A Comparison of Biology Teacher Education Programmes in Finland and Turkey Hülya Delibaş (MA) Cem Babadoğan (PhD) Ankara University ABSTRACT

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3 A Comparison of Biology Teacher Education Programmes in Finland and Turkey Hülya Delibaş (MA) Cem Babadoğan (PhD) Ankara University ABSTRACT In this study, biology teacher education programmes in Finland were investigated and compared with the biology teacher education programmes in Turkey. When comparing biology teacher education programmes of Finland and Turkey, the similarities and differences in the general systems these countries, admissions, requirements, teaching methods. In this study, in addition to the descriptive, definition and demonstrative technique, in some parts the historical analyzed and in most parts juxtaposition comparison method is used. Literature review used, correspondence web site of related countries and universities were brought together and analyzed. The study is limited Turku, Oulu universities in Finland and 11 education faculties in Turkey. There are some differences between biology teacher education programmes between Finland and Turkey. Duration of biology education programmes in Finland is 5 years but years in Turkey. Other difference is ECTS credits. Biology teacher education students have to take 240 ECTS credits in Finland, in Turkey have to take ECTS credits. Based on the data, some comments and suggestions were put forward, the result of data shows that Turkish education system and therefore teacher education programmes should undergo some radical changes in the admission to the biology teacher education programmes in Turkey. Key Words: Comparative Education, Teacher Education, Biology Teacher Education in Finland and Turkey. Introduction Science and technology education are becoming increasingly identified as the background for economic stability and growth. There is a great change in the science and technology. These changes affect the every country in the world. The development of the country is depending on the educational level. For this reason, all countries invest in the education this century.

4 Teacher is the play important role in the education systems. The success of education system depend on the qualification of the teacher. Good school, good teacher (Kavcar, 1998 ). While there are good teacher educations programs, there still remains the need to evaluate the appropriateness and currency of even the very best programs, given the new expectation that modern science will be made accessible to all students. There have also been advances in cognitive research on how students learn science that have still to shape the curriculum in many teacher training institutions. Many teacher educators, whether teaching at a university or a teacher training college not have the educational background necessary to teach the existing teacher training curriculum effectively. They need to be upgraded in terms of both their science and pedagogical knowledge, at least master s degree level in science education. Increased collaboration between the faculties of science and education is absolutely essential if teacher training programs are to improve significantly. This cooperation is more likely to take place if there is some kind of institutional support system in place to encourage and reward instructors who work together in cross disciplinary partnership. Science education is depending on the quality of teacher. Reading science and science education journals, joining science teacher organization, attending workshops at their own expense, participating in science olympiads with their students and organizing science fairs, are some of the activities which contribute to the professional development of the teacher( Ayas,1995). The science for all movement is driving curricular change at varying speeds in different countries and the process of school science curricula redefinition is in motion worldwide. This redefinition is being accompanied by a reexamination of the classroom role of the teacher supported by the findings from cognitive psychology on how students actually learn science. In the 21 century, the characteristics of individual changes. These are creative, problem solved, criticisized, flexible, humanistic, democrat, life-long learning, reevaluate, produce scientific information (Aksu, 2005). Today s students will be tomorrow s citizens. They will enter a workforce that needs the talents of better educated students, capable of life-long learning, self directed learning and the contributing to sound decision-making for their community and their country. If more students are to be taught to function at higher levels of cognition, they will need to be taught by teachers who can themselves operate as life-long, self directed learners. Thus, because of relatively recent changes in our views of both science teaching and the very best of teacher training facilities needs to reevaluate the science teacher education and curriculum. Teacher education programs reevaluated in Turkey. Teacher education -Use of technology

