FRANCO-EGYPTIAN RESEARCH CENTER OF THE TEMPLES OF KARNAK

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1 Supreme Council of Antiquities Ministère des Affaires Étrangères et Européennes Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique FRANCO-EGYPTIAN RESEARCH CENTER OF THE TEMPLES OF KARNAK REPORT ABOUT THE SEASON 2008

2 TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD THE OSIRIAN CULTS AT KARNAK The chapel of Osiris Wennefer Neb-djefau, the path of Ptah and the neighbouring chapels The chapel of Osiris Wennefer Neb-djefau The chapel of Osiris Neb-neheh The chapel of Osiris Neb ankh/pa usheb iad The mud brick building on the Western side of the chapel : ceramological study The temple of Osiris from Coptos Archaeological investigation Architectural survey Epigraphic survey Restoration Training The Temple of Opet Architectural study Restoration program Excavations Epigraphic survey The Temple of Khonsu MONUMENTS OF AMENHOTEP I AT KARNAK SURVEY OF THE COLUMNS OF THE HYPOSTYLE HALL STUDY OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL MATERIALS Excavations in the south-eastern area of the Sacred lake The demotic ostraka Excavations of the central zone THE NORTH AREA OF THE AMUN-RA PRECINCT The temple of Ptah The Treasure of Chabaka THE EXCAVATIONS IN FRONT OF THE KARNAK TEMPLES AND IN THE CITY OF LUXOR The quay The ptolemaic baths The Sphinx avenue LANDSCAPE EVOLUTION AND PALAEOHYDROLOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF ANCIENT KARNAK WORK OF RESTORATION AND ANASTYLOSIS Restoration

3 8.2. Anastylosis ARCHIVES AND SCIENTIFIC DOCUMENTATION Photographic service Recording of objects Photographs of monuments Orthophotogrammetric survey Communication and publication Archaeological drawings Inventory of the scattered blocks SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL FRANCO-EGYPTIAN COOPERATION Training program of the temple of Osiris from Coptos Training Course in French language

4 FOREWORD THE WORK OF THE FRANCO-EGYPTIAN CENTER FOR THE STUDY OF THE TEMPLES OF KARNAK IN 2008 During the year 2008, the programs of research, documentation and restoration of the Center and of the French and foreign missions occuring within the framework of the CFEETK were able to be done in a suitable conditions. The programs submited to the Joined Committee in December 2007 took place according to the planned calendar and were realized in good conditions. The program concerning the Osirian cults were devoted to the excavations and studies of the area of the chapel of Osiris Wennefer Neb-djefau including the neighbouring area, the temple of Osiris from Coptos, the temple of Opet and the temple of Khonsu. Among the important topics developed these last years, the archaeological investigations of the central zone and of the south-eastern sector of the Sacred lake led to important results which need now more precise examination. Several missions were thus devoted to the study of the uncovered materials for the final publications. The study of the scattered limestone blocks belonging to monuments of Amenhotep I continued. Many checks allowed to confirm or to revalue the epigraphical and architectural hypothesis firstly proposed last season. In the hypostyle hall, the program of photographic survey of columns was able to be brought to a successful conclusion thanks to a close collaboration between CFEETK, the national School of the geographical sciences (ENSG) and ATM3D company, allowing within a month to acquire a complete photographic survey of the 134 columns. The study of the landscape evolution at Karnak during the Antiquity continued, using core drillings and tomographic profiles. The important work realized in front of the temple as well as those developed in the city of Luxor (sphinx avenue) led by Mansour Boraik (CSA) was followed with attention and specially concern the excavations of the ptolemaic baths and the quay. This work brought to light new informations about the history of the entrance area of the Amun precinct. One of the main activity on the field was to reassembly the wire saw (used to cut the stones) on the eastern side of Karnak temples. However, the anastylosis of the calcite chapel of Tuthmosis III was begun in the Open Air Museum. The programs of restoration and conservation were able to develop normally (temple of Opet, limestone blocks, archaeological materials ). These restoration efforts and anastylosis programs are making the site more inviting for numerous tourists coming at Karnak. 4

