# Five 5. Rational Expressions and Equations C H A P T E R

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1 Five C H A P T E R Rational Epressions and Equations. Rational Epressions and Functions. Multiplication and Division of Rational Epressions. Addition and Subtraction of Rational Epressions.4 Comple Fractions. Rational Equations.6 Applications of Rational Equations.7 Division of Polynomials Chapter Summary I n this chapter, we will eamine rational epressions, which are fractions whose numerator and denominator are polynomials. We will learn to simplify rational epressions and how to add, subtract, multiply, and divide two rational epressions. Rational epressions have many applications, such as determining the maimum load that a wooden beam can support, finding the illumination from a light source, and solving work rate problems. Study Strategy Test Taking To be successful in a math class, as well as understanding the material, you must be a good test taker. In this chapter, we will discuss the test-taking skills necessary for success in a math class.

2 Chapter Rational Epressions and Equations. Rational Epressions and Functions Objectives Evaluate rational epressions. Find the values for which a rational epression is undefined. Simplify rational epressions to lowest terms. 4 Identify factors in the numerator and denominator that are opposites. Evaluate rational functions. 6 Find the domain of rational functions. 44 A rational epression is a quotient of two polynomials, such as. The 6 denominator of a rational epression must not be zero, as division by zero is undefined. A major difference between rational epressions and linear or quadratic epressions is that a rational epression has one or more variables in the denominator. Evaluating Rational Epressions Objective Evaluate rational epressions. We can evaluate a rational epression for a particular value of the variable just as we evaluated polynomials. We substitute the value for the variable in the epression and then simplify. When simplifying, we evaluate the numerator and denominator separately, and then simplify the resulting fraction. Classroom Eample Evaluate the rational epression 8 4 for 6. Answer: 4 Quick Check Evaluate the rational 6 epression 7 4 for. EXAMPLE Evaluate the rational epression We begin by substituting 4 for Substitute 4 for. for 4. Simplify each term in the numerator and denominator. Note: 4 6. Simplify the numerator and denominator. Simplify. 0 8 Finding Values for Which a Rational Epression Is Undefined Objective Find values for which a rational epression is undefined. Rational epressions are undefined for values of the variable that cause the denominator to equal 0, as division by 0 is undefined. In general, to find the values for which a rational epression is undefined, we set the denominator equal to 0, ignoring the numerator, and solve the resulting equation.

3 . Rational Epressions and Functions Classroom Eample Find the values for which the rational 49 epression is 4 undefined. Answer: 6, 9 Quick Check Find the values for 6 which is 9 8 EXAMPLE Find the values for which the rational epression is undefined. We begin by setting the denominator,, equal to 0 and then we solve for. 0 Set the denominator equal to 0. Add to both sides of the equation. Divide both sides by. 8 The epression is undefined for. undefined. 9 Quick Check Find the values for 4 7 which is 0 undefined., 7 EXAMPLE 9 Find the values for which is undefined. 40 We begin by setting the denominator 40 equal to 0, ignoring the numerator. Notice that the resulting equation is quadratic and can be solved by factoring Set the denominator equal to 0. Factor or 8 0 Set each factor equal to 0. or 8 Solve. 9 The epression is undefined when or Simplifying Rational Epressions to Lowest Terms Objective Simplify rational epressions to lowest terms. Rational epressions are often referred to as algebraic fractions. As with numerical fractions, we will learn to simplify rational epressions to lowest terms. In later sections, we will learn to add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational epressions. We simplified a numerical fraction to lowest terms by dividing out factors that were 0 common to the numerator and denominator. For eample, consider the fraction 84. To simplify this fraction, we could begin by factoring the numerator and denominator # # # # # 7 The numerator and denominator have common factors of and, which are divided out to simplify the fraction to lowest terms. # # # # # 7 # 7 or 4

