# Energy and Society. Professor Ani Aprahamian

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1 Energy and Society Professor Ani Aprahamian

2 Wednesday, September 14th Nieuwland Science Hall 123; 6 pm - 7pm Dr. Peter Burns - "Nuclear Energy: Past Mistakes, Current Challenges, Future Prospects" Thursday, September 15th Carey Auditorium in the Hesburgh Library; 7-8:30 pm Dr. Joan Brennecke, Dr. Prashant Kamat, Dr. Jenny Mish, And Dr. Kenneth Sayre "The Future of Renewable Energy: IntersecOons Between Science, Economics, and Philosophy"

3 TA: Weichuan Li Tony Battaglia Room: 180C NSH Office Hours: Thursdays 2:00-3:30 pm Thursdays 5:00-6:30 pm

4 Efficiency & Power loss intransmission of Electricity

5 Energy Flow by Sector and Source for 2009 Total = 94.6 Quadrillion Btu

6 How do we get energy from fossil fuels? One example. induction ThinkQuest

7 How Do Fossil Fuels and Biomass Pollute? All fossil fuels and biomasses consist of carbon and hydrogen atoms. When these fuels are burned, or "combusted," carbon atoms unite with oxygen in the air to form carbon dioxide.

8 Energy content of various fuels: Energy from fuels Direct heat, lighting Run an engine.heat, Other work Unit of energy is Joules

9 What you need to know about energy hip://needtoknow.nas.edu/energy/

10 What is the problem???????? Engines: Efficiency = work done/energy put into the system = What you got out/what you put in 100% efficiency not possible. friction, viscosity insulation other A heat engine is a physical or theoretical device that converts thermal energy to mechanical output. The mechanical output is called work, and the thermal energy input is called heat.

11 Think of an engine as operalng between two thermal reservoirs One at High Temperature engine takes the heat (Q H from hot reservoir) does work with it and returns the rest to the cooler reservoir Energy Conservation. Q H =Work + Q C If you want engine to operate you must provide Q H Efficiency = W/Q H

12 Ideal Engines. what is ideal? All reversible processes Efficiency of a Real power plant or other fuel source Example: A heat engine operates between a geothermal steam source at C and a river at 20 0 C It has an efficiency of 20%.What percentage of its theoretical maximum Efficiency is it achieving? Efficiency of an ideal engine (Carnot): (1- T cold /T hot )x 100%= (1-293/485)x100% = 39.6% Temperature in Kelvin. 1 Celsius = =274 K 50%

13 No perfect engines.. We can only convert some of the heat to work not all of it 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics Entropy Time Travel Beam me up Scotty.. perfume

14 Real power plants.40% Example: In the US, 85% of the electricity is generated by burning fossil fuels to produce steam, Which in turn drives alternators that produce electricity. Power plants can produce steam with a temperature as high as C by pressurizing the steam. The resulting waste heat must be exhausted into the environment at a temperature of 20 0 C (1- T cold /T hot )x 100%= maximum efficiency =873 degree Kelvin =293 [1-(293/873)] x 100%=66.4%

15 Efficiency of an ideal engine (Carnot): Temperature in degree Kelvin (1- T cold /T hot )x 100% Example: T= 1 degree C = degree Kelvin Power= rate of Energy dispersion= Work/time Power loss P=I 2 R I=current in Amperes; R=resistance in Ohms Power production P=IV I=current in Amperes; V= Voltage in volts Temperature Conversion F to C Deduct 32 and multiply by 5/9 C to F Multiply by 9/5 then add 32 C to K C add degrees = K

16 Example: An inventor claims to have developed a wonderful new heat Engine that operates with a relatively cool flame at C and discharges Waste heat to the environment at 20 0 C. All his pr literature advertises that 45% of the fuel energy is Converted to useful work. What is the maximum efficiency that can be expected for this engine? =423 Kelvin =293 Kelvin (1- T cold /T hot )x 100% 30.7%

17 Example A power plant has an efficiency of 30% It burns 7938 tons of coal per day Coal produces 2 x 10 4 Btu/kg What is the electric power output of the plant in kilowatts? 1 ton = kilograms Kg 1.44 x10 11 Btu 4.32x10 10 Btu 1 day=24 hrs 1.8 x10 9 Btu 1 kilowatt hr =3413 Btu 5.27x10 5 KWatts

18 So what does this mean for energy and society? Electricity is a manufactured product. It is not something you pump out of the ground or mine or collect from the sun or wind. Electric power is manufactured from a rotating machine that we call an electrical generator. After it is generated, (manufactured) it is then delivered through copper wires to where it is utilized

19 the invention of the machine to generate power is right next to the invention of the printing press in the list of major contributions to the advancement of human civilization.

