6 18 A steam power plant receives heat from a furnace at a rate of 280 GJ/h. Heat losses to the surrounding air from the steam as it passes through

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1 Thermo 1 (MEP 261) Thermodynamics An Engineering Approach Yunus A. Cengel & Michael A. Boles 7 th Edition, McGraw-Hill Companies, ISBN , 2008 Sheet 6:Chapter A 600-MW steam power plant, which is cooled by a nearby river, has a thermal efficiency of 40 percent. Determine the rate of heat transfer to the river water. Will the actual heat transfer rate be higher or lower than this value? Why? 6 18 A steam power plant receives heat from a furnace at a rate of 280 GJ/h. Heat losses to the surrounding air from the steam as it passes through

2 the pipes and other components are estimated to be about 8 GJ/h. If the waste heat is transferred to the cooling water at a rate of 145 GJ/h, determine (a) net power output and (b) the thermal efficiency of this power plant. Answers: (a) 35.3 MW, (b) 45.4 percent A steam power plant with a power output of 150 MW consumes coal at a rate of 60 tons/h. If the heating value of the coal is 30,000 kj/kg, determine the overall efficiency of this plant. Answer: 30.0 percent.

3 6 21 An automobile engine consumes fuel at a rate of 28 l/h and delivers 60 kw of power to the wheels. If the fuel has a heating value of 44,000 kj/kg and a density of 0.8 g/cm 3, determine the efficiency of this engine. Answer: 21.9 percent 6 29C What is the difference between a refrigerator and a heat pump? 6-29C The difference between the two devices is one of purpose. The purpose of a refrigerator is to remove heat from a cold medium whereas the purpose of a heat pump is to supply heat to a warm medium A household refrigerator with a COP of 1.2 removes heat from the refrigerated space at a rate of 60 kj/min. Determine (a) the electric power consumed by the refrigerator and (b) the rate of heat transfer to the kitchen air. Answers: (a) 0.83 kw, (b) 110 kj/min

4 6 40 An air conditioner removes heat steadily from a house at a rate of 750 kj/min while drawing electric power at a rate of 6 kw. Determine (a) the COP of this air conditioner and (b) the rate of heat transfer to the outside air. Answers: (a) 2.08, (b) 1110 kj/min 6 46 Determine the COP of a refrigerator that removes heat from the food compartment at a rate of 5040 kj/h for each kw of power it consumes. Also, determine the rate of heat rejection to the outside air.

5 6 47 Determine the COP of a heat pump that supplies energy to a house at a rate of 8000 kj/h for each kw of electric power it draws. Also, determine the rate of energy absorption from the outdoor air. Answers: 2.22, 4400 kj/h 6 50 A heat pump used to heat a house runs about one third of the time. The house is losing heat at an average rate of 22,000 kj/h. If the COP of the heat pump is 2.8, determine the power the heat pump draws when running.

6 6 51 A heat pump is used to maintain a house at a constant temperature of 23 C. The house is losing heat to the outside air through the walls and the windows at a rate of 60,000 kj/h while the energy generated within the house from people, lights, and appliances amounts to 4000 kj/h. For a COP of 2.5, determine the required power input to the heat pump. Answer: 6.22 kw

7 6 71 A Carnot heat engine operates between a source at 1000 K and a sink at 300 K. If the heat engine is supplied with heat at a rate of 800 kj/min, determine (a) the thermal efficiency and (b) the power output of this heat engine. Answers: (a) 70 percent, (b) 9.33 kw A Carnot heat engine receives 650 kj of heat from a source of unknown temperature and rejects 250 kj of it to a sink at 24 C. Determine (a) the temperature of the source and (b) the thermal efficiency of the heat engine.

8 6 77 An innovative way of power generation involves the utilization of geothermal energy the energy of hot water that exists naturally underground as the heat source. If a supply of hot water at 140 C is discovered at a location where the environmental temperature is 20 C, determine the maximum thermal efficiency a geothermal power plant built at that location can have. Answer: 29.1 percent 6 78 An inventor claims to have developed a heat engine that receives 700 kj of heat from a source at 500 K and produces 300 kj of net work while

9 rejecting the waste heat to a sink at 290 K. Is this a reasonable claim? Why? 6 86 A Carnot refrigerator operates in a room in which the temperature is 22 C and consumes 2 kw of power when operating. If the food compartment of the refrigerator is to be maintained at 3 C, determine the rate of heat removal from the food compartment A refrigerator is to remove heat from the cooled space at a rate of 300 kj/min to maintain its temperature at -8 C. If the air surrounding the refrigerator is at 25 C, determine the minimum

10 power input required for this refrigerator. Answer: kw 6 88 An air-conditioning system operating on the reversed Carnot cycle is required to transfer heat from a house at a rate of 750 kj/min to maintain its temperature at 24 C. If the outdoor air temperature is 35 C, determine the power required to operate this air-conditioning system. Answer: 0.46 kw.

11 6 90 A Carnot refrigerator operates in a room in which the temperature is 25 C. The refrigerator consumes 500 W of power when operating and has a COP of 4.5. Determine (a) the rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space and (b) the temperature of the refrigerated space. Answers: (a) 135 kj/min, (b) C An inventor claims to have developed a refrigeration system that removes heat from the closed region at -12 C and transfers it to the

12 surrounding air at 25 C while maintaining a COP of 6.5. Is this claim reasonable? Why? 6 94 A heat pump is used to heat a house and maintain it at 24 C. On a winter day when the outdoor air temperature is -5 C, the house is estimated to lose heat at a rate of 80,000 kj/h. Determine the minimum power required to operate this heat pump A heat pump is used to maintain a house at 22 C by extracting heat from the outside air on a day when the outside air temperature is 2 C. The

13 house is estimated to lose heat at a rate of 110,000 kj/h, and the heat pump consumes 5 kw of electric power when running. Is this heat pump powerful enough to do the job? 6 96 The structure of a house is such that it loses heat at a rate of 5400 kj/h per C difference between the indoors and outdoors. A heat pump that requires a power input of 6 kw is used to

14 maintain this house at 21 C. Determine the lowest outdoor temperature for which the heat pump can meet the heating requirements of this house. Answer: C

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