4 4 Chapter Rational Epressions and Equations Simplifying Rational Epressions To simplify a rational epression to lowest terms, we first factor the numerator and denominator completely. Then we divide out common factors in the numerator and denominator. If P, Q, and R are polynomials, Q 0, and R 0, then PR QR P Q. Classroom Eample Simplify the rational epression 6 8. Answer: 4 7 EXAMPLE 4 4 Simplify the rational epression (Assume 0. ) 6. 7 This rational epression has a numerator and denominator that are monomials. In this case, we can simplify the epression using the properties of eponents developed in Chapter 4. Quick Check 4 Simplify the rational 8 6 epression 8. (Assume u 0. ) Divide out the common factor. Divide numerator and denominator by 4. EXAMPLE 4 6 Simplify (Assume the denominator is nonzero.) 6 4. In this eample the numerator and denominator have already been factored. Notice that they share the common factors 4 and 6. Quick Check Simplify ( )( )( ) ( )( )( ). (Assume the denominator is nonzero.) Quick Check 6 8 Simplify 4. (Assume the denominator is nonzero.) Divide out common factors. Simplify. Notice that both factors were divided out of the numerator. Be careful to note that the numerator is equal to in such a situation. A Word of Caution If each factor in the numerator of a rational epression is divided out when simplifying the epression, be sure to write a in the numerator. EXAMPLE 6 4 Simplify (Assume the denominator is nonzero.) 4. The trinomials in the numerator and denominator must be factored before we can simplify this epression. (For a review of factoring techniques, you may refer to Sections 4.4 through 4.7.) 9

5 . Rational Epressions and Functions Factor numerator and denominator. Divide out common factors. Simplify. A Word of Caution When simplifying a rational epression, be very careful to divide out only epressions that are common factors of the numerator and denominator. You cannot reduce individual terms in the numerator and denominator as in the following eamples: To avoid this, remember to factor the numerator and denominator completely before attempting to divide out common factors. Quick Check Simplify. 6 (Assume the denominator is nonzero.) 4 EXAMPLE 7 Simplify (Assume the denominator is nonzero.) 40. The trinomials in the numerator and denominator must be factored before we can simplify this epression. The numerator is a trinomial with a leading coefficient that is not equal to and can be factored by grouping or by trial and error. (For a review of these factoring techniques, you may refer to Section 4..) 4 The denominator 40 has a common factor of that must be factored out first Now we can simplify the rational epression Factor numerator and denominator. Divide out common factors. Simplify.

6 6 Chapter Rational Epressions and Equations Identifying Factors in the Numerator and Denominator That Are Opposites Objective 4 Identify factors in the numerator and denominator that are opposites. Two epressions of the form a b and b a are opposites. Subtraction in the opposite order produces the opposite result. Consider the epressions a b and b a when a 0 and b 4. In this case, a b 0 4 or 6, and b a 4 0 or 6. We can also see that a b is the opposite of b a by noting that b a b a a b. This is a useful result when we are simplifying rational epressions. The rational a b epression simplifies to, as any fraction whose numerator is the opposite of b a its denominator is equal to. If a rational epression has a factor in the numerator that is the opposite of a factor in the denominator, these two factors can be divided out to equal, as in the following eample. We write the in the numerator. Classroom Eample Simplify 0. 6 Answer: EXAMPLE 8 7 Simplify. (Assume that the denominator is nonzero.) 9 We begin by factoring the numerator and denominator completely. 7 9 Factor the numerator and denominator. Divide out the opposite factors. Simplify, writing the negative sign in front of the fraction. Quick Check 8 7 Simplify 4. (Assume the denominator A Word of Caution Two epressions of the form a b and b a are not opposites but are is nonzero.) equal to each other. Addition in the opposite order produces the same result. When we divide 6 two epressions of the form a b and b a, the result is, not. For eample,. Rational Functions Objective Evaluate rational functions. A rational function r is a function of the form r f where f and g g, are polynomials and g 0. We begin our investigation of rational functions by learning to evaluate them.

7 . Rational Epressions and Functions 7 Classroom Eample For r find r 4. 4, Answer: 4 Quick Check 9 For r 6 4, find r 6. EXAMPLE 9 For r 9 0 find r 6. 6, We begin by substituting 6 for in the function. r Substitute 6 for. Simplify each term in the numerator and denominator. Simplify the numerator and denominator. Simplify to lowest terms. Finding the Domain of a Rational Function Objective 6 Find the domain of rational functions. Rational functions differ from linear functions and quadratic functions in that the domain of a rational function is not always the set of real numbers. We have to eclude any value that causes the function to be undefined, namely any value for which the denominator is equal to 0. Suppose that the function r was undefined for 6. Then the domain of r is the set of all real numbers ecept 6. This can be epressed in interval notation as `, 6 c 6, `, which is the union of the set of all real numbers that are less than 6 with the set of all real numbers that are greater than 6. Classroom Eample Find the domain of r Answer: All real numbers ecept and 7. Quick Check 0 Find the domain of 7 4 r () 6 6. All real numbers ecept 8 and. EXAMPLE 0 Find the domain of r 4 4. We begin by setting the denominator equal to 0 and solving for Set the denominator equal to 0. Factor or 9 0 Set each factor equal to 0. or 9 Solve each equation. The domain of the function is the set of all real numbers ecept and 9. In interval notation this can be written as `, c, 9 c 9, `. We must determine the domain of a rational function before simplifying it. If we divide a common factor out of the numerator before finding the domain of the function, we will miss a value of that must be ecluded from the domain of the function.

