# Power Supplies. Overview. Measuring Electricity. Understanding Electricity. Two Types of Current. Powering the PC

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1 Overview Power Supplies Chapter 7 In this chapter, you will learn to Explain the basics of electricity Provide proper power and cooling to the PC Troubleshoot electrical problems Measuring Electricity Understanding Electricity Voltage force or pressure caused by the separation of electrons and protons Unit of measurement: Volts (V) Current the free flow of electrons in an electrical circuit Unit of measurement: Ampere (amp) When voltage (electrical pressure) is applied and there is a path, electrons flow producing current Resistance impedance or opposition to the flow of electrons: conductor=low resistance insulators=high resistance Unit of measurement: ohms (Ω) Two Types of Current Alternating Current (AC) electrical current flows in both directions; positive and negative terminals continuously trade places (polarity) Example: Electricity provided by AmerenUE Frequency at which AC electricity alternates is measured in cycles per second, or hertz (Hz) Direct Current (DC) electrical current flows in one direction; negative to positive Example: Electricity provided by batteries Powering the PC 1

2 Type of Power PCs use DC voltage but power companies supply AC voltage The power supply in a computer converts high-voltage AC power to low-voltage DC power Safety Ground Wire Safety Ground Wire prevents electrons from energizing metal parts of the computer Without grounding, severe shock and fires can occur Safety grounds are connected to the exposed metal parts of the computer s chassis Do not use ungrounded plugs in PCs AC Power In the U.S. 115 V and 60 Hz PCs may have a small switch on the back to choose 115 or 230 V (used in other countries) Hot and neutral provide the path for AC Four wires to the fuse box: Bare wire that goes to ground and not the pole Two 115-volt hot wires (black) from the pole to the fuse box Neutral wire from the pole (black or striped) House gets 230 V AC from the pole A multimeter (or Volt-Ohm meter: VOM) is used to measure: Voltage Resistance Continuity (level of resistance) When using a multimeter, you must properly set it to either AC or DC, depending on the voltage you re trying to measure Multimeter Basics Testing AC Voltage Test all of the wall outlets that the PC uses Include any peripheral devices plugged into a wall outlet Include the PC and the monitor plugs Circuit testers are available The hot should output approximately 115 V, the neutral should output approximately 0 V, and the ground should connect to ground (also approximately 0 V) Uninterruptible Power Supply An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) provides protection against a power dip or power outage Contains a battery that provides AC power to the computer Online is true protection and power conditioning battery is constantly being charged and system is running off the battery at all times Stand-by uses AC until the voltage drops enough to switch over to the battery no power conditioning and a fail-over time required All uninterrupted power supplies are measured in watts 2

3 Uninterruptible Power Supply (continued) Surge Suppressors Surge suppressors provide protection against power fluctuations Insert between the power supply and the outlet Joule is a unit of electrical energy, and the joule rating of a surge suppressor needs to be checked before purchasing one Surge suppressors with modem protection are also available The Power Supply The power supply acts as a step-down transformer converting high voltage AC into 5, 12, and 3.3 V DC PCs use a 12V current to power motors on devices such as the hard drives, and CD-ROM drives PCs use a 5-volt/3.3-volt current to support onboard electronics The Power Supply AT and ATX are the two types of power supplies that can be installed in any PC The ATX form factor motherboard, with its unique ATX power supply, dominates today s systems All power supplies share a number of common features such as the power connection, motherboard power, power switch, peripheral connections, and the fan Power Supply Power Connections The power supply connects to the power cord through a standard IEC-320 connector Each power supply must have standard AC power from the company 3

4 DC Power DC power comes out of the computer s power supply, and provides electricity to all the components in the PC Flows in one direction, from negative to positive All PC power supplies provide both positive and negative voltages AT Power Connectors P8 and P9 are a pair of connectors that link the AT power supply to the AT motherboard As they are faced, they cannot be installed backwards ATX Power Connector ATX Power Connector Uses a single P1 power connector The P1 has a notched connector to ensure proper installation P4 Connector P1 and P4 Voltages Many motherboards require a second, four-wire connector to push more 12-volt power into the board 4

