different liquids affect the mass and temperature of the dry ice. The hypothesis was that the dry ice mass would get smaller and the temperature would get warmer but still stay under freezing. The reason that this was hypothesized was because when the dry ice goes inside the other liquid the other liquid makes the dry ice warmer. The reason the mass is getting smaller is because the dry ice is sublimating into carbon dioxide through the bubbles. The method was to measure the mass and the temperature of the dry ice. Then, using tongs and gloves, drop the dry ice into the liquid and start the timer for two minutes. After two minutes take the dry ice with the tongs and measure the mass and temperature again. Record all the masses and then compare the dry ice measurements before and then after. Then use this same process for all the other liquids. The hypothesis was found to be correct for every liquid except for Sprite. After taking the dry ice out of the Sprite the temperature of the dry ice had dropped from -21 degrees Celsius to -23 degrees Celsius. This was very interesting because for every other liquid the dry ice had gotten warmer. The dry ice had lost half or more of its previous mass after being in every liquid for two minutes. The only liquids where that didn t happen were in water and Pepsi next. The reason that the dry ice didn t lose so much mass in the water was probably because water does not have sugar or sodium and similar things that could make the dry ice loose more mass. A way to improve this experiment could be to add more liquids that are similar to Sprite to see why and how the dry ice got warmer. An extension to this experiment could be to change the temperature of the liquids and see if there are different results.

2 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this experiment was to find out how the mass and temperature of the dry ice change after being dropped in different liquids like water, Coke, Fanta, etc. At first normal ice was observed. Normal ice is about 1 degree Celsius. The mass was 11.4 grams but that can change depending on the size of the ice. Ice feels a little rough and is very slippery. Normal ice tastes hard and slips around in your mouth. When it was dropped into water the ice made the water colder but mostly kept the same mass. Ice is also a little see through. Next dry ice was observed. Around and on the surface the temperature of dry ice was -10 degrees Celsius. At first the countertop was 20 degrees Celsius but then after dry ice had been on it for 5 minutes the temperature of the countertop dropped to 16 degrees Celsius. This shows the effect of dry ice. Dry ice is much whiter than normal ice and is not clear. It is also much harder and not as slippery. When dry ice is moved a little bit steam, which is really carbon dioxide, will be seen following it like a force field. Something interesting that was found was that when dry ice was left on metal or some type of smooth hard surface the dry ice started to rattle and made an interesting sound. It was as if it was shacking very fast. It would also start moving in a certain direction at a fast speed. When dry ice is dropped into water at room temperature bubbles rise from the dry ice and then a lot of carbon dioxide gas came out of the glass. And after 5 minutes almost ¾ s of the dry ice is gone turned and turned in to gas, this process is called sublimation. After one day all the dry ice had disappeared. All of the dry ice had sublimated. That is when dry ice turns from a solid to a gas directly. The dry ice that was measured was 62 grams but that varies on the size of the dry ice. Next Coke was observed. Coke is dark brown. It tastes a little sweet and fizzy. One serving of coke is 140 calories, with 39 grams of sugar. One serving of coke also has 45 milligrams of sodium. Next vinegar was observed. Vinegar is an acid and is clear. Smells very salty and tastes salty and sour. Next Fanta was observed. Fanta is an orange color. One serving of Fanta has 160 calories, 0 grams of sugar, and 55 milligrams of sodium. Next sprite was observed. Sprite is clear and has small bubbles similar to coke. But sprite has more bubbles and fizz. Sprite tastes fruity, limey, and fresh. One serving of sprite has 160 calories and 38 grams of sugar. Diet coke is brownish. One serving of Diet Coke has 0 calories and 40 grams of sodium.

3 Dry ice is something very interesting. Dry ice is frozen carbon dioxide or the solid form of carbon dioxide. Dry ice is also known as card ice. Its temperature is around F or C. But that is only the inside; on the surface of dry ice the temperature is about -30 degrees Celsius. Dry ice is used to keep things cold when mechanical freezing is not provided. It can keep things cold like food like fish and ice cream. One main reason people use dry ice to keep their stuff cold is because it doesn t make a mess when it melts. Dry ice can also be used for fog and to create smoke for special effects. Dry ice should always be handled with padded gloves because if you touch it you will get frostbite. But if you touch very briefly then your finger (or hand) will feel cold but you will not get frostbit. Frostbite is when your skin and tissue get damaged when touching or holding something extremely cold like dry ice. Dry ice doesn t melt it changes from a solid to a gas directly. When dry ice does this it is called sublimation. Dry ice sublimates when it gets warm. When you drop dry ice into water a small explosion of gas occurs. What you see is carbon dioxide in gas form. You should never try to eat or swallow dry ice because it is so cold it can burn your mouth. Also when handling dry ice you should always make sure wherever you keep dry ice is well ventilated. That is because if you don t the dry ice will explode. The reason that dry ice explodes is because the pressure builds up in the non-ventilated box and the dry ice explodes. Also you shouldn t keep dry ice in a freezer at home. Heat is formed when small groups of atoms of molecules are forced to be in motion by energy. Then they started hitting and bumping into each other which makes heat or thermal energy. Even in very cold objects like dry ice the small molecules of heat can be measured. It was hypothesized that when the dry ice is dropped in the liquids the dry ice will get smaller and the temperature will rise. MATERIALS AND METHOD Materials: Diet coke Water (deer park) Fanta