8 8 Chapter Rational Epressions and Equations Building Your Study Strategy Test Taking, Preparing Yourself The first test-taking skill we will discuss is preparing yourself completely. As legendary basketball coach John Wooden once said, Failing to prepare is preparing to fail. Start preparing for the eam well in advance; do not plan to study (or cram) on the night before the eam. To adequately prepare, you should know what the format of the eam will be. What topics will be covered on the test? How long will the test be? Review your old homework assignments, notes, and note cards, spending more time on problems or concepts that you struggled with before. Work through the chapter review and chapter test in the tet, to identify any areas of weakness for you. If you are having trouble with a particular type of problem, go back to that section in the tet and review. Make a practice test for yourself, and take it under test conditions without using your tet or notes. Allow yourself the same amount of time that you will be allowed for the actual test, so you will know if you are working fast enough. EXERCISES. Vocabulary. A(n) is a quotient of two polynomials. rational epression. Rational epressions are undefined for values of the variable that cause the to equal 0. denominator. A rational epression is said to be if its numerator and denominator do not have any common factors. simplified to lowest terms 4. Two epressions of the form a b and b a are. opposites. A r is a function of the form r f where f and g are polynomials g, and g 0. rational function 6. The of a rational function ecludes all values for which the function is undefined. domain Evaluate the rational epression for the given value of the variable for for for for 8 4. for for for for 7 0 F O R E X T R A H E L P Interactmath.com MathXL Tutorials on CD Video Lectures on CD Addison-Wesley Math Tutor Center Student s s Manual

9 Eercises. 9 Find all values of the variable for which the rational epression is undefined , , , Simplify the given rational epression. (Assume that the denominator in each case is nonzero.) , , 4 6, Determine whether the two given binomials are opposites or not and 6 Not opposites 4. 8 and 8 Opposites 4. and Opposites and 4 Not opposites 4. 0 and 0 Opposites 46. and Not opposites Simplify the given rational epression. (Assume that the denominator in each case is nonzero.)

10 0 Chapter Rational Epressions and Equations Evaluate the given rational function r r 4 Undefined 0 4, r r 8 9, Find the domain of the given rational function r r 6 0, 4 4, r 8 8, r 0 6 r 9 4 r r r 48 4 r Identify the given function as a linear function, a quadratic function, or a rational function. 6. f 8 6 Quadratic 66. f Linear 67. f Rational 68. f 6 Rational f Linear 4 6 r r 7 r r 4 4, r 0, 6 8, 9, 9,, 7, 70. f Quadratic 4 CE Use the given graph of a rational function r() to determine the following y 6 8 a) Find r y a) Find r. 4 b) Find all values such that r a) Find r. 6 y 6 b) Find all values such that r. b) Find all values such that r 0. 0, Eercises marked with CE are Community Eercises, as described in the preface.

11 Eercises. CE a) Find r y b) Find all values such that r 0., Writing in Mathematics Answer in complete sentences. 7. Eplain how to find the values for which a rational epression is undefined. Answers will vary Is the rational epression undefined for the value? Eplain your answer. Yes; answers will vary 77. Eplain how to determine if two factors are opposites. Use eamples to illustrate your eplanation. Answers will vary 78. s Manual * Write a solutions manual page for the following problem: Find the values for which the rational epression 8 6 is undefined. 79. Newsletter * Write a newsletter that eplains how to simplify a rational epression. *See Appendi B for details and sample answers.

