International Journal on New Trends in Education and Their Implications (IJONTE)

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1 International Journal on New Trends in Education and Their Implications (IJONTE) October, 2014 Volume: 5 Issue: 4 ISSN

2 October 2014 Volume: 5 Issue: 4 ISSN Contact Addresses Prof. Dr. Zeki Kaya, Gazi Üniversitesi, Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi, Eğitim Bilimleri Bölümü Tenik Okullar Ankara/Türkiye E. Mail: Prof. Dr. Uğur Demiray, Anadolu Üniversitesi, İletişim Bilimleri Fakültesi, Yunusemre Kampüsü, Eskişehir/Türkiye E. Mail: Phone: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Beyhan Zabun, Gazi Üniversitesi, Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi, Tenik Okullar Ankara/Türkiye E. Mail: Assist. Prof. Dr. Ilknur Istifci, Anadolu Üniversitesi, Yabancı Diller Yüksek Okulu, İki Eylül Kampusü, Eskişehir/Türkiye E. Mail: Phone: Indexed by Sponsors i

3 October 2014 Volume: 5 Issue: 4 ISSN Editors Prof. Dr. Zeki Kaya, Gazi University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Uğur Demiray, Anadolu University, Turkey Associate Editors Assoc. Prof. Dr. Beyhan Zabun, Gazi University, Turkey Assist. Prof. Dr. Ilknur Istifci, Anadolu University, Turkey Assistant Editors Ufuk Tanyeri, Gazi University, Turkey Nazan Dogruer, Eastern Mediterranean University,TRNC Ramadan Eyyam, Eastern Mediterranean University, TRNC Ipek Menevis, Eastern Mediterranean University, TRNC Editorial Board Prof. Dr. Abdul Hakim Juri, University of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Prof. Dr. Ahmet Mahiroglu, Gazi University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Ahmet Pehlivan, Cyprus International University,TRNC Prof. Dr. Ali H. Raddaoui, University of Sfax, Tunisia Prof. Dr. Ali Murat Sunbul, Selcuk University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Ali Simsek, Anadolu University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Antoinette J. Muntjewerff, Amsterdam University, Netherlands Prof. Dr. Augustyn Bańka, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Poland Prof. Dr. Boriss Misnevs, Transport and Telecommunication Institute, Latvia Prof. Dr. Charlotte Nirmalani (Lani) Gunawardena, University of New Mexico, USA Prof. Dr. Christine Howe, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom Prof. Dr. Cevat Celep, Kocaeli University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Cleborne D. Maddux, University of Nevada, USA Prof. Dr. Coskun Bayrak, Anadolu University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Danièle Moore, Simon Fraser University, Canada Prof. Dr. Emine Demiray, Anadolu University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Erol Yildiz, Alpen-Adria University, Austria Prof. Dr. Esmahan Agaoglu, Anadolu University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Francis Glasgow, Guyana University, South America Prof. Dr. Gonca Telli Yamamoto, Okan University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Gul Nurgalieva, Joint-stock company,"national Center of Information", Kazakhstan Prof. Dr. Harold Bekkering, University of Nijmegen, Netherlands Prof. Hayriye Koc Basara, Sakarya University, Turkey Prof. Dr. H. Ferhan Odabasi, Anadolu University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Heli Ruokamo, University of Lapland, Finland Prof. Dr. I. Hakki Mirici, Hacettepe University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Jim Flood, Open University, United Kingdom Prof. Dr. Jozef Gašparík, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Slovakia Prof. Dr. Kiyoshi Nakabayashi, Kumamoto University, Japan Prof. Dr. K. M. Gupta, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, India Prof. Dr. Leyla Kucukahmet, Gazi University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Liliana Ezechil, University of Piteşti, Romania Prof. Dr. Manuel Alberto M. Ferreira, Lisbon University Institute, Portugal Prof. Dr. Marie J. Myers, Queen's University, Canada ii

4 October 2014 Volume: 5 Issue: 4 ISSN Prof. Dr. Mehmet Ali Kısakurek, Ankara University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Mehmet Durdu Karsli, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Mehmet Kesim, Anadolu University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Mehmet Şişman, Osman Gazi University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Meral Aksu, Middle East Technical University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Min Jou, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan Prof. Dr. Modafar Ati, Abu Dhabi University, United Arab Emirates Prof. Dr. Mohamed Abolgasem Artemimi, Zawia Engineering College, Libya Prof. Dr. Mufit Komleksiz, Cyprus International University,TRNC Prof. Dr. Nedim Gurses, Anadolu University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Paul Kawachi, Bejing Normal University, China Prof. Dr. Piet Kommers, University of Twente, Netherlands Prof. Dr. Ramesh C. Sharma, Indira Gandhi National Open University, India Prof. Dr. Richard C. Hunter, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA Prof. Dr. Rozhan M. Idrus, School of Distance Education, University Sains, Malaysia Prof. Dr. Santosh Panda, Indira Gandhi National Open University, India Prof. Dr. Selahattin Gelbal, Hacettepe University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Sharif H. Guseynov, Transport and Telecommunication Institute, Latvia Prof. Dr. Tamar Lominadze, Georgian Technical University, Georgia Prof. Dr. Tanja Betz, Goethe University, Germany Prof. Dr. Tayyip Duman, Gazi University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Tony Townsend, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom Prof. Dr. Valentina Dagiene, Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Lithuania Prof. Dr. Xibin Han, Tsinghua University, China Prof. Dr. Yavuz Akpinar, Bogaziçi University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Yoav Yair,The Open University of Israel, Israel Prof. Dr. Yuksel Kavak, Hacettepe University, Turkey Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ahmet Ok, Middle East Technical University, Turkey Assoc. Prof. Dr. Antonis Lionarakis, Hellenic Open University, Greece Assoc. Prof. Dr. Carlos Machado, Vrije University, Belgium Assoc. Prof. Dr. Danny Bernard Martin, University of Ilinois at Chicago, USA Assoc. Prof. Dr. Demetrios G. Sampson, University of Piraeus, Greece Assoc. Prof. Dr. Natalija Lepkova, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Lithuania Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nigel Bagnall, The University of Sydney, Australia Assoc. Prof. Dr. Roberta E. (Bobby) Harreveld, Queensland University, Australia Assoc. Prof. Dr. Rositsa Doneva, Paisii Hilendarski University of Plovdiv, Bulgaria Assoc. Prof. Dr. Shivakumar Deene, Karnataka State Open University, India Assoc. Prof. Dr. Steve Wheeler, University of Plymouth, United Kingdom Assist. Prof. Dr. Irfan Yurdabakan, Dokuz Eykul University, Turkey Assist. Prof. Dr. Katherine Sinitsa, International Research and Training Center, Ukrania Assist. Prof. Dr. Roxana Criu, Cuza University, Romania Assist. Prof. Dr. Zdena Lustigova, Charles University, Czech Republic Dr. Carmencita L. Castolo, Polytechnic University, Philippines Dr. Hisham Mobaideen, Mu'tah University, Jordan Dr. Simon Stobart, University of Teesside, United Kingdom iii