5 During the celebration of the fortieth anniversary of the CFEETK on December 1 st 2007, a new protocol of cooperation was signed between the authorities of the Supreme Council of Antiquities and those of the Cnrs. This demonstration was the opportunity to publish a book (dir. Dr. G. Zaki) showing privileged Franco-Egyptian relationship maintained within the CFEETK and the main works realized at Karnak and Luxor since Among the recent publications, one will also indicate the last issue of the Cahiers de Karnak 12, 2007 (ed. Soleb-Ifao). On the occasion of the fortieth anniversary of CFEETK, Dr. Zahi Hawass, General Secretary of the Supreme council of the Antiquities, proposed that the next volumes should be printed on the press of the SCA in Cairo, strengthening Franco-Egyptian cooperation through the major publication of the center. All the work led at Karnak benefits to a constant help of Ibrahim Soliman, Director of the site of Karnak, Tarek Milad Zikri, Chief architect of Upper Egypt, Mohamed Asem, General manager of Upper Egypt, Al-Jalil Hamdi Ahmed Abd and Amin Ammar, Chiefs inspectors, Mohammed Hussein, Director of the restoration, all the inspectors, the Raîs Mahmoud Farouk and all the workers of the SCA. It is a pleasure to thank all of them for their kindly and constant support. We also wish to thank the french authorities of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and of the Ministère des Affaires Étrangères et Européennes for their constant support and interest on the programs led by the Franco-Egyptian Center for the Study of the Temples of Karnak. We are always delighted with the excellent relationships between the Supreme Council of Antiquities and in particular with its General Secretary, the Excellency Dr. Zahi Hawass, and the Franco-Egyptian Center for the Study of the Temples of Karnak. Mansour Boraik General director of Luxor and Upper Egypt (SCA) Co-director of the CFEETK Christophe Thiers Director of the USR 3172 (CNRS) Co-director of the CFEETK 5

6 1. THE OSIRIAN CULTS AT KARNAK 1.1. The chapel of Osiris Wennefer Neb-djefau, the path of Ptah and the neighbouring chapels The eighth campaign of excavations and restoration of the chapel of Osiris Wennefer Neb-djefau took place between February 5 and March , supervised by Laurent Coulon, in partnership with Ifao 1. It was mainly a mission of study of the material and of additional surveys. General view of the chapel of Osiris Wennefer Neb-djefau The chapel of Osiris Wennefer Neb-djefau The aim of the excavations led this season was to complete the plan of the mud brick walls surrounding the chapel of Osiris Wennefer Neb-djefau. On the south-eastern façade of the chapel, the pursuit of the test trenches begun in 2007, put in connection this year with the east-west test trench opened between the way of Ptah and the chapel, allowed to better understand the stratigraphy and to clearly define the method used for the foundation of the wall surrounding the first gate of the sanctuary. A level containing mixed chunks of sandstone with several elements of demolition was also able to be partially excavated and especially observed on a large surface in the south-east of the wall of the temenos. This layer seems to be linked with the reconstruction of the chapel which took place between the 30 th dynasty and the ptolemaic period. 1 Laurent Coulon (egyptologist Ifao / Univ. Lyon 2), Catherine Defernez (archaeologist-ceramologist, UMR 8152), Elsa Frangin (archaeologist, Inrap), Laurent Vallières (topographer, Inrap), Soline Delcros (architect), Hassan el-amir (restorer, Ifao), Frédéric Payraudeau (egyptologist, Ifao), Khaled Zaza (draftsman, Ifao). 6

7 The sherds of ceramic found mixed in great quantities with this level also seem to confirm the proposed dating. This level with elements of demolition, thicker around the outer wall of the chapel, seems to go on to the path of Ptah. The steep slope of this layer seems also to indicate that no earlier construction was established between the chapel and the path of Ptah (that is between the 26 th and the 30 th dynasty). Two rooms with a peripheral wall in mud brick enclose however this level of waste of reconstruction and could so have been built at the beginning of the ptolemaic period between the path and the chapel. The survey of these secondary constructions was completed, but dating and function of these neighbouring rooms will be able to be clarified only by an excavation of levels still in place in front of the outer wall of the chapel. Three fire area associated with an activity of bronze working (one of them fitted out with a sole in bricks) were also found on the south-east of the chapel. Numerous coins and bronze slag were uncovered in these structures, probably linked with the making of statuettes of Osiris found in the sector in Plan of the area of the chapel of Osiris Wennefer Neb-djefau. The drawings of the mud brick walls surrounding the chapel was pursued by S. Delcros and L. Vallières. The plan of the walls let us suppose the existence of spaces sometimes of very reduced size in the northern part of the building ; it could be the storerooms. The east-western wall limiting the chapel on the North is perpendicular with a north-southern wall (very bad preserved) which probably encloses the temenos of the chapel of Osiris Neb-ankh / pa-usheb-jad. The publication of the volume concerning the epigraphy of the chapel of Osiris Wennefer Neb-djefau is in the course of preparation. The restoration of the façade of the naos was finished with a survey of blocks still in situ or replaced and former documents The chapel of Osiris Neb-neheh The cleaning of the area begun in 2007 continued in a very confined way and especially in the perspective of removal of blocks lying in the dust and threatened directly of destruction. New re-used 7

