CHAPTER 4 KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

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1 CHAPTER 4 KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

2 As the study was focused on Key Performance Indicators of Information Systems in banking industry, the researcher would evaluate whether the IS implemented in bank was integrated and working effectively as per Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). But before that the researcher should identify the performance indicators. These performance indicators were identified through review of existing literature and in consultation with academicians and practitioners. Once certain performance indicators are identified, then they were tested on the respondents through the main survey in the form of a structured questionnaire. These performance indicators were also called parameters interchangeably for convenience. These parameters once tested and applied through a proposed model formed the Key Performance Indicators for studying the other objectives further. The parameters would form the indicators on basis of which we could evaluate the effectiveness of Information System in the bank. These parameters have been drawn on the basis of exhaustive feedback from the industry and academia. Initially 71 parameters were identified for measuring the performance of Information System in post implementation scenario in banking industry. These are listed as given below: 1. Availability of documented procedures for all activities to be carried. 2. Availability of user manuals for each item of application software. 3. Availability of all information in electronic form properly indexed, labeled and readily retrievable. 4. Improved house-keeping after IS implementation. 73

3 5. Management of data security by proper use of login and password policy for authentication. 6. Management of data administration. 7. Maintenance of user groups. 8. Proper granting of access rights at individual and group levels. 9. Clear authorization limits for data entry, verification, cancel, reverse, view, etc. 10. Proper handling of temporary users in the system. 11. Proper security to the database. 12. Accessibility of database only to the authorized users on authorized terminals. 13. Security of data against crashes. 14. Proper precautions against viruses. 15. Protection to bank s network and server infrastructure against intrusions and malfunctioning. 16. Prevention of hacking after implementation of IS. 17. No wrong transactions in customer accounts after IS implementation. 18. No frauds or irregularities due to malfunction of IS. 19. System for identifying abnormal transactions in IS. 20. Secure communication channels established for remote access of system applications. 21. Proper record maintenance of changes made, date of change, person who authorized the same, person who made the change, table readings before and after the change. 22. Policy for backup of data. 74

4 23. Maintenance & monitoring of the back-up logs. 24. Handling of sensitive information during transmission. 25. Proper logging of all user activities. 26. Capturing and logging of all changes to master information. 27. Maintaining consistency and integrity of data during migration of data. 28. Testing of IS before putting into operations. 29. Mechanism to manage back date entries. 30. All entries in IS in bank as per accounting standards used. 31. Proper business continuity plan for bank in case of IS crisis. 32. High uptime for IS applications. 33. Replication of databases to cover the risk of data loss. 34. Proper contingency plan in case of server crash. 35. Reduction in time per transaction or overall process time. 36. Removal of redundancy and saving of time. 37. Simplified work processes leading to reduced workload and paperwork. 38. Reduced physical movements. 39. Greater accuracy and minimal error in operational data. 40. Proper handling of adjustments and corrections by the system. 41. Increase in level of customer satisfaction, hence increase in satisfied customer base. 42. Existing customers of the bank opting for new products and services. 43. Positive feedback of customers for IS of the bank. 44. Reporting to senior authority becoming quicker and easier. 45. Efficient flow of information internally and externally. 46. Employee getting all relevant information timely. 75

5 47. Better communication among the functional areas and various branches. 48. Increased flexibility and multiple options for handling data and evaluating information. 49. Adaptability to the changes in business dynamics in the internal & external environment. 50. Reduced the cost per transaction. 51. High levels of efficiency gains and cost cutting. 52. Increase in profits of the bank. 53. Helps in optimal utilization of resources. 54. Increase in efficiency and effectiveness of bank. 55. Increased Return on Investment on IS with time. 56. Percentage of online transactions increased as compared to branch transactions. 57. Helps banks to become high quality and low cost producer. 58. Productivity of employees increased after the implementation of IS. 59. Helps in increased products and services innovation. 60. Availability of internet banking facilities. 61. Helps in creating new opportunities for cross-selling and targeting products. 62. Easier and increased trade on global level with banks of other nations. 63. Improved monitoring and reporting. 64. Managing of Information in required format and hence helps in quick decision-making. 65. Improved decision-making by providing explicit and clear reports. 76