5 October 2014 Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Contents ISSN CONTENTS...iv From The Editors.. vi ARTICLES 01. THE DEVELOPMENT STUDY OF NATIONAL IDENTITY PERCEPTION SCALE Prof. Dr. Yücel GELIŞLI- TURKEY MODELS OF THINKING EDUCATION AND QUADRUPLE THINKING Assist. Prof. Dr. M. Ali DOMBAYCI- TURKEY FL READING STRATEGY USE, READING PROFICIENCY AND ACHIEVEMENT: IS THERE ANY RELATIONSHIP? Assist. Prof. Dr. İpek KURU GÖNEN- TURKEY PRIMARY EDUCATION IN ANCIENT ATHENS AND TODAY Assist. Prof. Dr. Evren ŞAR İŞBİLEN, Assist. Prof. Dr. Gülşah BATDAL KARADUMAN- TURKEY LEARNER AUTONOMY IN PRACTICE Robab AHMADZADEH, Shalaleh ZABARDAST- IRAN JOB STRESSORS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON ACADEMIC STAFF: A CASE STUDY Assoc. Prof. Dr. İlhan GÜNBAYI TURKEY FOREIGN LANGUAGE USE ANXIETY IN TEACHERS AND STUDENTS ATTITUDE Shalaleh ZABARDAST IRAN THE APPLICATION OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR THERAPY (CBT) FOR DEPRESSION: A CASE STUDY OF IRANIAN FEMALE Leili SHAHLAEI, Shahizan HASAN, S. KIUMARSI MALAYSIA DEVELOPMENT OF A SELF-ASSESSMENT SCALE FOR EFFECTIVE PRESENTATION SKILLS AND THE VALIDITY- RELIABILITY STUDY Assist. Prof. Dr. Selim GUNUÇ, Assist. Prof. Dr. Serap CAVKAYTAR, Belgin SÖNMEZ, Fidan ÖZBEY, Zeynep KILIÇ- TURKEY CHALLENGES OF TEACHING AVIATION VOCABULARY AND RADIO PHRASEOLOGY AT HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL Şule Y. E. SEÇER, Assist. Prof. Dr. Mehmet ŞAHİN THE EFFECT OF THE SPATIAL SKILLS EDUCATION PROGRAM ON THE SPATIAL SKILLS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN Assist. Prof. Atiye ADAK ÖZDEMIR, Prof. Yıldız GÜVEN TURKEY ANALYZING SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS MATHEMATICAL PROBLEM-SOLVING ATTITUDES IN TERMS OF CERTAIN VARIABLES Assoc. Prof. Dr. Dilek ÇAĞIRGAN GÜLTEN- TURKEY 138 iv

6 October 2014 Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Contents ISSN INNOVATION AND CHANGE IN EDUCATION: THE CASE OF ENGLISH INSTRUCTORS AT A PRIVATE UNIVERSITY IN TURKEY Büşra TOMBAK, Assist. Prof. Dr. Mehmet ŞAHİN MUSIC TEACHERS VIEWS ABOUT THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ACTIVITIES IN LEARNING DOMAINS IN THE PRESENT SECONDARY SCHOOL SIXTH GRADE CURRICULUM Assist. Prof. Dr. Onur KÖKSAL- TURKEY SECONDARY EDUCATION GEOMETRY PROGRAM FROM STUDENTS PERSPECTIVE Prof. Dr Adnan BAKI, Resh. Assist. Elif AKŞAN TURKEY ANALYSIS OF PRE-SERVICE SCIENCE TEACHERS VIEWS ABOUT THE METHODS WHICH DEVELOP REFLECTIVE THINKING Ufuk TÖMAN, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Sabiha ODABAŞI ÇİMER, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Atilla ÇİMER- TURKEY STRUCTURED PROBLEM POSING CASES OF PROSPECTIVE MATHEMATICS TEACHERS: EXPERIENCES AND SUGGESTIONS Assoc. Prof. Dr. Sare ŞENGÜL, Dr. Yasemin KATRANCI- TURKEY ND YEAR STUDENTS AND THEIR TEACHER S PERSPECTIVES ON ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROGRAM APPLIED FOR THE FIRST TIME IN ACADEMIC YEAR Res. Assist. Fazilet Özge MAVİŞ, Assist. Prof. Dr. Gülay BEDİR- TURKEY THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN STUDENT ENGAGEMENT AND THEIR ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT Assist. Prof. Dr. Selim GUNUC- TURKEY THE CONTRIBUTION OF READING LESSONS ON STUDENTS GENERAL OR WORLD KNOWLEDGE Assist. Prof. Dr. Hülya İPEK- TURKEY.232 v