12 Chapter Rational Epressions and Equations. Multiplication and Division of Rational Epressions Objectives Multiply two rational epressions. Multiply two rational functions. Divide a rational epression by another rational epression. 4 Divide a rational function by another rational function. Multiplying Rational Epressions Objective Multiply two rational epressions. In this section, we will learn how to multiply and divide rational epressions. Multiplying rational epressions is similar to multiplying numerical fractions. Suppose that we needed to multiply # Before multiplying, we can divide out factors common to one of the numerators and one of the denominators. For eample, the first numerator (4) and the second denominator (0) have a common factor of that can be divided out of each. The second numerator () and the first denominator (9) have a common factor of that can be divided out as well. 4 # 9 0 # # # # 7 # # # 7 # 4 # # # 7 # Factor each numerator and denominator. Divide out common factors. Multiply remaining factors. Multiplying Rational Epressions A # C B D AC BD B 0 and D 0 To multiply two rational epressions, we will begin by factoring each numerator and denominator completely. After dividing out factors common to a numerator and a denominator, we will epress the product of the two rational epressions as a single rational epression, leaving the numerator and denominator in factored form. Classroom Eample Multiply 6 # Answer: EXAMPLE Multiply # We begin by factoring each numerator and denominator. Then we proceed to divide out common factors. 6 7 # # 9 6 Factor numerators and denominators completely.

13 . Multiplication and Division of Rational Epression # 6 Divide out common factors. Multiply. Quick Check 8 Multiply # EXAMPLE Multiply Again, we begin by completely factoring both numerators and denominators. # # # # 0 Factor completely. Divide out common factors. Notice that the factors and are opposites and divide out to equal. Multiply remaining factors. Write the negative sign in the numerator in front of the fraction. Quick Check 7 0 Multiply # Here is a summary of the procedure for multiplying rational epressions. Multiplying Rational Epressions Completely factor each numerator and each denominator. Divide out factors that are common to a numerator and a denominator, and divide out factors in a numerator and denominator that are opposites. Multiply the remaining factors, leaving the numerator and denominator in factored form.

14 4 Chapter Rational Epressions and Equations Multiplying Rational Functions Objective Multiply two rational functions. Classroom Eample For f and 6 g 0, find f # g. Answer: 7 6 EXAMPLE For and g 6 6 f 4, find f # g We replace f and g by their formulas and proceed to multiply. f # g 4 # # # Replace f () and g() with their formulas. Factor completely. Divide out common factors. Multiply remaining factors. Quick Check 8 For and g () 0 f (), find f () # g () Dividing a Rational Epression by Another Rational Epression Objective Divide a rational epression by another rational epression. Dividing a rational epression by another rational epression is similar to dividing a numerical fraction by another numerical fraction. We replace the divisor, which is the rational epression we are dividing by, by its reciprocal and then multiply. Replacing the divisor by its reciprocal is also called inverting the divisor. Dividing Rational Epressions A B 4 C D A # D B C B 0, C 0, and D 0 Classroom Eample Divide Answer: EXAMPLE 4 Divide We begin by inverting the divisor and multiplying. In this eample we must factor each numerator and denominator completely # 0 Invert the divisor and multiply.

15 . Multiplication and Division of Rational Epression 4 8 # 6 4 Factor completely. 4 8 # Divide out common factors. Multiply remaining factors. Quick Check 4 49 Divide EXAMPLE Divide We rewrite the problem as a multiplication problem by inverting the divisor. We then factor each numerator and denominator completely before dividing out common factors. (You may want to factor at the same time you invert the divisor.) # # # Invert the divisor and multiply. Factor completely. Divide out common factors. Note that and are opposites. Multiply remaining factors. Quick Check 4 Divide

16 6 Chapter Rational Epressions and Equations Here is a summary of the procedure for dividing rational epressions. Dividing Rational Epressions Invert the divisor and change the operation from division to multiplication. Completely factor each numerator and each denominator. Divide out factors that are common to a numerator and a denominator, and divide out factors in a numerator and denominator that are opposites. Multiply the remaining factors, leaving the numerator and denominator in factored form. Dividing a Rational Function by Another Rational Function Objective 4 Divide a rational function by another rational function. Classroom Eample For f 9 8 and 4 g 9, find f 4 g. Answer: 6 For 4 f () and g() 7 8, find f () 4 g(). 7 Quick Check 6 EXAMPLE 6 For f 4 and g 8, find f 4 g. Replace f and g by their formulas and divide. Treat g as a rational function with a denominator of. We can see that its reciprocal is 8. f 4 g # 8 # # Replace f () and g() by their formulas. Invert the divisor and multiply. Factor completely. Divide out common factors. Multiply remaining factors. Building Your Study Strategy Test Taking, A Good Night s Sleep Get a good night s sleep on the night before the eam. Tired students do not think as well as students who are rested. Some studies suggest that good-quality sleep on the two nights prior to an eam can have a positive effect on test scores. Also be sure to eat properly before an eam. Hungry students can be distracted during an eam.