4 Sprite Coke Dry ice 500 ml beaker Tongs Temperature probe Impact goggles Gloves or mittens Triple beam balance Method: This experiment was tested to find out how the mass and temperature of dry ice change when in different liquids. First fill the beaker with 500 ml of water. Next measure the temperature of the dry ice. Measure the temperature using a temperature probe. Then measure the mass of the dry ice. Use a triple beam balance to measure the mass. Next drop the dry ice into the water for 2 minutes and observe what happens. Note everything that happens. For example if the carbon dioxide rises 2 feet in the air it should be recorded. After 2 minutes take the dry ice out of the water using gloves and tongs. Then measure the mass of the dry ice and the temperature of the dry ice. Then record all of this. Then repeat this process with all the other liquids. After conducting this experiment with every liquid compare the results of all the liquids. The dependent variable was how the mass and temperature change of the dry ice after being dropped into the liquids. The liquids were what were being changed throughout the experiment. The control was water because it is the most common liquid. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

5 Measurements Water Coke Diet coke Fanta Sprite Pepsi Next Type of liquid Temperature of dry ice before C Temperature of dry ice after C Mass of dry ice before (grams) Mass of dry ice after (grams) Figure 1 Dry ice temperature and mass There were many interesting things found when conducting this experiment. First the dry ice was measured at -10 C and 15 grams. Then it was dropped into the water for 2 minutes. There was some fizz but it didn t last for long. After taking the dry ice out of the water the mass dropped to 10 grams. The temperature had risen to -2 C. Then the dry ice was tested with Coke. The dry ice was 26 grams and was -22 C. Then the dry ice was dropped into the Coke and there was a lot of fizz and there were small white bubbles that were full of CO2 that would pop when touching oxygen and would let all the CO2. After 2 minutes the dry ice was -18 C and the mass was 11 grams. Then dry ice was tested with diet coke. The mass of the dry ice was 15 grams and -23 C. After 2 minutes in diet coke the mass of the dry ice dropped to 7 grams and the temperature rose up to -18 C. This was very similar to Coke but when dry ice was dropped in coke the mass dissolved a lot more. Then Fanta was tested. The dry ice temperature before was -20 C and the mass was 20 grams. There was a little fizz and you could smell the Fanta in the air. Next sprite was tested and the dry ice temperature was -21 C and the mass was 18 grams. The after 2 minutes the dry ice was measured and it was very surprising because the temperature of the dry ice rose to -23 C. But the mass dropped to 9 grams. The last liquid that was experimented was Pepsi Next. The mass of the dry ice before being experimented was 20 grams and the temperature was -27 C. After

6 being dropped in the Pepsi next for two minutes the dry ice temperature dropped to -4 C. That drop was the largest temperature drop in the entire experiment. CONLCUSIONS The hypothesis was confirmed for every liquid except for Sprite. Sprite did not confirm the hypothesis because the temperature of dry ice got colder and it was hypothesis that the dry ice would get warmer. The reason that the dry ice got warmer in most liquids was because the liquid was room temperature so it warmed the dry ice up. The reason that the dry ice mass got smaller after being in the liquid for 2 minutes because the dry ice sublimated in carbon dioxide. That is what caused the bubbles in the liquid and the steam around the liquid. The reason the dry ice got warmer in the sprite was maybe because the fizz in the sprite reacted with the dry ice. Something that was very interesting was that the diet coke and the normal coke had very different reactions when had dry ice. It could be because the diet coke has less sugar so maybe the sugar reacts to the dry ice more. To make this experiment better more liquids could be tested and the experiment could be performed multiple times to get a more exact answer. One way that this experiment can be extended is to warm up the liquid and then drop the dry ice in for 2 minutes and see what happens to the dry ice. Also make the liquid colder than room temperature and see what happens to the dry ice. Another way to extend this experiment is to compare the effects of dry ice in in diet coke and Mentos in diet coke. If these experiments are conducted a lot more will be learned about dry ice. REFERENCES How Stuff Works. "How Does Dry Ice Work?" HowStuffWorks. How Stuff Works, n.d. Web. 31 Jan NASA. "What Is Heat? How Is It Created?" What Is Heat? How Is It Created? NASA, n.d. Web. 31

7 "Refrigeration." Compton's by Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., Web. 28 Jan Spangler, Steve. Naked eggs and flying potatoes: unforgettable experiments that make science fun. Austin, TX: Greenleaf Book Group Press, Print. Wikipedia. "Dry ice". Wikipedia. Jan. 25, Web. 1/25/13 Helmenstine, Anne Marie. "What Is Dry Ice?" About Chemistry. About.com, Web. 31 Jan Facts at your fingertips. Matter, Energy, and Heat. Tuscan, Arizona: Brown Bear Books 2010 "ice." Compton's by Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., Web. 20 Feb

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