6 66. Getting more precise and timely information for coordination of daily operations of the business. 67. Supports long term planning activities of the bank. 68. Easier to tap the right customer at the right time. 69. Helps in reshaping jobs and workflows, hence rightsizing the workforce. 70. Easier and quicker to do the performance appraisal of the employee. 71. Helps in better segregation of duties and delegation of authority and responsibility. Initially, these 71 parameters were identified on the basis of literature and consultations with academicians and experts in the area of IS, after proper brainstorming and rigorous discussions, for measuring the performance of Information System in banking industry. For more clarity and focus these 71 parameters were classified into 19 broad categories. These 71 parameters were putted into a questionnaire in assertive statement form. These statements are measured on a Likert scale of Strongly Agree (5), Agree (4), Neutral (3), Disagree (4), Strongly Disagree (1). A pilot survey was conducted on these 71 parameters classified in to 19 categories. The main findings and feedback from that pilot survey were: a) The questionnaire covers almost all the aspects of evaluating IS in post-implementation scenario. b) Certain parameters were overlapping with each other. c) There was a problem of fatigue while filling of questionnaire by the respondent. 77

7 d) Certain questions could be converted in to quantifiable statements or categories instead of assertive statements on Likert scale. After getting feedback from the pilot survey and doing necessary mergers, the numbers of parameters were brought down to 40. These 40 parameters or variables are listed below: 1. Availability of documented procedures and user manuals for all activities. 2. Availability of all information in electronic form properly indexed, labeled and readily retrievable. 3. Management of data security by proper use of login and password policy. 4. Management of data administration by giving access rights for data entry, verification, cancel, reverse, view, etc. 5. Providing security to database against viruses. 6. Protection to Bank s network and server infrastructure against intrusions and malfunctioning. 7. System for identifying abnormal transactions in IS. 8. Establishment of secure communication channels for remote access of system applications. 9. Reduced chances of error or irregularities in transactions of customer accounts. 10. Maintenance and monitoring of back-up logs as per data backup policy. 11. Proper system for capturing and logging changes to master information. 78

8 12. Maintenance of consistency and integrity of data during migration of data. 13. Proper mechanism to manage back date entries. 14. Following banking standards for managing all entries. 15. Proper business continuity plan in case of contingencies like server crash, etc. 16. Low downtime for IS applications. 17. Reduced time per transaction or overall process time. 18. Removal of redundancy or duplication of work. 19. Simplified work processes leading to reduced workload and paperwork and physical movements. 20. Proper handling of adjustments and corrections. 21. Increase in data accuracy levels. 22. Increase in level of customer satisfaction, hence increase in satisfied customer base. 23. Increased percentage of existing customers of the bank opting for new products and services of bank. 24. Efficient flow of information inward or outward of the organization Enabling better communication among the employees of various functional areas and various branches. 26. Increased flexibility and given multiple options for handling data and evaluating information. 27. Adaptable to changes in business dynamics in the internal & external environment. 28. Reduced cost per transaction. 79

9 29. Helps in optimal utilization of IT resources. 30. Increase in Return on Investment on IS. 31. Increase in percentage of online transactions. 32. Availability of internet banking facilities. 33. Helps in creating new opportunities for cross-selling and targeting products. 34. Easier trade with banks of other nations. 35. Increased products and services innovation. 36. Improved decision-making by providing explicit and clear reports in required format. 37. Supports long term planning activities of the bank. 38. Easier to tap the right customer at the right time. 39. Helps in reshaping jobs and workflows, hence rightsizing the workforce. 40. Easier and quicker to do performance appraisal of the employees. These 40 selected parameters were framed in the final questionnaire and categorized into 18 goals. The main questionnaire contains most of the statements in assertive form. These statements have been evaluated on 5- point Likert scale by the respondents. Certain questions were converted in to quantifiable statements or categories instead of assertive statements on Likert scale. The foremost objective of the research was to identify the Key Performance Indicators of IS. Once main survey was conducted, these 40 parameters 80