17 EXERCISES. Vocabulary. To multiply two rational epressions, begin by each numerator and denominator completely. factoring. When multiplying two rational epressions, out factors common to a numerator and a denominator. divide. When multiplying two rational epressions, once the numerator and the denominator do not share any common factors, epress the product as a single rational epression, leaving the numerator and denominator in form. factored 4. When dividing by a rational epression, replace the divisor by its and then multiply. reciprocal Multiply # # # # 4 # # # # # # # # # # # 6 4 # # # 00 6 # 4 9 # 6 6 # F O R E X T R A H E L P Interactmath.com MathXL Tutorials on CD Video Lectures on CD Addison-Wesley Math Tutor Center Student s s Manual

18 8 Chapter Rational Epressions and Equations CE For the given functions f() and g(), find f()? g() f 4 g 7 8, g 66 f 6, 6 Find the missing numerator and denominator #? 4? # # # f 7 4, g 7 f 0, g f 6 7 6, f , #? 7? #? 4 77? #? 8? g g Divide Eercises marked with CE are Community Eercises, as described in the preface.

19 Eercises For the given functions f() and g(), find f() 4 g() g 6 f, f 4 g 6 0, f , f 80 0, 8 6 f 6, g 9 8 g 6 60 g Find the missing numerator and denominator g 00 f , ?? ?? ? 7? Writing in Mathematics 6 9 4?? Answer in complete sentences. 7. Eplain the similarities between dividing numerical fractions and dividing rational epressions. Are there any differences? Answers will vary 74. Eplain why the restrictions B 0, C 0, and D 0 are necessary when dividing A B 4 D. C Answers will vary 7. s Manual * Write a solutions manual page for the following problem: 6 7 Divide Newsletter * Write a newsletter that eplains how to multiply two rational epressions. *See Appendi B for details and sample answers.

21 . Addition and Subtraction of Rational Epressions EXAMPLE Add The two denominators are the same, so we may add Add numerators. Combine like terms. Factor numerator and denominator and divide out the common factor. Simplify. Quick Check Add EXAMPLE Add The denominators are the same, so we add the numerators and then simplify Add numerators. Combine like terms. Factor numerator and denominator and divide out the common factor. Simplify. Quick Check Add

22 Chapter Rational Epressions and Equations Subtracting Rational Epressions with the Same Denominator Objective Subtract rational epressions with the same denominator. Subtracting two rational epressions with the same denominator is just like adding them, ecept that we subtract the two numerators rather than adding them. Subtracting Rational Epressions with the Same Denominator A C B C A B C C 0 Classroom Eample Subtract Answer: 6 Quick Check 4 Subtract EXAMPLE 4 Subtract The two denominators are the same, so we may subtract these two rational epressions. When the numerator of the second fraction has more than one term we must remember that we are subtracting the whole numerator and not just the first term. When we subtract the numerators and place the difference over the common denominator, it is a good idea to write each numerator in a set of parentheses. This will remind us to subtract each term in the second numerator Subtract numerators. Distribute. Combine like terms. Factor numerator and divide out the common factor. Simplify. Notice that the denominator 4 was also a factor of the numerator, leaving a denominator of. EXAMPLE Subtract The denominators are the same, so we can subtract these two rational epressions Subtract numerators.

23 . Addition and Subtraction of Rational Epressions Change the sign of each term in the second set of parentheses by distributing. Combine like terms. Factor numerator and denominator and divide out the common factor. The results from the fact that 6 and 6 are opposites. Simplify. Quick Check 6 4 Subtract 8. 7 A Word of Caution When subtracting a rational epression whose numerator contains more than one term, be sure to subtract the entire numerator and not just the first term. One way to remember this is by placing the numerators inside sets of parentheses. Adding or Subtracting Rational Epressions with Opposite Denominators Objective Add or subtract rational epressions with opposite denominators. 0 Consider the epression Are the two denominators the same? No, but. they are opposites. We can rewrite the denominator as its opposite if we also rewrite the operation (addition) as its opposite (subtraction). In other words, we can 0 0 rewrite the epression as Once the denominators are the. same, we can subtract the numerators. Classroom Eample Subtract Answer: EXAMPLE 6 Add The two denominators are opposites, so we may change the second denominator to by changing the operation from addition to subtraction Rewrite the second denominator as by changing the operation from addition to subtraction.