5 Power to Peripherals Motherboards require power from the power supply as we ve already seen Peripherals like hard drives, floppy drives, CD-ROM drives, and fans also require power from the power supply Different types of connectors are used Molex Connectors Primarily used for devices that require 12V and 5V of power A Molex connector uses chamfers (notches) for easy installation Installing a Molex backwards can destroy the device into which the Molex is connected Mini Connectors SATA power connector Primarily for 3.5- inch floppy drives Care should be taken when installing mini connectors Splitters and Adapters Wattage Occasionally, there are not enough connectors to power all the devices inside a PC Splitters are used to create more connections Power supplies are rated in watts A PC requires sufficient wattage to run properly An average desktop with two hard drives and a CD- ROM drive requires about watts while running, and up to 200 watts when booting up Buy 230 to 250-watt power supplies Power requirements may be calculated by adding up the power required by each peripheral and the motherboard and CPU 5

6 Sizes Power supplies are available in a variety of shapes and sizes depending on the form factor Most desktop and mini-tower PCs use the standard ATX power supply Take the defective power supply with you when getting a replacement Other Power Supply Specifications MTBF or MTTF Input Range Peak Inrush Current Hold-up Time Transient Response Overvoltage Protection Power Supply Issues A bad power supply causes intermittent lockups and reboots, as well as intermittent bootup difficulties Bad power supplies erase CMOS information and sometimes even erase data on mass storage devices Put the black lead onto any black wire connection Put the red lead onto a yellow +12V connection V is good V indicates a new power supply is needed Less than 10.5 V and your PC won t boot Power Supply Test Power Supply Test The computer must be turned on Do not touch any chips or circuit boards to prevent damage Do not touch a probe to the hot circuit and to ground at the same time! Do not allow both probes to touch each other while one is touching hot and one is touching ground Make sure a probe only touches one metal object or pin at a time! Power Supply Notes If you don t detect any power disconnect all devices except the motherboard check for power to the motherboard by itself If the motherboard gets power one of the devices is causing the problem If the motherboard still does not have power check the power coming from the power supply without the motherboard plugged in if you get power then the motherboard has an issue Most PCs today come with a 230-watt or higher power supply if you add too many devices the power supply may stop working due to too much wattage being required 6

7 AT Power Switches Rocker and plunger types Used to turn the system on and off Each of these switches has four tab connectors that attach to four color-coded wires leading from the power supply Black and brown wires are 115V make sure the power supply is unplugged! Problems with AT Power Management Power management involves going into power-saving modes, where devices are put to sleep Power management also involves bringing devices back to an active state The AT form factor and the AT power supply do not mix well with any type of power management ATX Soft Power and CMOS The soft power feature on ATX motherboards handle all power management issues ATX power supplies put a 5-volt charge on the motherboard at all times The important settings for ATX soft power reside in the CMOS setup ATX Soft Power and CMOS An ATX power supply never turns off: it continues to supply a 5 V to the motherboard as long as it is connected to the power outlet Always unplug an ATX system before working on it Some ATX power supplies provide a real on/off switch on the back Use a screw driver or car keys to short the two power jumpers to turn the system on or off should only be used if you are working on a PC with a broken power switch Cooling The power supply fan provides basic cooling for the PC The fan keeps the voltage regulators cool and provides a constant flow of cool air through the computer s interior If an expansion card is removed from the PC, be sure to cover the hole with a slot cover Without the airflow the CPU can overheat and destroy itself The CPU usually has its own fan and sits very near to the power supply so that it will not overheat from a disruption Removing the Power Supply Fan Replacement fans are easy to find and inexpensive 7

8 Diagnosing a Dead Power Supply Troubleshooting Power A failure of the internal electronics of the power supply can cause some of the most difficult to diagnose problems The secret to discovering that a power supply is dying lies in one word: intermittent A voltmeter can be used to verify if the power supply is working or not A failed power supply should be replaced rather than attempting to repair it Power supplies break more often than many other parts in a PC Power Supply Switches Broken power switches are also a common source of problems On an AT system, a multimeter can be used to check the switch On an ATX system, try shorting the soft power jumpers if that works, then you need a new switch When Power Supplies Die Slowly A power supply may be dying if you are getting intermittant problems such as PC fails locks up as it is booting several times but finally boots up okay Error codes show up on boot up but go away PC runs fine for an hour or so and then locks up Fire Extinguishers Do not open power supplies The inside of a power supply contains high-voltage capacitors Every PC workbench needs the right kind of fire extinguisher A Class C fire extinguisher should be used for live electrical equipment Class A fire extinguishers are for wood and paper Class B fire extinguishers are for flammable liquids More Some power supplies come in fancy colors, light up, and have extra fans EPS12V power supplies provide more power for servers Converting AC to DC causes a 30-50% loss in power, so the power factor number is used on power supplies to define the amount of loss (0.7 means a 30% loss) An Active Power Correction (APC) power supply is more efficient with a power factor closer to

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