10 helped us to draw certain factors through factor analysis of data collected. The data collected through the questionnaire provided inputs for the factor analysis. The factor analysis is a data reduction technique that can help the researcher to reduce the number of variables or parameters to a manageable number. The factor analysis was required as 40 parameters identified could not be easily manageable from the perspective of a banker who wants to evaluate the working of a bank on the basis of Key Performance Indicators. The factor analysis ideally will reduce the number of variables to about onethird of its actual variables. 4.1 Application of Factor Analysis Table 10 : KMO and Bartlett s Test values KMO and Bartlett's Test Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy..811 Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square 2.464E3 df 780 Sig..000 High values of KMO (between 0.5 and 1.0) indicate factor analysis is appropriate. Values below 0.5 imply that factor analysis may not be appropriate. In this research, the KMO measure of sampling adequacy gives value of 0.811, which is more than enough for applying factor analysis technique. 81

11 The population correlation matrix was an identity matrix; each variable correlates perfectly with itself (r=1) but had no correlation with the other variables (r=0). A large value of Chi-square favoured the rejection of null hypothesis. It showed that variables were correlated in population. So factor analysis was appropriate. Table 11 : Total Variance explained during Factor Analysis Total Variance Explained Com Initial Eigenvalues Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings % of Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings pone % of Cumulative Varian Cumulative % of Cumulative nt Total Variance % Total ce % Total Variance %

12 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. 83

13 Table 12 : Rotated Component Matrix with Varimax method Rotated Component Matrix a Component Ques Ques Ques Ques Ques Ques Ques Ques Ques Ques Ques Ques Ques Ques Ques Ques Ques Ques Ques Ques Ques Ques

14 Ques Ques Ques Ques Ques Ques Ques Ques Ques Ques Ques Ques Ques Ques Ques Ques Ques Ques Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization. a. Rotation converged in 22 iterations. Hence factors with a variance greater than 1.0 were included. In this research there have been 12 factors which had eigenvalue greater than 1.0. In research it was recommended that the factors extracted should account for at least 60 percent of the variance. In this research the factors extracted account for 65 percent of the variance. 85

15 4.2 Factors Identified after Factor Analysis After following the various approaches mentioned above for determining the number of factors, it was concluded that 12 factors were fulfilling the broad requirements of factor determination. These 12 factors would act as Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) of Information Systems. These 12 factors are based on the consolidation of 40 variables that are put into assertive statement form on 5-point Likert scale. The variables and the converted factors are mentioned below: Table 13 : Factors and the list of variables covered under each factor Factor Factor No. 1 Data Integrity & Network Security 2 Long Term Planning List of variables covered under each factor Management of data security by proper use of login and password policy. Providing security to database against viruses. Protection to Bank s network and server infrastructure against intrusions and malfunctioning. Establishment of secure communication channels for remote access of system applications. Proper system for capturing and logging changes to master information. Maintenance of consistency and integrity of data during migration of data. Proper mechanism to manage back date entries. Proper business continuity plan in case of contingencies like server crash, etc. Easier trade with banks of other nations. Supports long term planning activities of the bank. Easier to tap the right customer at the right 86

16 3 Transactional Effectiveness time. Reduced time per transaction or overall process time. Simplified work processes leading to reduced workload and paperwork and physical movements. Proper handling of adjustments and corrections. Increase in level of customer satisfaction, hence increase in satisfied customer base. 4 Resource Utilization System for identifying abnormal transactions in IS. Helps in creating new opportunities for crossselling and targeting products. Helps in reshaping jobs and workflows, hence rightsizing the workforce. Easier and quicker to do performance appraisal of the employees. 5 Data Management Management of data administration by giving access rights for data entry, verification, cancel, reverse, view, etc. Reduced chances of error or irregularities in transactions of customer accounts. Availability of internet banking facilities. 6 Flexibility for Data Handling Increased flexibility and given multiple options for handling data and evaluating information. 87

17 Adaptable to changes in business dynamics in the internal & external environment. 7 Cost Control Management Reduced cost per transaction. Increase in Return on Investment on IS. Increase in percentage of online transactions. Improved decision-making by providing explicit and clear reports in required format. 8 Flow of Information Availability of documented procedures and user manuals for all activities. Efficient flow of information inward or outward of the organization. Enabling better communication among the employees of various functional areas and various branches. 9 E-Documentation Availability of all information in electronic form properly indexed, labeled and readily retrievable. Helps in optimal utilization of IT resources. 10 System Efficiency Following banking standards for managing all entries Low downtime for IS applications. Removal of redundancy or duplication of work. Increase in data accuracy levels. Increased products and services innovation. 11 Backup Policy Maintenance and monitoring of back-up logs per data backup policy. 88