8 blocks were discovered. The most significant is a fragment of lintel showing the God s Wife [Ankhnesneferibra] playing sistrums in front of [Amon] and followed by the Great Overseer Padineith. Re-used block in the north-eastern corner of the mud brick wall of the hypostyle hall of the chapel of Osiris Neb-neheh. Ankhnesneferibra playing sistrums in front of [Amon] and followed by Padineith (photo J.-Fr. Gout). Emphasis was placed on the restoration of blocks found in a very bad state of conservation. Among them, a very damaged one showing Amun and Khonsu, belonging to a lintel, very probably of the naos, was able to be strengthened and restored. Besides, a fragment of the façade of the naos which bears the beginning of an hymn to Osiris engraved on the north doorjamb was able to be put back in its original place. Block belonging to a lintel of the chapel, after restoration (photo J.-Fr. Gout). North doorjamb of the naos, after cleaning and addition of a scattered block The chapel of Osiris Neb ankh/pa usheb iad After the reassembly of the chapel last season, the restoration continued. The team of restorers led by Mohammed Hussein and Agnes Oboussier cleaned the walls to preserve paintings of the decoration. First results were very decisive and cleaning, once finalized, will allow to complete the epigraphic documentation of the monument. The epigraphic survey of the re-used blocks found during the dismantling of the chapel in 2007 was made by Kh. Zaza and Fr. Payraudeau The mud brick building on the West side of the chapel : ceramological study The ceramic uncovered inside the large mud brick building behind the chapel (sector 3) contains several coherent elements dating back to the 26 th / 27 th -30 th dynasties. The levels posterior to the last 8

9 activities of the building delivered abundant sherds one can dating back to the V th and IV th centuries B.C. ; among these sherds appear some Mediterranean imports or productions coming from bordering countries (amphoras from Cyprus-Phenicia and Aegean area). An analysis of the pottery coming from deep pits was also begun. The results get a terminus post-quem during the ptolemaic period for the dismantling of the southern part of the building. The most significant elements, often in a very fragmentary shape, are Egyptian amphoras in brown Nile clay, characterized with a high neck with network of streak, vessels pottery of Hellenic tradition (cups, convex small dishes or bowls in Nile clay) and pottery with floral decoration painted in black ; some rare imports of the Aegean area were able to be identified. The exam of the pottery from the sector of the courtyard of the chapel (sector 5) continued but was not able to be finished. An important heterogeneousness was noted which is due to the former investigations led in the sector. Ptolemaic, roman and Coptic sherds appear in great number THE TEMPLE OF OSIRIS FROM COPTOS General view of the temple of Osiris from Coptos, from the north-west. The second campaign of study of the temple of Osiris from Coptos, in the north-eastern area of the temenos of Amun at Karnak, took place from December 1 st 2007 till January 31 st 2008 under the supervision of François Leclère 2. The research project on the osirian chapels in the north-eastern area of the Amun temenos at Karnak follows ten seasons of fieldwork on the Osiris Tomb, a complex of several monuments constituting a kind of «cemetery» where were buried figurines representing the mummy-shaped god Osiris, made ritually during the specific Khoiak festival. The purpose of this project, part of a larger research program on the 2 Fr. Leclère (archaeologist), Laetitia Gallet (egyptologist), Soline Delcros (architect), Juliette Fayein (restorer), Lorraine Mehl et Nadia Licitra (students in egyptology, Univ. Paris IV-Sorbonne), Attayeb Gharib Mahmoud, Salah Al-Masekh, Wafa Gomaa, May El-Hosseini (inspectors at Karnak, archaeologists). 9