7 October 2014 Volume: 5 Issue: 4 From Editors ISSN Dear IJONTE Readers, International Journal on New Trends in Education and Their Implications- IJONTE appears on your screen now as Volume 5, Number 4. In this issue it publishes 20 articles. And this time, 36 authors from 3 different countries are placed. These are Iran, Malaysia, and Turkey. Our journal has been published for over five years. It has been followed by many people and a lot of articles have been sent to be published. 282 articles have been sent to referees for forthcoming issues. They will be published according to the order and the results. Articles are sent to referees without names and addresses of the authors. The articles who get positive responses will be published and the authors will be informed. The articles who are not accepted to be published will be returned to their authors. We wish you success and easiness in your studies. Cordially, 1 st October, 2014 Editors Prof. Dr. Zeki KAYA, Gazi University, Ankara- TURKEY Prof. Dr. Ugur DEMIRAY, Anadolu University, Eskisehir- TURKEY Assoc. Prof. Dr. Beyhan ZABUN, Gazi University, Ankara- TURKEY Assist. Prof. Dr. Ilknur ISTIFCI, Anadolu University, Eskisehir- TURKEY vi

8 October 2014 Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Article: 01 ISSN THE DEVELOPMENT STUDY OF NATIONAL IDENTITY PERCEPTION SCALE ABSTRACT Prof. Dr. Yücel GELIŞLI Educational Sciences Department Gazi Faculty of Education, Gazi University Teknikokullar, Ankara- TURKEY 282 university students were chosen as the study group of this study that aims to develop a scale measuring perceptions regarding national identity. In the development phase of draft scale, after the examination of existing perception scales and literature on national identity, drafts items were written and sent to expert judges. In the phase of scale development, 50 five point Likert items including positive and negative perceptions were written and item total and item remainder correlation coefficients were calculated. On the basis of those analyses, items that were not significant were deleted and factor analysis was carried out on the remaining 40 items to investigate construct validity of the scale. Based on this analysis, a 21-item scale whose two factors account for 52% of the total variance was obtained. Through exploratory factor analysis, the scale took its final form and the Cronbach-alpha coefficient of the scale was found to be 0,93. Analysis showed that the scale has three factors and items factor loadings range from 0.45 to It was found that the National Identity Perception Scale is for measuring the national identity perceptions of university students. Key Words: National Identity, National Identity Perception Scale, Perception Scale. INTRODUCTION Nationalist movements that emerged after the French Revolution have turned the twentieth century into a process of nationalization. Therefore, the concepts of "national identity" and "national state" have become the most frequently discussed concepts of the process of globalization. During the French Revolution, bourgeoisie grounded the existence of nation on state and defined it as society who lived on land whose borders were determined beforehand and then joint in the historical process. With the emergence of nation-state, national identity of citizens living within national borders began to be the most important focus of identity while the religious and ethnic identities that had been important have lost their previous function. State pursued policies to gather all citizens under a single identity. The tool used for gathering people under a national identity was national language and culture (Şen, 2004). The most important factor distinguishing societies is cultural differences. Cultural differences are composed of different lifestyles and relationships. People differ by social characteristics while living in the communities they feel they belong to. They find place for themselves in this homogenized society. In a narrow sense, an individual who differ from others in the community in terms of a variety of physical, social, intellectual properties and perceptions owns an individual identity in the community in which s/he lives and becomes a personality. Identity is, first of all, a concept unique to human being. There are two components that constitute identity. The first one is recognition and identification while the second one is the sense of belonging. Recognition and identification are related to how an individual is recognized by the society and how he defines himself. The tool for this is language and culture. Belonging comes out when an individual feels included to any social group (Suavi,1999). That is, identity or personality means how an individual or society is recognized and how much value is appraised by others. One s identity is the showcase that is personally and painstakingly built for others. A variety of indicators including bodily characteristics, intellectual backgrounds and behaviors are the determinants of individual identity (Tural, 1994). 1

9 October 2014 Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Article: 01 ISSN Identity is basically one s realization of the fact that he is a unique, original and free entity equipped with some creative abilities. Human is a social being and while living in a community, he explores his identity in the community and tries to build it (Onat, 2009). This viewpoint specifies the social perspective of identity. Identity is a dynamic formation shaped by expectations ascribed to social roles in the process of socialization. The sense of belonging is effective on this formation to a large extent. However, when the identity is only shaped by the sense of belonging, it brings about individuals without identities. Identity and belonging that are two closely related concepts are full of contradictions. While revealing his identity, one does not compromise on creativity and originality, one who voice his extreme loyalty to the community that he belongs to may shift away from his identity and personality in addition to losing his creativity and originality since people who have extreme loyalty to a certain group adopt the conscious of feeling in the same way and assimilation. The necessities of individual characteristics are of secondary importance for those people. In fact, the need for the sense of belonging and individual necessities should be fulfilled equitably (Erkan, Meaning universe that is shaped by the authority in social area will enable individuals to have different encodings and by this way, identity will not only be an ontological identity but exist in a formation with a social and historical background. Yet, the construction of identities uses materials from "the history, geography, biology, productive and production-directed institutions, collective memory, personal fantasies, power devices, and religious revelation. However, individuals, social groups and communities process all these materials and rearrange the meaning of all these material based on the social structure in which they live, social conditions resulting from space / time frame and cultural projects (as cited in Yanık, 2013: 228,229). From a different angle, Herper states that identity is formed by a variety of environments, and some social institutions, particularly by society and adaptation to them influences identity. For example, it is specified that by adapting to communication tools and the effects of media, we create social worlds and identity is formed in this context. Types of music people listen to, the fashion magazines they choose reflect the personality traits of those people. Herper indicates that communication, fashion magazines, other means of communication, media sources and the internet that we always encounter in the social world shape our identity in this manner. Social identities are constructed in this process (http://www. sagepub.com). Erkal who points out the important role of family, friends, school and work on identity formation states that people acquire values and behaviors related to their own cultural environment via formal and informal education. Erkal attaches special importance to today's media in addition to those because according to him, while media that nowadays shrink the world may contribute to the development, recognition and enforcement of cultural identity, it may also cause the identity get obscured and discussed unnecessarily (as cited in Gelekçi, 2011). Nation is the name of a community of people who share history, territory, common myths and historical memory, public culture of a mass, a common economy and common legal rights and duties. Nation, like ethnicity, is a community with common myths and memories (Kıdıraliyev, 2007). There are some properties distinguish all nations throughout history and enable identification of a nation among others. All those properties unique to each nation constitutes the concept of National Identity. National identity is an expression of belonging to a national culture. Individuals own the identity of a culture they belong to. National identity is, on the other hand, refers to all material and spiritual values that constitute the whole nation life. As national culture constitutes national identity, all elements and values in culture determines national identity. Language, religion, flag, history, homeland, government, lifestyle, architecture, music, customs and traditions are the essential elements of national identity (Eker, 2009). Nation-states must also give an identity to the territory on which they live. History enables those territories turn into homeland and attribution of identities to them. On the condition that there is history on a piece of land, it becomes homeland. It is history that gives identity to both the community living in a nation-state and the territory on which people live (Şıvgın, 2009, 42). 2