20 A "generator" and "motor" are essentially the same thing: what you call it depends on whether electricity is going into the unit or coming out of it. Electric generators are essentially very large quantities of copper wire spinning around inside very large magnets, at very high speeds. Example: A commercial utility electric generator -- for example, a 180-megawatt generator -- can be quite large. It is 20 feet in diameter, 50 feet long, and weighs over 50 tons. The copper coils (called the "armature") spin at 3600 revolutions per minute. Although the principle is simple (copper wire and magnets), it's not necessarily easy! Steam turbine generators, gas turbine generators, diesel engine generators, alternate energy systems (except photovoltaics), even nuclear power plants all operate on the same principle - magnets plus copper wire plus motion equals electric current. The electricity produced is the same, regardless of source.

21 Steam turbine Hydro-electric plant

22 So where do all the different fuels come in? It's all a queslon of how to get (and keep) the system moving (i.e. how to keep the copper wire spinning around). In a steam power plant, fuels (such as petroleum, coal, or biomass) are burned to heat water which turns into steam, which goes through a turbine, which spins...turning the copper wire (armature) inside the generator and genera4ng an electric current.

23 A geothermal power plant is preiy much a steam power plant, since what comes out of the earth is steam. Rainwater soaks into the ground and goes down, down, down...far enough unll it reaches a region which is really hot (in Hawaii, that's about 6000 feet). A well is drilled, the steam comes out, goes through a heat exchanger, and spins a turbine... turning the copper wire (armature) inside the generator and genera4ng an electric current. By the Lme the steam has gone through the heat exchanger, it has cooled off and become warm water. It is then re- injected into the ground. In a gas turbine power plant, fuels are burned to create hot gases which go through a turbine, which spins...turning the copper armature inside the generator and genera4ng an electric current.

24 In a nuclear power plant, nuclear reactions create heat to heat water, which turns into steam, which goes through a turbine, which spins...turning the copper armature inside the generator and generating an electric current. In a wind turbine, the wind pushes against the turbine blades, causing the rotor to spin...turning the copper armature inside the generator and generating an electric current. In a hydroelectric turbine, flowing (or falling) water pushes against the turbine blades, causing the rotor to spin...turning the copper armature inside the generator and generating an electric current.

25 Generation of Electricity. Energy loss in transmission of electricity Expansion and Modernization of the nation s electrical Transmission and distribution systems are urgently needed expansion and modernization would enhance reliability and security, accommodate changed in load growth and demand, and deploy new energy efficiency technologies and to supply on occasion electricity intermittently from other sources wind/solar/etc Report America s Energy Future

26 Power is rate of energy rate at which work is done 1 Watt = 1 J/sec =3.41 BTU/hr Grid transfers energy from power plant to enduser

27 Energy Basics Energy is the ability/capacity to do work Work is the transfer of energy.. Work = force x distance Angle between force and distance 1 J = 1 N m A force of 1 N moving a body over 1 m does 1 J of work. Power = the rate at which work is performed.

28 What is electricity? Electricity & Magnetism are closely related. Electricity.is a flow/stream of charges.current (I) charge is conserved charge is quantized (coulomb) Resistance to flow of Electricity or current.r=voltage/current Units of Current: Amperes.1 coulomb/second= 1 A Electrical Force attraction between opposite charges repulsion between similar charges Energy electrical potential energy.voltage (V) V=IR energy transferred is equal to current x resistance Work = force x distance

29 Electric force per unit charge: Electric Field.N/coulomb= Volt/m

30 Power transmitted over lines.is lost at a rate of P=I 2 R I is the current R is the resistance of the wires Example: 735 kv line is used to transmit electric energy From a hydroelectric plant in QuebecTo Montreal, 1000 km away. Suppose that the current is 500Amperes what is the power loss? Resistivity is Ohms/km P=I 2 R = (500A) 2 x (220 Ohms/km)x 1000 km= 55.0 MW

31 What is rate at which energy is supplied? Total power supplied: P =Volts x Current =735 kv x 1000V/kV x 500A =365 MegaWatts Loss is 55 MW Supply is 365 MW (55/365)x100% = 15% lost

32 What if you doubled Current from 500 A to 1000 A And cut the Volts to half of 735 KV? Supply would be the same. Loss would be much greater. P=I 2 R P= (1000 A) 2 x (220 Ohms/km)x 1000 km = 220 MW is the amount lost now (220MW/368MW)x 100% = 60% lost

33 So.we want to minimize losses P=I 2 R Low current transmission high voltage But we want to use the energy when it arrives safely.. Solution Transformers. Input V/(Nin)= Output V/ (No) output V= input V x (No/Nin)

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