10 osirian cults at Karnak during the 1 st mill. B.C., is to excavate, document, study and restore a group of sandstone chapels established around this Osireion. The fieldwork continued in , notably completing the survey of sandstone and mud brick walls of the building, drawing some of the architectural sections and elevations, finishing the epigraphic and photographic survey of the decoration and inscriptions of Ptolemy XII and Tiberius still in situ in the main axial room and on the doorjambs of the chapel, completing the excavation of the courtyard notably the evacuation of the fill of a large pit in the northern part, and the exploration of the foundation trench of the entrance portal as well as continuing the excavation of the surrounding areas of the temple, notably to the east and the west, between the two Amun enclosure walls, in order to better understand in which context the temple was built (for example to better characterize the earlier imposing mud brick structures detected there) Archaeological investigation In the courtyard of the temple, the complete cleaning of the north pit showed that it was dug in a massive mud brick structure earlier than the temple, and complex organization of which was not still able to be recognized in detail without a fine re-examination. In the western end of the north wall of the foundations of the courtyard a single re-used block was brought to light ; a column of text bears the name of Amenirdis I. Besides, the pit of foundation of the main door of the sanctuary delivered notably the lower part of a doorjamb bearing the name of Chabaka. The mud brick wall of the façade of the temple, partially recognized in 2007, was able to be studied. The work consisted in cleaning the preserved surface of the eastern part of the wall and in kicking away the debris resulting from the former excavations and from the recent erosion of the great enclosure wall of Amun. As we could suppose, these cleanings allowed us to brought to light, near the precinct wall the northern and Limits of the New Kingdom mud brick wall. southern sides of this wall, showing the thickness of 3,80 m supposed in in a sector where the wall was much more affected. One can suppose a possible restoration of a part of the façade, maybe at the beginning of the Roman time. On the eastern part of the temple, a wide cleaning also allowed to uncover an east-west part of a former and thick outer wall provided in the North with a sort of bastion. The temple of Osiris from Coptos was established upon this wall. Results obtained from the western side confirmed that this wall can be dated before to the XXI th dynasty, and goes back so probably to the New Kingdom ; but its link with the former great enclosure wall of the Amun temple as a recent study (Fr. Leclère) seems to be able to go back to the end of the XVIII th dynasty (Amenhotep III / Horemheb) rather than to the reign Tuthmosis III 10

11 remains still not clear. This new section of wall with bastion could possibly correspond to a part of the north segment of an enclosure surrounding the courtyard of the Temple of the East. Other cleanings were realized on the northern and western sides of the temple of Osiris from Coptos and several section were drawn, allowing to clarify the methods of construction of the sanctuary Architectural survey The plan of the building was partly finished during the previous campaign, mainly as regards of stone masonries and outer mud brick walls. It was partially completed in the excavated sectors during this season (foundation trench of the doorjambs of the main door, north pit of the courtyard, pit and foundation layer of the enlargement of the naos, etc.). The wall of façade and the earlier mud brick buildings were also drawn partially. An important part of the elevations of stone masonries was also drawn (Soline Delcros) but this work will be completed in Epigraphic survey The re-used blocks still in place in the building as well as the scattered blocks uncovered during the previous campaign have been surveyed (drawing, photography). Checkings and final drawings are in progress. All the reliefs of Ptolemy XII and Tiberius in the axial main room of the sanctuary, between the courtyard and the naos, were drawn and photographed. The documentation of the scattered blocks discovered during two campaigns was also pursued. The final drawings of this documentation and the analysis are in progress (Laetitia Gallet, Laurent Coulon) Restoration A large program of consolidation of more than twenty scattered blocks brought to light during two campaigns was realized. Some complements were also made to the restoration of the granite block coming from the bark chapel of Tuthmosis III and reused as threshold of the main door of the temple, as well as the stela of Amenhotep II and of Taharqa brought to light last year. Several other objects found this year were also restored : bronze coins, heads of cobra in faience, model of corniche Training As the last year, this program was the opportunity to develop a Franco-Egyptian field school in the techniques of the archaeology (topography, architectural and archaeological survey, epigraphy, recording of data, inventory of the ceramic, etc.) for two students (Master II and PhD) coming from the university of Paris IV-Sorbonne and four inspectors of the Supreme council of the antiquities of Egypt. 11