10 October 2014 Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Article: 01 ISSN National identity is closely associated with other ethnic, political, social, economic, geostrategic, etc. identities. Therefore, when national identity is considered, it is naturally necessary to examine the ethnic and general history, political and economic situation, social structure and geography of a nation or nation-state (Kıdıraliyev, 2007). Accordingly, identity is a reality undergoing constant change, reproduced and always in the state of formation in the historical process (Gökalp, 2004: 64). According to Tural, national identity is the sum of indicators that a group of people create in accordance to their wish regarding how to be seen, accepted by other communities. National identity is based on the common denominator called national culture. Each national identity is the highest level affinity indicator of a society. Each national identity is the sum of nationality based values and behaviors that rooted in history and religion based values and behaviors (Tural, 1994). National identity and the nation are complex constructs that are composed of many interrelated ethnic, cultural, territorial, economic and legal-political elements. They signify bonds of solidarity among members of communalities united by shared memories, myths and traditions that may or may not find expression in states of their own but are extremely different from the purely legal and bureaucratic ties of the state (Smith, 1991: 15). In order for the society to internalize national symbols and values, it is aimed to deeply attribute events, symbols and historical figures in the collective memory to masses. Particularly by reflecting on national education and cultural policies via tools such as military and mobilizing and supporting intellectuals, it is aimed to bring about citizens with an upper identity. In order to get society and identified cultural values in to the same melting pot, educational and cultural institutions and policies of the state take action to this end. Particularly a public and mass education system has been quiet effective in national identity formation. In fact, this formation is based on the effort to educate. Via education and instruction studies, it has been attempted consolidate the homogeneous identity that will be formed on the basis of otherization, religion in particular. Another important point about identity formation is the constantly strong emphasis on integrity and eternity. Formation of national identity is roughly seen as a phenomenon that can be achieved through creation of another, a national language, a mass education system and a common history and nationalization of industry (Yazar, 2013). Perhaps the most significant function of national identity in terms of politics is legitimizing common legal rights and duties of legal institutions that define personality and values unique to a nation and reflect the ancient traditions and customs of a community. Today, national identity has become the basic reference point in terms of the legitimacy of the social order and solidarity. National identities also perform more intimate, internal functions for individuals in the community. The most obvious function is socialization of individuals as nationality and citizens. Today, this is achieved through mandatory, standard public education systems By creating a repertoire of shared values, symbols and traditions, nation is referred again for establishing a social bond between individuals and classes of individuals. Via symbols such as flag, currency, starter, uniforms, monuments; common heritage and cultural proximity are reminded to community members and sense of common identity and belonging are strengthened. Nation becomes a faith boat group that is able to overcome obstacles and take on hardship. Finally, a sense of national identity provides a powerful means of defining and locating individual selves in the world, through the prism of the collective personality and its distinctive culture (Smith, 1991: 17) It has become important to build national identity and highlight the unique properties of the community to reinforce it and emphasize the exact and sharp differences between "us" and "others". In communities whose priority in the modernization process is the acquisition of a national identity, particularly in European countries, it has been observed that a new us concept is constituted based on almost only the definition of other (Şimşek, Alaslan; 2014). There are many theories and views regarding formation and development of national identity. One of them belongs to Anthony Smith. According to Smith, nations are long-term entities that is constantly introduced and created and require ethnic origin, fatherland, heroes and golden ages. Those 3