5 -accreditation of teacher educated programs -teachers skills subjects discussions continue. European higher education institutions, their part have accepted the challenge and taken up a main role in the constructing the European area of higher education, also in the wake of the fundamental principles laid down in the Bologna Magna Charta University of This is of the highest importance given that Universities independence and autonomy ensure that higher education and research systems continuously adapt to changing needs, society s demands and advances in scientific knowledge (Bologna- Berlin Process, 2007). The Bologna Declaration of the June 1999 has put in motion a series of reforms needed to make European higher education more compatible and comparable, more competitive and more attractive for our own citizens and for citizens and scholars from other continents. The European Higher Education Area is to provide citizens with a wide and transparent range of high quality courses and smooth recognition procedures. Turkey must regulate teacher education programs. They make comparable education programs other European Countries. These regulations: -Adoption of a system of easily readable and comparable degrees -Adoption of a system essentially based on two cycles -Establishment of a system of credit -Promotion of mobility - Promotion of European cooperation in quality assurance - Promotion of the European dimension in higher education. Teachers are one of the most important elements in the teaching-learning process. A well educated teacher refers to who has a good education in his subject area, general culture and teaching. In Turkey, eleven universities have biology teacher training programs. It is thought that these programs should have a unique standard and, such a common standard is significant for integrating in to a EU educational system. The Problem of Research In Turkey, eleven universities have biology teacher training programs. It is thought that these programs should have a unique standard and, such a common standard is significant for integrating in to a EU educational system. The problem of research is to compare biology teacher educations programs in Finland and Turkey.

6 The Aim of the Research The aim of this research to compare biology teacher education programs in Finland and Turkey. The answers for the following questions were searched to reach this general aim. Research Questions 1. What are the similarities between biology teacher education programs between Finland and Turkey? 2. What are the differences between biology teacher education programs between Finland and Turkey? 3. How can biology teacher educated in Finland and Turkey? 4. What are the conditions accept the biology teacher education programs in Finland and Turkey? 5. What are the duration of the biology teacher education programs in Finland and Turkey? 6. Which model is used education of biology teacher in Finland and Turkey? Methodology In this research, in addition to the descriptive, definition and demonstrative technique, in some parts the historical analyses and in most parts juxtaposition comparison method is used(ültanır,2000). We use horizontal techniques to understand the general education systems of Finland and Turkey use vertical techniques to compare the differences and similarities between the biology teacher education programs. Literature review used, correspondence web site of related countries and universities were brought together and analyzed. Limitations The study is limited Turku, Oulu universities in Finland and 11 education faculties in Turkey. Procedures Initially, collect information about the general education systems, teacher education, biology teacher educated systems and curriculum of biology teacher educated programs. This information is categorized for Finland and Turkey. The subcategories are following: -General education system of Finland, Turkey, pre-school education,

7 compulsory education, elementary education, secondary education, private education, higher education. -Teacher education in Finland and Turkey -Biology teacher education in Finland and Turkey. Collect more information above categories, make tables and compare the following points; courses on subject area, elective subject area courses, lab courses, teacher training courses, elective courses in teacher training, general culture courses, ECTS credits each lesson. The findings of the study indicate that there are variations across programs in Finland and Turkey. Conclusions 1.Authorization and supervision in education controlled by Opetusministerioin Finland, Minister of Education in Turkey ( MEB, 2005). 2. General education are composed of four categories in Finland and Turkey. Preschool education, primary education, secondary education and higher education. Compulsory education begin 7 year in Finland and 6 year in Turkey. Duration of compulsory education 9 year in Finland, 8 year in Turkey (Education System of Finland, 2007). 3. In order to enter a university, high school students are required to take 4 examinations in Finland. The number of the students are not more, all the students accept by the universities in Finland, In Turkey students finish high school, pass the ÖSS ( Student selection examination) exam for entrance of university ( Education and Research ). 4. Higher education has been organized by universities, polytechnic schools and non university institutions in Finland and Turkey. Two cycles higher education, (ECTS) credit transfer system and diploma supplement which are proposed by the Bologna Process, completed 2010 year. (Turku, 2007) There is more development accreditation, quality assurance and evaluations in Finland and Turkey (Kısakürek, 2006). The process continues in Finland. Duration of higher education, programs, diploma supplement regulated by Turkey. 5. The development of technology and science cause education area. The students and schools demand new things. The responsibilities of school, duration of