24 4 Chapter Rational Epressions and Equations Add Quick Check Subtract the numerators. Factor the numerator and denominator and divide out the common factor. Simplify. Subtract Quick Check 7 6. EXAMPLE 7 Subtract These two denominators are opposites, so we begin by rewriting the second rational epression in such a way that the two rational epressions have the same denominator Rewrite the second denominator as 9 by changing the operation from subtraction to addition. Add the numerators. Combine like terms. Factor the numerator and divide out the common factor. Simplify. The Least Common Denominator of Two or More Rational Epressions Objective 4 Find the least common denominator (LCD) of two or more rational epressions. If two numerical fractions do not have the same denominator, we cannot add or subtract the fractions until we rewrite them as equivalent fractions with a common denominator. The same holds true for rational epressions with unlike denominators. We will begin by learning how to find the least common denominator (LCD) for two or more rational epressions. Finding the LCD of Two Rational Epressions Begin by completely factoring each denominator, and then identify each epression that is a factor of one or both denominators. The LCD is equal to the product of these factors.

25 . Addition and Subtraction of Rational Epressions If an epression is a repeated factor of one or more of the denominators, then we repeat it as a factor in the LCD as well. The eponent used for this factor is equal to the greatest power that the factor is raised to in any one denominator. Classroom Eample Find the 4 LCD of and 6 0. Answer: 8 7 EXAMPLE 8 Find the LCD of and 0a b a. We begin with the coefficients 0 and. The smallest number that both divide into evenly is 60. Moving on to variable factors in the denominator, we see that the variables a and b are factors of one or both denominators. Note that the variable a is raised to the fifth power in the second denominator, so the LCD must contain a factor of a. The LCD is 60a b. Quick Check 8 7 Find the LCD of and 4 6 y y. y Quick Check 9 Find the LCD of and EXAMPLE 9 Find the LCD of and 6. 0 We begin by factoring each denominator The factors in the denominators are 6,, and 6. Since no epression is repeated as a factor in any one denominator, the LCD is Find the LCD of and 6 6 Quick Check EXAMPLE 0 Find the LCD of 9 4 Again, we begin by factoring each denominator The two epressions that are factors are 7 and ; the factor is repeated twice in the second denominator. So the LCD must have as a factor twice as well. The LCD is 7 or 7. and

27 . Addition and Subtraction of Rational Epressions 7 When adding or subtracting rational epressions, leave the denominator in factored form. After we simplify the numerator, we factor the numerator if possible and check the denominator for common factors that can be divided out. EXAMPLE Add In this eample we must factor each denominator to find the LCD # # Factor each denominator. The LCD is 4 6. Multiply to rewrite each epression as an equivalent rational epression that has the LCD as its denominator. Distribute in each numerator. Add the numerators, writing the sum over the LCD. Combine like terms. Factor the numerator and divide out the common factor. 8 Simplify. 4 6 There is another method for creating two equivalent rational epressions that have the same denominators. In this eample, once the two denominators had been factored, we had the epression Notice that the first denominator is missing the factor 6 that appears in the second denominator, so we can multiply the numerator and denominator of the first rational epression by 6. In a similar fashion, the second denominator is missing the factor 4 that appears in the first denominator, so we can multiply the numerator and denominator of the second rational epression by # # 4 6 4

28 8 Chapter Rational Epressions and Equations At this point, both rational epressions share the same denominator, 4 6, so we may proceed with the addition problem. Quick Check Add Classroom Eample Subtract Answer: 4 EXAMPLE Subtract We begin by factoring each denominator to find the LCD. We must be careful that we subtract the entire second numerator, not just the first term. In other words, the subtraction must change the sign of each term in the second numerator before we combine like terms. Using parentheses around the two numerators before starting to subtract them will help with this # # Factor each denominator. The LCD is 8 8. Multiply to rewrite each epression as an equivalent rational epression that has the LCD as its denominator. Distribute in each numerator. Subtract the numerators, writing the difference over the LCD. Distribute. Combine like terms Factor the numerator and divide out the common factor. Simplify. Quick Check Subtract 7 0.

30 EXERCISES. Vocabulary. To add fractions that have the same denominator, we add the and place the result over the common denominator. numerators. To subtract fractions that have the same denominator, we the numerators and place the result over the common denominator. subtract. When subtracting a rational epression whose numerator contains more than one term, subtract the entire numerator and not just the. first term 4. When adding two rational epressions with opposite denominators, we can replace the second denominator with its opposite by changing the addition to. subtraction. The of two rational epressions is an epression that is a product of all the factors of the two denominators. LCD 6. To add two rational epressions that have unlike denominators, we begin by converting each rational epression to a(n) rational epression that has the LCD as its denominator. equivalent Add Subtract Add or subtract F O R E X T R A H E L P 0 0 Interactmath.com MathXL Tutorials on CD Video Lectures on CD Addison-Wesley Math Tutor Center Student s s Manual

31 Eercise. CE Find the missing numerator Find the LCD of the given rational epressions , 6 0, , 4 4, 6 0 4? , , , , 7 7 8? 4 9 Add or subtract ? 6 0 4? Eercises marked with CE are Community Eercises, as described in the preface.