12 1.3. THE TEMPLE OF OPET Under the direction of Emmanuel Laroze, the work around the temple of Opet was managed from october 2007 to june 2008, and a short architectural and epigraphic campaign took place in november Architectural study The architectural study of the monument was pursued with the drawings at the scale 1:20. Numerous observations relative to the techniques of construction were made, in particular concerning the use of pieces of wood and the organization of the building activity. It seems henceforth certain that stone blocks were forwarded with a ramp built against the North side of the monument. In the courtyard, a massif of stone foundation was identified as the vestiges of an earlier Ethiopian temple Restoration program The program of restoration, funded by Mrs. Brigitte Guichard, concentrated during this season on the micro-sandblasting of the two main chambers of the temple. Cleaning is henceforth finished there. The ceiling, the architraves, the lintel and the capitals of the hypostyle hall were also cleaned. The delicate consolidation of the ceiling of the Room of offerings required a temporary scaffolding built in red brick. Metal pieces raised upon the intermediate floor served to maintain broken parts with the ceiling during the implementation of steel reinforcements. The stones of ceiling, very damaged, are henceforth strengthened with a metal structure installed on the roof. The scaffolding was dismantled after this work of consolidation. The ceiling, darkened with soot, was cleaned. Five small windows which were damaged were also restored Excavations In November 2007, a second campaign of excavations was led by Guillaume Charloux. The objective of the pits test was to complete the results of the previous campaign led in February-March The pit test 9 joined the trench of foundation of the ptolemaic wall with the massif of foundation of the Ethiopian period. A limestone statue of a priest called Nesmin and officiating for the cult of Opet was discovered against the ptolemaic wall. It is probably a sort of foundation deposit. The presence of several mud brick walls dating from the Middle Kingdom were confirmed by the pits test 8 and 11, located in the Northwestern corner of the courtyard. Close to the ptolemaic wall was found a second priest statue. In the North of the pit test 12, two large silos were discovered but not excavated. Finally, the pit test 10 opened in a small space, between the temples of Opet and Khonsu allowed to discover a stair, with the same axis of the door of the outer chapel of Opet. The function of it remains not clear : vestiges of an earlier temple? Stairway connected with the building activity of the ptolemaic temple? 12

13 Stairway between the temples of Opet and Khonsu. In May 2008, the restoration of the massif of foundation was begun in the southern part of the courtyard. This massif, exclusively made with re-used blocks, showed a steep southward slope, where was dug two large wells during the Roman time. During the dismantling was found the block This sandstone block belongs to a monument of Tuthmosis III and bears a dedication text to the goddess Opet. It is a remarkable discovery for the history of the area because it is the first time that the existence of Opet temple is mentionned under the reign of this king. Numerous blocks in limestone were also dug up, dating back to the same period. Most being in a fragmentary state, they were restored and strengthened by the team of restoration. The blocks re-used in the massif belonged to one (or two) building(s) of small size. The blocks, sometimes decorated on 2 sides, do not overtake 23 cm in thickness. Some of them are moreover only 13 cms wide. Block 2342 with the dedication text to Opet. 13

14 The two statues of priest Epigraphic survey Claude Traunecker studied the crypts and the theologies of the temple. A complete check of texts formerly published by Constant de Wit was realized and the data of the recent epigraphic discoveries were integrated into the work THE TEMPLE OF KHONSU This mission, led by J.-Cl. Degardin, took place from 5 th to 30 th of April It was mainly focused on the relations between the temples of Khonsu and Opet. Priority was indeed given to the results of the excavations of G. Charloux in Opet temple, in particular the stairway (see above) brought to light between the two temples and which associates strictly these two buildings. The major part of the mission was devoted to the analysis of the reliefs of Khonsu temple (rituals and divinities). The observations allow right now to understand the performance of the rite in the temple. Particular subjects in ramesside rooms were perfectly integrated into this ritual but the question of their origin is still problematic. A comparison with other monuments built at the same time, for example the temple of Medinet Habu, allowed to better understand particular architectural organizations. It must be noted that American Research Center in Egypt (ARCE) is currently developing a project about the restoration of Khonsu temple. The Chicago House joined this project for the survey of re-used blocks. The nearness of the temples of Opet and Khonsu associates naturally the two teams in a common project of training and of development of the south-eastern area of the Amun-Ra temple. 14