18 12 Customer Satisfaction Level Increased percentage of existing customers of the bank opting for new products and services of bank. So the 12 factors mentioned above will act as Key Performance Indicators of IS. These 12 factors are ranked by the statistical tool as per the variance they offer. These 12 factors or KPIs are listed in the rank of their importance as mentioned below: 1. Data Integrity & Network Security 2. Long Term Planning 3. Transactional Effectiveness 4. Resource Utilization 5. Data Management 6. Flexibility for Data Handling 7. Cost Control Management 8. Flow of Information 9. E-Documentation 10. Information System Efficiency 11. Backup Policy 12. Customer Satisfaction Level In banking there are varied factors that affect Information System performance inclusive of factors mentioned above. The effectiveness of IS could be proved only if it satisfies the needs of various stakeholders of 89

19 Table 14 : Factors and the list of statements covered under each factor Factor No. Factor List of Statements covering each factor 1 Data Integrity & Network Security Statements No. 3, 5, 6, 8,11, 12, 13, 15 2 Long Term Planning Statements No. 34, 37, 38 3 Transactional Effectiveness Statements No. 17, 19, 20, 22 4 Resource Utilization Statements No. 7, 33, 39, 40 5 Data Management Statements No. 4, 9, 32 6 Flexibility for Data Handling Statements No. 26, 27 7 Cost Control Management Statements No. 28, 30, 31, 36 8 Flow of Information Statements No. 1, 24, 25 9 E-Documentation Statements No. 2, System Efficiency Statements No. 14, 16, 18, 21, Backup Policy Statement No Customer Satisfaction Level Statement No. 23 Information System in banks, i.e., Investor of IS, Developer of IS, Strategic User of IS, the employee who is End user of IS, and Customer of bank who is 90

20 directly or indirectly affected by working of IS in bank. The Information System used should be fully integrated in the functioning of bank. Whether the IS implemented in bank is integrated and working effectively, it should be performing on 3 fundamental areas. If the persons working in bank are satisfied on it then it is fulfilling the needs of bank. These three questions will also lead us toward categorizing Key Performance Indicators of IS in bank. The questions are: 1. Whether the IS is technologically integrated? (It means that whether technologically, the IS implemented in bank is properly embedded in working of bank and meeting its all requirement of data based transactions like size, speed, security and service.) 2. Whether the IS is functionally integrated? (It means that whether the IS implemented in bank improves the functionality of bank.) 3. Whether the IS is strategically integrated? (It means that whether implementation of IS give strategic advantage to bank anyway.) If the Information System applied in the bank is meeting these three specifications broadly, then it is effective for bank. For meeting these specifications the KPIs identified above should be mapped into these three categories of Technical, Functional and Strategic integration, and form the basis on which the researcher can evaluate the effectiveness of Information System in bank in post implementation scenario. 91

21 On the basis of literature review and discussion with academia and experts of this domain, the categorization or classification of KPIs identified is mentioned below: Table 15 : Factors or KPIs as per contribution to broad category S.No Category / Classification Key Performance Indicator(s) 1 Strategic Integration Long Term Planning Resource Utilization Flexibility for Data Handling Cost Control Management Customer Satisfaction Level 2 Functional Integration Transactional Effectiveness Data Management Flow of Information System Efficiency 3 Technical Integration Data Integrity & Network Security E-Documentation Backup Policy On the basis of above categorization a model had been proposed to evaluate the performance of Information System in bank. The proposed model had been explained in next chapter. This chapter discusses that initially 71 parameters have been listed for measuring the performance of Information System in post implementation 92

22 scenario in banking industry. Further it has been shown that through the pilot survey and after doing necessary mergers, number of parameters has been reduced to 40. After completion of main survey, factor analysis was applied. It was found that there were 12 factors that could act as Key Performance Indicators for evaluation of Information System in banking sector. These factors were further classified in to 3 categories of Strategic Integration, Functional Integration and Technical Integration. 93

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