32 Chapter Rational Epressions and Equations For the given rational functions f() and g(), find f() g() For the given rational functions f() and g(), find f() g() f f 7 9 f, g , g , g 9 f, g f 4 6, g f 8, g Mied Practice, 8 98 Add or subtract f 7, g f 8 80, g a 7 0a 7 a

34 4 Chapter Rational Epressions and Equations.4 Comple Fractions Objectives Simplify comple numerical fractions. Simplify comple fractions containing variables. Comple Fractions A comple fraction is a fraction or rational epression containing one or more fractions in its numerator or denominator. Here are some eamples Objective Simplify comple numerical fractions. To simplify a comple fraction, we must rewrite it in such a way that its numerator and denominator do not contain fractions. This can be done by finding the LCD of all fractions within the comple fraction and then multiplying the numerator and denominator by this LCD. This will clear the fractions within the comple fraction. We finish by simplifying the resulting rational epression, if possible. We begin with a comple fraction made up of numerical fractions. Classroom Eample Simplify the 7 4 comple fraction. 6 Answer: 47 0 EXAMPLE 6 Simplify the comple fraction. 4 The LCD of the three denominators (6,, and 4) is, so we begin by multiplying the comple fraction by. Notice that when we multiply by, we are really multiplying by, which does not change the value of the original epression. 6 # # # 6 4 # # 4 Multiply the numerator and denominator by the LCD. Distribute and divide out common factors.

35 .4 Comple Fractions Multiply. Simplify the numerator and denominator. There is another method for simplifying comple fractions. We can rewrite the numerator as a single fraction by adding 6, which would equal 6. We can also rewrite the denominator as a single fraction by adding 4, 7 equal. Once the numerator and denominator are single fractions, we can rewrite problem which would and simplify from there. This method produces the same result, # as a division Quick Check Simplify the comple fraction In most of the remaining eamples we will use the LCD method, as the technique is similar to the technique used to solve rational equations in the net section. Simplifying Comple Fractions Containing Variables Objective Simplify comple fractions containing variables. Classroom Eample Simplify 9 6. Answer: EXAMPLE Simplify. The LCD for the two simple fractions with denominators and is, so we will begin by multiplying the comple fraction by. # Multiply the numerator and denominator by the LCD.

36 6 Chapter Rational Epressions and Equations # # # # Distribute and divide out common factors, clearing the fractions. Quick Check 49 7 Simplify 7 7. Multiply. Factor the numerator and denominator and divide out the common factor. Simplify. Once we have cleared the fractions, resulting in a rational epression such as, then we simplify the rational epression by factoring and dividing out common factors. EXAMPLE Simplify We begin by multiplying the numerator and denominator by the LCD of all denominators. In this case the LCD is # Multiply the numerator and denominator by the LCD. 8 9 Simplify 8. 9 Quick Check # # # # 6 Distribute and divide out common factors. Multiply. Factor the numerator and denominator and divide out the common factor. Simplify.

37 .4 Comple Fractions 7 Classroom Eample Simplify Answer: 6 Simplify 6 4 Quick Check EXAMPLE 4 Simplify The LCD for the four simple fractions is # # 6 # 6 # Multiply the numerator and denominator by the LCD Distribute and divide out common factors, clearing the fractions. Multiply. Distribute. Combine like terms. Factor the denominator and divide out the common factor. Simplify. Classroom Eample Simplify Answer: 9 6 EXAMPLE Simplify In this case it will be easier to rewrite the comple fraction as a division problem rather than multiplying the numerator and denominator by the LCD. This is a wise idea when we have a comple fraction with a single rational epression in its numerator and a single