11 October 2014 Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Article: 01 ISSN components that are quiet difficult to change but at the same time more flexible in terms of meaning, play important role on creation of collective culture and national identity (Smith, 2004: 196). According to Benedict Anderson who has important views about national identity formation, nations are imagined communities. In this formation, from politicians to intellectuals everyone has inconsiderable share and archaeological studies, monuments, museums and maps, and more importantly, press and printing that is "a part of the pictorial count of state heritage" have important role. In addition, Anderson states "readily forgotten tragedies" constantly remembered and / reminded during the formation of national identity and kept alive have important role in construction of "national extraction". National identity involves both cultural and political identity and it is placed in cultural and political communities as well. This is important because the formation of a national identity means redrawing the lines of a map or a political movement that is the change of the composition of a state. According to the "modernist" image of nation, what creates national identity is nationalism. Nationalism, which is a doctrine invented in the 19 th century in Europe, is the movement of nation members to preserve their national identity and their activities to have political freedom (Kıdıraliyeva, 2007). Basic Elements of National Identity Herskovits (1948) and Huntington (1996), who define four basic factors in national identity formation, considers those factors as follows: belief structure, cultural similarity, national heritage and racial unity. Fearonc (1999:8), who states that the idea of national identity is the result of a nation s temporal and spatial persistence, points out that the components of national identity are belief structure, beliefs over religion or nation and cultural participation (Bruce D. Keillor, G. Tomas M. Hult;1998). Smith regarded national identity elements as a common historical territory or understanding of homeland, common myths and historical memories, a common mass public culture, a system of rights and duties for all people and a common economy (Smith, 1994; 31-32). Some of those constitute the frame of basic identities. It was attempted to keep those basic identities alive via origin based policies. Peel and heroic myths, the core of culture, language, religion, traditions and institutions are glorified and a big emphasis on the unique collective past is highlighted (Yazar, 2013). There are three basic elements of nationality according to Hayes. One of them is language. The importance of language stems from the fact that it shapes nationality. Language (uniformic) creates a similar mentality and a set of common ideas like common words. Thus, people with similar mentalities develop group consciousness for common profit. Group acquires a historical consciousness in time and this is the second element. Sacred memories of the group s common history in both individual and collective memory provide a historical tradition. The third element is members faith in the encouragement of a different and cultural society. Hayes added that nationality had always existed throughout history; however, a kind of nationality in which patriotism is more dominant than everything is modern (Hayes, 1961:14). Kösoğlu states that national culture constitutes national identity while national culture is the whole of national life. That is, it is possible to consider countless cultural elements that constitute national identity and that are the signs of it. Language is the most basic one of those national signs. Islam and our religious culture through which this faith is realized in life are said to be the other important signs (www.yusufiye.net). Aim This study aims to develop a scale to determine university students perceptions regarding national identity. METHOD This study, which aims to develop a scale that can be used to determine university students perceptions regarding national identity, was completed through survey model. In this section, study group of the research and techniques used in scale development and data analysis are examined. 4

12 October 2014 Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Article: 01 ISSN Study Group The study group consists of students of Gazi University, Gazi Faculty of Education, Ankara University Educational Sciences Faculty and METU Faculty of Education in the academic year. The distribution of participants is presented in Table 1. Table1: Distribution of Students By Universities Faculties Number Percentage G.U Gazi Faculty of Education Ankara University Faculty of Educational Sciences METU Faculty of Education TOTAL Random sampling method was adopted and voluntary students studying in universities located in Ankara were selected as the study group. Participants studying in Gazi Faculty of Education, METU Faculty of Education and Ankara University Faculty of Educational Sciences respectively compose 80%, 11% and 8% of the total 282 participants. Scale Development The fact that perceptions cannot be directly observed lead researchers to develop scales to measure perceptions. As a result of those studies, various perception scales were developed to measure perceptions. For the aim of this study, it was necessary to formulate positive and negative sentences that are considered for measuring students national identity perceptions. In this context, an item pool, which consists of positive and negative items, was prepared and five point Likert type scale was used as a model. After experts analyzed the items so as to provide content validity, a 50-item scale was drafted for piloting. In order to provide validity of the scale based on the feedback, positive items were coded as follows: 5=totally agree 4=agree 3=partially agree 2=disagree 1=totally disagree while negative items were scored reversely (Tezbaşaran, 1997). The piloting of the 50-item scale was performed on 282 voluntary students studying in Gazi University, Gazi Faculty of Education, METU Faculty of Education and Ankara University Faculty of Educational Sciences. After scoring all perception items, item analysis was carried out. To this end, the correlation between group s score on each item and group s total score on the whole scale was calculated. Those items that show high correlation with total score were saved and others were omitted from the scale. After content analysis was provided, three steps were followed for construct validity. Those steps were factor analysis, item total scores and item discrimination index (Tavşancıl; 2006). Factor analysis was done in order to make clear the dimensions of the National Identity Perception Scale that was composed of 50 items. To this end, Principal Component Analysis, one of the factor analysis techniques, was carried out on the data obtained and number of factors was kept free without any interference. Through Principal Component Analysis, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) coefficient and Barlett Sphericity test were checked. KMO value (Kaiser Meyer Olkin) was found to be and items whose eigenvalue was greater than 1.00 were kept in the scale. Varimax vertical rotation method was used to determine the independent sub-dimensions of the scale. Alpha internal consistency coefficient and item total correlations were calculated to check the reliability of each sub-dimension of National Identity Perception Scale. As the cut-off value for factor loadings was set at a minimum of.45, 30 items with factor loadings lower than.45 were removed from the scale and the scale was finally composed of 21 items. Additionally, out of participants of the pilot study, the upper 27% and the lower 27% groups answers to each item were compared based on interdependent t test. 5

13 October 2014 Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Article: 01 ISSN FINDINGS AND COMMENTS Data suitability for factor analysis was checked through Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) coefficient and Barlett Sphericity test. Accordingly, KMO value (Kaiser Meyer Olkin) was found to be and Barlett test result was found to be (Bartlett s test of Sphericity) 3123,334 (p<0.01). The data structure was considered to be appropriate for factor analysis as the KMO value was much higher than the limit value of.600 that is accepted as the minimum acceptable value (Büyüköztürk, 2005, Akgül, 1997:581). Both test results proved that factor analysis processes were suitable for data structure. KMO and Bartlett's test results are presented in Table 2. Table 2: KMO and Bartlett's Test Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy.,920 Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square 3123,334 df 210 Sig.,000 At first, without interfering with factors, principal component analysis was utilized. While items with factor loadings over 0.45 were taken to evaluation, those with loadings lower than.45 were removed from the scale. Accordingly, scale was composed of 20 items and two dimensions. According to the principal components analysis, before application of varimax vertical rotation method, the variance values explained solely by the first factor was 37,19. Results of Principle Component Analysis are shown in Table 3. Table 3: Results of Principle Component Analysis (National Identity Perception Scale Item Eigenvalues and Explained Percentages) Extraction Sums of Squared Initial Eigenvalues Loadings Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings Component Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total % of Variance Cumulative % 1 8,974 42,733 42,733 8,974 42,733 42,733 7,811 37,197 37, ,010 9,573 52,306 2,010 9,573 52,306 3,173 15,108 52, ,057 5,034 57, ,001 4,767 62,107 5,863 4,107 66,214 6,777 3,698 69,912 7,693 3,302 73,214 8,634 3,017 76,231 9,586 2,790 79,021 10,533 2,539 81,560 11,507 2,412 83,972 12,464 2,208 86,180 13,450 2,144 88,323 14,412 1,962 90,285 15,404 1,926 92,211 16,381 1,815 94,026 17,317 1,512 95,538 18,291 1,388 96,926 19,229 1,092 98,018 20,214 1,019 99,036 21,202, ,000 Total Variance Explained Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. While there were strong proofs showing that the scale consisted of a single factor, by analyzing the structure of item, it was decided to use varimax vertical rotation method. Results showed that 20 items were accumulated around two factors whose eigenvalue was over than 1. While the first factor explained 37.19% of total variance, the second one explained 15.10% of it. It was revealed that two factors explained 52.30% 6