8 education, the purpose of education and teachers skills, teacher education programs redefined again. According to Bologna Process all teacher education programs must given by the universities. 6. There are differences between duration of biology teacher education programs in Finland and Turkey. Biology teacher educated 5 year in Finland, year in Turkey. (Oulu, 2007) 7. There are two models (Concurrent and consecutive) training of teacher education. In concurrent model, a three or four year program that combines science and education courses leading to an education degree. In consecutive model, a four year program that combines science and education courses leading to an undergraduate degree in science education (Moon, Vlasceau and Barrows, 2003). 8. There are variations courses on subject area, elective subject area courses, lab courses, teacher training courses, elective courses in teacher training, general culture courses; ECTS credits each lesson in Finland and Turkey. Biology teacher educations students have to take 240 ECTS credits in Finland but in Turkey have to take ECTS credits. 9. Biology teacher education students have to take more compulsory lessons in Finland and Turkey. This condition cause non effective learning of each lesson. There are no differences between the elective courses in biology teacher education programs in Finland and Turkey. They must learn 3 foreign languages in Finland. 10. In Finland completing all required courses at the university, students become certified teacher 1 year of training as a teacher. In Turkey students finish higher education to become teacher, they enter KPSS examination and have enough notes, then undergo 1 year of training as a teacher (YÖK, 1998). 11. There are no basic differences admission to university and selection to biology teacher education programs in Finland and Turkey. Suggestions 1. Biology teacher education programs should reorganize again according to EU standards. Because the usable and real programs play important role in hte teacher education. Each biology teacher -make good plan -know class management, control the heterogeneous class -use new teaching methods -use suitable materials in science area -know students background and reorganized lesson -make lesson in science lab -use new technology -like life long learning -contact biolgy lesson with different lesson -to encourage students to think, -to encourage students investigation and project -know at least one foreign language.

9 2. Admission of biology teacher education programs defined suitable conditions Selection of students for biology teacher education programs by YÖK is not good way. Students pass written exam then take oral exam, pass psychiatry test and own biology area test successfully. For selection of students for biology teacher education programs, look the properties of them. Students which give importance for science, like investigations, contact good relation with other persons. 3. Biology teacher education programs lesson s objectives redefined again. Selection of lessons is important like qualified teacher. Definition ECTS credits of all lessons in biology education programs is important role accreditation of programs. 4. All the teacher take the same exam (KPSS) to become teacher in Turkey. This is not good method. Each teacher take exam own area. 5. Biology teacher educated programs in Turkey reorganized again for give 2 area teacher skills. References Aksu, M. (2005). Eğitim Fakültelerinin Değişen Rolleri ve Avrupa Boyutu. Ayas, A. (1995). Fen Bilimleri Üniversitesi Program Geliştirme ve Uygulama Teknikleri Üzerine Bir Çalışma: İki Çağdaş Yaklaşımın Değerlendirilmesi, Hacettepe Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi,11. Bologna Berlin Process (2007). Bologna&hl=tr&ct=clnk&cd=7&gl=tr&lr=lang_tr from the Web Eurydice (2003). The Education System of Finland. from the Web Education and Research ( ) Ministry of Education Department for Education and Science Policy. Printed by Helsinki University. Education System of Finland (2007). SubPage.asp?path=447,4699 from the Web Kavcar, C. (1998).Geleceğin Teknolojileri. Öğretmen Yetiştiren Yükseköğretim Kurumlarının Dünü- Bugünü-Geleceği Sempozyumu 8-11 Haziran Ankara Gazi Ü. Yay.S.39. Kısakürek, M.A.(2006). html from the Web MEB (2005) Yılı Başında Milli Eğitim. Ankara: MEB Yayınevi. from the Web Moon, B., Vlasceau, L., Barrows, L. C. (2003). Institutional Approaches to Teacher Education within Higher Education in Europe: Current Models and New Developments Oulu, (2007). Biology Deparment in Oulu University in Finland. The Degree Programme arihinde ulaşılmıştır. Turku, (2007). Postgraduate Education in Turku University, Finland from the Web Ültanır, G. (2000). Karşılaştırmalı Eğitim Bilimi, Ankara: Eylül Kitabevi. YÖK (1998). Eğitim Fakülteleri Öğretmen Yetiştirme Programlarının Yeniden Düzenlenmesi. Ankara. from the Web

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