38 8 Chapter Rational Epressions and Equations rational epression in its denominator. We have used this method when dividing rational epressions. Simplify 4 7 Quick Check # # # Rewrite as a division problem. Invert the divisor and multiply. Factor each numerator and denominator. Divide out common factors. Simplify. Building Your Study Strategy Test Taking, 4 Read the Test In the same way you would begin to solve a word problem, you should begin to take a test by briefly reading through it. This will give you an idea of how many problems you have to solve, how many word problems there are, and roughly how much time you can devote to each problem. It is a good idea to establish a schedule, such as I need to be done with problems by the time half of the class period is over. This way you will know whether you need to speed up during the second half of the eam or if you have plenty of time. EXERCISES.4 Vocabulary. A(n) is a fraction or rational epression containing one or more fractions in its numerator or denominator. comple fraction. To simplify a comple fraction, multiply the numerator and denominator by the of all fractions within the comple fraction. LCD Simplify the comple fraction F O R E X T R A H E L P Interactmath.com MathXL Tutorials on CD Video Lectures on CD Addison-Wesley Math Tutor Center Student s s Manual

39 Eercises Mied Practice, 4 Simplify the given rational epression, using the techniques developed in Sections. through

40 40 Chapter Rational Epressions and Equations CE # # # Writing in Mathematics Answer in complete sentences.. Eplain what a comple fraction is. Compare and contrast comple fractions and the rational epressions found in Section.. Answers will vary 6. One method for simplifying comple fractions is to rewrite the comple fraction as one rational epression divided by another rational epression. When is this method the most efficient way to simplify a comple fraction? Answers will vary 7. s Manual * Write a solutions manual page for the following problem: 9 6 Simplify Newsletter * Write a newsletter that eplains how to simplify comple fractions. *See Appendi B for details and sample answers. Eercises marked with CE are Community Eercises, as described in the preface.

41 . Rational Equations 4. Objectives Solve rational equations. Solve literal equations.. Rational Equations Solving Rational Equations Objective Solve rational equations. In this section, we learn how to solve rational equations, which are equations containing at least one rational epression. The main goal is to rewrite the equation as an equivalent equation that does not contain a rational epression. We then solve the equation using methods developed in earlier chapters. In Chapter, we learned how to solve an equation containing fractions such as the equation We began by finding the LCD of all fractions, and then multiplied both sides of the equation by that LCD to clear the equation of fractions. We will employ the same technique in this section. There is a major difference, though, when solving equations containing a variable in a denominator. Occasionally we will find a solution that causes one of the rational epressions in the equation to be undefined. If a denominator of a rational epression is equal to 0 when the value of a solution is substituted for the variable, then that solution must be omitted from the answer set and is called an etraneous solution. We must check each solution that we find to make sure that it is not an etraneous solution. Here is a summary of the method for solving rational equations: Solving Rational Equations. Find the LCD of all denominators in the equation.. Multiply both sides of the equation by the LCD to clear the equation of fractions.. Solve the resulting equation. 4. Check for etraneous solutions. Classroom Eample Solve 7 0 Answer: 86 EXAMPLE Solve 9 7. We begin by finding the LCD of these three fractions, which is. Now we multiply both sides of the equation by the LCD to clear the equation of fractions. Once this has been done, we can solve the resulting equation. 9 7 a 9 b # # # 7 Multiply both sides of the equation by the LCD. Distribute and divide out common factors Multiply. The resulting equation is linear.

42 4 Chapter Rational Epressions and Equations 08 9 Subtract 8 to collect all variable terms on one side of the equation. Divide both sides by 9. Check: Quick Check 8 Solve Substitute for. 7 9 Simplify the fraction The LCD of these fractions is Write each fraction with a common denominator of Add. 7 Since does not make any rational epression in the original equation undefined, this value is a solution. The solution set is 6. When checking whether a solution is an etraneous solution, we need only determine whether the solution causes the LCD to equal 0. If the LCD is equal to 0 for this solution, then one or more rational epressions are undefined and the solution is an etraneous solution. Also, if the LCD is equal to 0, then we have multiplied both sides of the equation by 0. The multiplication property of equality says we can multiply both sides of an equation by any nonzero number without affecting the equality of both sides. In the previous eample, the only solution that could possibly be an etraneous solution is 0, because that is the only value of for which the LCD is equal to 0. Classroom Eample Solve 9 Answer:, 6 EXAMPLE Solve The LCD in this eample is. The LCD is equal to 0 only if 0. If we find that 0 is a solution, then we must omit that solution as an etraneous solution Quick Check Solve 4 4, 86. # a 6 7 b # 0 # # 6 # or # 0 Multiply each side of the equation by the LCD,. Distribute and divide out common factors. Multiply. The resulting equation is quadratic. Factor. Set each factor equal to 0 and solve. You may verify that neither solution causes the LCD to equal 0. The solution set is 9, 6.

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