14 October 2014 Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Article: 01 ISSN of the total variance. Common variances of those two factors ranged from.494 to.856. Results of factor analysis after rotation are presented in Table 4. Table 4: Results of Factor Analsis After Rotation( Rotated Component Matrix ) Items Component Factor I Factor II M14,764 M3,742 M33,733 M29,725 M15,719 M5,701 M9,700 M17,699 M36,695 M20,636 M18,634 M23,632 M22,629 M12,611 M28,607 M34,586 M24,494 M30,856 M31,819 M16,817 M10,502 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization. a Rotation converged in 3 iterations. Results of reliability and validity analysis are presented in Table 5. Table 5: Reliability and Validity Analysis Results of National Identity Perception Scale Items and Factors Mean I. Factor (National Identity and Values) 3. I would be happy to attend national holidays. 4,18,96,554,652,742,581 9, My country is my priority. /comes first. 4,19,95,582,763,701,720 11, National identity and solidarity are essential values. 4,18,76,521,711,700,656 9, Language is the most important element that unite society. 14. National identity constitutes is composed of ideal and sense of homeland. 15. National identity is formed by the relationship of citizenship. Standard Deviation Communality 4,20,95,377 4,07 1,00,599 4,05,95,517 Component Factor Loadings Varimax Factor Loadings,582,611,749,764,659,719 Item Total Correlations,521,694,592 t value* 9,008 15,094 12,040 7

15 October 2014 Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Article: 01 ISSN National identity is unity of sense. 4,07,91,548,737,699,691 13, The most important element of national identity is,618,634 8,817 4,46,83,411,553 independence. 20. National identity is formed by common history. 4,08,93,471,686,636,636 10, Social belonging is important for me. 4,05,84,412,627,629,569 11, I would be happy to read books related to Turkish,648,632 13,583 3,92 1,03,430,593 history. 24. Cultural values influence my life. 4,21,77,320,564,494,515 9, Honor, dignity, reputation, independence, morality are the basic elements of national identity. 29. Consciousness of national history is an important determinant of national identity. 33. National values are the determinants of national identity. 34. Customs and traditions are major determinants of national identity. II. Factor (National Identity-Religion Relationship) 4,26 1,03,504 4,14,88,579 4,17,82,597 4,05,93,471,705,607,756,725,769,733,681,586,662,703,718,637 10,137 11,694 14,554 11, I would be happy to attend religious holidays. 3,38 1,10,745,592,502,445 1, Religion is the most important one of national values. 3,22 1,07,678,691,817,407 1, Religious beliefs are the determinants of national identity. 4,38,89,431,738,856,566 1, Culture is composed of the religious beliefs of a nation. 3,49 1,16,686,712,819,454 1,54989 * All the "t" values are significant at the level. It was found that item-total correlations of all items ranged from.407 to.720. While item-total correlations vary from.515 to.720 for Factor I, those correlations vary from 407 to.566 for Factor II. Considering that items with item-total correlations that is.30 or above discriminated well (Büyüköztürk, 2005), it can be stated that the reliability of items measures the same behavior at a fair or high level. The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient was found to be.93 for Factor I whereas it was.80 for Factor II. Totally, the Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient was found to be.93 for the scale and it can be said that scale has high reliability. Reliability analysis was provided through the examination of the difference between average item scores of the upper 27% and the lower 27% groups, item total correlation and Cronbach alpha internal consistency coefficient and t values were found to be significant (P<.OO1). In the National Identity Perception Scale development study, the item 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 14, 15, 17, 18, 20, 22, 23, 24, 28, 29, 33 and 34 fell into the first factor (National Identity and Values) while item 10, 16, 30 and 31 fell into the second factor (National Identity-Religion Relationship). Variance Rates Explained by the Sub dimensions of National Identity Perception Scale and Alpha Coefficients are presented in Table 6. Table 6:Variance Rates Explained by the Subdimensions of National Identity Perception Scale and Alpha Coefficients Factor Explained Variance Alpha Total While the first factor explained 37.19% of total variance, the second one explained 15.10% of it. It was revealed that two factors explained 52.30% of the total variance. The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient was found to be.93 for Factor I whereas it was.80 for Factor II. Totally, the Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient was found to be.93 for the scale. The total alpha coefficient of the scale is found to be.93. The criteria to evaluate alpha coeffient is as follows (Özdamar, 1999:522). 8

16 October 2014 Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Article: 01 ISSN When correlation coefficients in the University National Identity Perception Scale were analyzed, it was revealed that the correlation between the first and second factor was found to be.467. While the correlation between the first factor and total scale items was.972, the correlation between the second factor and total scale items was.661. It was observed that the correlation between factors was significant; however, it was at a fair level. This finding could be a proof showing that perception items of the scale fall under two independent factors. Correlations of National Identity Perception Scale are presented in Table 7. Table 7: National Identity Perception Scale Correlations Factors N X Ss p Top Fak1 Fak2 Factor * --- Factor 2 Pearson * --- Correlation Top Pearson Correlation , * RESULT This research aims to develop a valid and reliable scale to determine university students perceptions regarding national identity. Firstly, a pilot scale composed of 50 items was performed on 282 students and as a result of analysis, 30 items were removed from the scale and the final form consisted of 20 items. Those items were determined to measure two basic structures (National Identity and Values, National Identity Religion) of participant students national identity perceptions. Accordingly, National Identity Perception Scale was accepted as a reliable and valid measurement tool that measures university students perceptions regarding national identity and have two sub-dimensions. IJONTE s Note: This article was presented at VI. Sosyal Bilimler Eğitimi Kongresi, (Social Sciences Education Congress) Ekim (October)2013, KTÜ, Trabzon. BIODATA AND CONTACT ADDRESS OF AUTHOR Prof.Dr.Yücel GELİŞLİ is currently the director of the Department of Educational Sciences at Gazi Education Faculty at Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey. He holds a Bachelor s degree in Division of Curriculum and Insructiom from the Gazi Education Faculty of Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey, Master s degree in Curriculum Development from the Social Sciences Institute of Balıkesir University, Balıkesir, Turkey, and Ph D in Curriculum and Instruction (Social and Historical Bases of Education) from the Social Sciences Institute of Ankara University, Ankara Turkey. His main research interests are Curriculum Development, Teacher Training System and History of Education. He has authored Teacher Training Applications in Ankara Teacher Training Collage (2006), Development of Primary Education in Turkey (2005) and a chapter titled as Functions of Education, Editor: ÖZDEMİR, Ç, Prof. Dr: Entry to the Education Sciences (2006), The Development and Problems of Training Teachers for Vocational and Technical Education in Turkey in Higher Education in a State of Crisis (2011), Cooperation with Family at Classroom Management, Editor: ERÇETİN, Ş., ÖZDEMİR, Ç: Classroom Management, (2004). Prof. Dr. Yücel GELIŞLI Department of Edocation Sciences Gazi Faculty of Education Teknikokullar/Ankara TURKEY E. Mail: 9

17 October 2014 Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Article: 01 ISSN REFERENCES Akgül, A. (1997). Tıbbi Araştırmalarda İstatistiksel Analiz Teknikleri. Ankara: Yüksek Öğretim Kurulu Matbaası. Anderson, B. (1991) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, Verso, London; New York. Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2005). Sosyal Bilimler İçin Veri Analizi El Kitabı. Ankara: Pegem A Yayıncılık.. Eker, M. (2009). Sevinç Çokum un Romanlarında Milli Kimlik, Yağmur, İstanbul. Erkan, B. Erişim: Fearon, J,A.(1999). What Is Identıty (As We Now Use The Word)? Draft. https://www.stanford.edu.erişim: Gelekçi, C. (2011). Prof. Dr. Mustafa E. Erkal ın çalışmalarında kültür, kültürel kimlik ve etniklik kavramları. article /viewfile/11358/10618 ( ).Erişim: Gökalp, E.(2004). Kimlik, Farklılık ve Kimlik Siyaseti, Anadolu Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi, Cilt 1, Sayı 2, S Hayes, C. J. H.(1961) "Bases of Nationalism." in Nationalism and International Progress. U. G. Whitaker, Jr. (ed.), San Francisco: Chandler Publihing. Herskovits, M. (1948). Man and His Works, Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA. Huntington, S. (1996). The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, Simon and Schuster, New York, NY. Keillor,B.D.,Tomas, G., Hult, M. (1998). A Five-Country Study Of National İdentity, International Marketing Review, 16,(1), Kıdıraliyeva, S.(2007). Milli Kimlik Nedir? =com_content&task=view&id=128, Erişim: /tr/index.php?option Kösoğlu, N: article &sid=528.erişim: ). Onat, H.(2009). Kimlik-Teoloji İlişkisi Bağlamında Alevilik-Bektaşilikle İlgili Kimlik Tartışmaları Üzerine, Alevilik- Bektaşilik Araştırmaları Dergisi. Forschungszeitschrift über Alevitentum und Bektaschitentum Journal of Alevism-Bektashism Studies, Sayı/Heft: 1. Özdamar, K. (1999). Paket Programlar İle İstatistiksel Veri Analizi. Kaan Kitabevi, Eskişehir. Smith, Anthony D. (1991) National Identity University of Nevada Press, Nevada, USA. Smith, A. D. (1994) Milli Kimlik, çev. Bahadır Sina ŞENER, İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları. Smith, Anthony D. (2004) History and National Destiny: Responses and Clarifications, Nations and Nationalism 10 (1/2),

18 October 2014 Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Article: 01 ISSN Suavi, A.(1999). Kimlik Sorunu, Ulusallık ve Türk Kimliği, Ankara: Öteki Yayınları. Şen, Y.F.(2004). Globalleşme Sürecinde Milliyetçilik Trendleri ve Ulus Devlet, Ankara: Yargı Yayınevi. Şıvgın, H,(2009), Ulusal Tarih Eğitiminin Kimlik Gelişimindeki Önemi, Akademik Bakış. 2,(4), Şimşek, A., Alaslan.(2014). Milliyetçi Tarihten Milli Tarihe, Çatışmacı Eğitimden Barışçı Eğitime Doğru Türkiye de Tarih Ders Kitapları, Akademik Bakış Dergisi, Sayı: 40. Tavşancıl, E.(2006), Tutumların Ölçülmesi ve SPPS ile Veri Analizi, Nobel Yayınevi, Ankara. Tezbaşaran, A. A., (1997). Likert Tipi Ölçek Geliştirme Kılavuzu. Ankara: Türk Psikologlar Derneği Yayınları. Tural, S.(1994). Kültürel Kimlik Kavramı, Atatürk Araştırma Merkezi Dergisi Cilt: X, 29. Yanık, C. (2013). Etnisite, Kimlik ve Milliyetçilik Kavramlarının Sosyolojik Analizi, Kaygı, 20, Yazar, D. (2013). Ulusal Kimliğin İnşasına Maddi Kültür, tutunamayanlar.net,/fikir/arsiv/390- ulusal-kimligin-insasina-maddi-kultur-damla-yazar. Erişim: 21/07/2013 Identity and Perception. Erişim:

19 October 2014 Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Article: 15 ISSN SECONDARY EDUCATION GEOMETRY PROGRAM FROM STUDENTS PERSPECTIVE Prof. Dr Adnan BAKI Karadeniz Techinal University Faculty of Fatih Education Trabzon- TURKEY Resh. Assist. Elif AKŞAN Karadeniz Techinal University Institute of Education Sciences Trabzon- TURKEY ABSTRACT The geometry program which was developed by the Board of Education and began to be used in 2009 brought innovations in the geometry course. Its major innovations is the addition of vectors, transformation geometry, rotation in space and drawings of perspectives. In addition, the order of subjects was modified. The goal of the course is to improve the students ability to prove. It is recommended that teachers should employ the synthetic, vectoral and analytical approaches in geometrical proofs. However, new design of the course has led to many problems. The aim of the study is to reveal the reasons for such problems based on the views of the students. To this end, semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty senior high school students. The findings indicate that the participants refer to the inconsistency between the current examination system and the geometry program in regard to the problems experienced in the course. Key Words: Geometry program, educational change, examination system. INTRODUCTION As a result of globalisation numerous changes have occurred in several domains and instutions, and these changes have also affected educational institutions (Sahlberg, 2006; Doğan, 2012; Kösterelioğlu ve Özen,2014). The latter effects are of great importance since educational institutions should produce individuals who know how to update their knowledge base and how to use their knowledge in future working roles. Therefore, it is very significant for educational institutions to keep up with the changes occurred (Şaşan, 2002; Wedell, 2009). As it is known the major portions of the government budget are allocated for educational expenses (Kennedy, 1996). Educational institutions can transfer these changes to individuals through educational programs. Given that educational programs are structured based on new educational philosophies they have not a static but a dynmaic pattern. Educational programs should be developed in a way that they allow to transform the students knowledge and skills into behaviour. Therefore, the development of educational programs is of great importance (Demirel, 2004; Yapıcı ve Demirdelen, 2007). In Turkey studies to revise educational programs has been continuing at both basic education and secondary education levels (Kurt and Yıldırım, 2010). One of the revised educational programs is that of the geometry course. In terms of education geometry is a domain of mathematics of which basis should be established during the period of basic education. The inefficient teaching of geometry during the basic education period leads to serious problems in teaching geometry at the secondary education level and also, at the following levels. Given that the scope of geometry is very large and comprehensive it has developed more than it was expected. For instance, the Euclidean geometry was the mere type of it and it was taught. However, now it is a sub-field of the space-based comprehensive mathematical theories. There are currently more than fifty types of geometry (MEB,2011). 169

20 October 2014 Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Article: 15 ISSN History of educational programs used in geometry course Since the school year of modern mathematics programs have been used in Turkey. These programs have included both geometry and analytical geometry. The mathematics program for high schools used between 1987 and 1991 in Turkey was the same as that used between 1976 and Beginning by the school year of the credit system and passing class system began to be used. However, both were cancelled at the end of the school year of During this period the most striking characteristic of the educational programs used was that the topics of geometry and analytical geometry were excluded from the math program and they became independent courses. The educational programs for geometry and analytical geometry in 1998 were developed in parallel to those used in 1992 and these programs were in use until the school year of In the school year of high school duration became four years. With this change the course of geometry 1 began to be delivered in the tenth grade, the course of geometry 2 began to be delivered in the eleventh grade and the course of geometry and the course of analytical geometry began to be delivered in the twelfth grade. During the school year of the educational program for geometry was again significantly modified. This new program significantly altered the teaching process of the geometry course. the significant differences occurred include the enrichment of the content, the changes in the order of the topics and in the coverage of various geometrical approaches. The new topics added are transformational geometry, decorations in space, drawings of rotation and perspectives. In regard to the order of topics the topic of circles is delivered before the topic of triangle. In relation to the process of teaching the new program covers the approaches towards the geometrical proofs. The program requires teachers to employ the analytical, vectoral, synthetic approaches in lecturing about the proofs in geometrical topics. It also encourages them to commonly use analytical and vectoral approaches rather than conventional synthetic approach. The efficiency and validity of an educational program can be established based on the findings of an evaluation about its implementation. Therefore, the educational programs should be continously and systematically evaluated (Ertürk,1972; Saylan, 2001). In such evaluations the views of the students should be identified. It is certain that the findings are very significant in determining the weaker points to be improved for the future educational program development work. The first graduates of the high schools who were educated through the geometry program developed and first used in the school year of This study aims at revealing the views of the twelfth grade students who were educated through the geometry program developed and first used in the school year of In parallel to this aim the study attempts to answer the following research questions: What the views of the twelfth grade students about the content of the geometry program? What the views of the twelfth grade students about the applicability of the geometry program? What the suggestions of the twelfth grade students to improve the efficiency and applicability of the geometry program? METHOD The study was designed as a case study which is part of the qaulitative research methods. Case study is a research method that deals with a current fact within its real situation and analyses the fact concerned in a multidimensional, systematical and detailed manner (Yıldırım and Şimşek, 2005). Cases studies are particiularly proper for individual studies. Because these studies provide the researcher with the opportunity to analyse all 170

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