15 2. MONUMENTS OF AMENHOTEP I AT KARNAK This project led by L. Gabolde (UMR 5140, Univ. Montpelier III) and J.-Fr. Carlotti (UMR 8164, Univ. Lille III) was the object of a mission from February 2 nd till March 1 st The main goal was to continue revision and validation, started during the first mission in April 2007, of the various epigraphical groups. This validation was realized by controlling systematically the "key" blocks by measurements and architectural observations. These checks allowed to confirm or to revalue the hypothesis based upon an epigraphical and architectural restoration firstly proposed, notably due to the reconstruction of broken blocks. These fragments originally formed only one stone but some of them had been attributed prematurely to two different walls while really they belong to the same wall. These reconstructions of blocks allowed to move complete epigraphical groups from a register to an other one and even from a wall to an other one. The blocks belonging to the niches which had been partially checked during the previous mission were not studied to give priority to other groups, more valuable for the arrangement of the various monuments. The large walls A, B, C and D were revised. The walls A and B were completed with blocks which, until now, had not been able to be replaced. The walls C and D were completely rethought, numerous changes were begun due to very original details and to additional groups of fragments of blocks. It is possible to assert today that the reconstruction of these two walls can be considered as finished, only some not still attributed scattered blocks will probably be able to complete them. The front façade of the «reposoir» was confirmed during the previous mission. The screen walls were completed with scattered blocks not having been yet attributed. The walls of slaughterhouses were modified, completed and confirmed. The doors of the medium and large chapels were the object of a temporary assembly. They will be checked and organized during a next mission, but it is not very probable that links between lintels and doorjambs can be definitively assured due to the fragmentary state of these elements. The first volume concerning the monuments of Amenhotep I at Karnak (La chapelle de barque en calcite d Amenhotep I er ) will be finished in January Between the end of January and the end of February 2008, François Larché (Biblical School of Jerusalem) continued the arrangement of Amenhotep I's blocks upon benches in front of the Sheikh Labib storeroom. He supervised the transport of the blocks from the Open Air Museum to the benches. A particular attention was carried on the restoration and on the consolidation of stones, work which is however assured all year long by the restorers of the CFEETK, under the supervision of Agnès Oboussier and Mohammed Hussein. 3. SURVEY OF THE COLUMNS OF THE HYPOSTYLE HALL Further to the DVD publication of the photographs of the walls of the hypostyle hall 3, the main difficulty consisted in producing images of 134 columns. The cylindrical shape of the columns raises problems of projection and representation ; the traditional epigraphic survey can not give an accurate result. The operation consists in producing a 2D image from a representation applied to a volume (3D). 3 A. Arnaudiès, A. Chéné, Les parois de la salle hypostyle de Karnak, DVD, Paris,

16 Due to a grant of the Simone and Cino del Duca foundation (Institut de France) the project of the survey of the 134 columns of the hypostyle hall was started. The elaborated procedure requires the association of two kinds of data : a digital 3D model of the hall and a complete coverage of photogrammetric images. The implementation of a very precise topographical network was also required to unify all these data. The operation took place in two stages. In 2007, a first mission was devoted to the complete scan 3D of the hall. If this technique became today very successful, the case of the Karnak hypostyle hall was particularly difficult, due to the very narrow space between the columns. A billion points were recorded, covering the hypostyle hall at the rate of a point each 5mm. These topometric data are today treated and allowed to realize a digital 3D model handbook of every column. In May , a training organized by the École nationale des sciences géographiques (ENSG / IGN) aimed to supply images of the complete decoration of columns with topographical references, that means almost an half-hectare of decoration. After many tests and checks, a procedure was choosen. Between 32 and 40 photographs, according to the two types of column, were necessary to respect a definition of two millimeters by pixel. More than images were so recorded. The photographs were realized using a perch 8 metres high equiped with four digital cameras. Data processing is still current. The mosaic of images must be assembled with topographic references in the common system of the site. The images will then be able to be "mapped" on the digital model of each column and be numerically unrolled to obtain one photograph for one column. Topographical points of the 3D scan Recording of images. 4 Y. Egels, B. Chazaly, G. Pollin, Y. Robin, D. Schelstraete, M. Saillant and eigth students of the ENSG. 16

17 4. STUDY OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL MATERIALS 4.1. Excavations in the south-eastern area of the Sacred lake This mission of two months (April-May 2008) led by Aurélia Masson and Marie Millet was mainly devoted to the treatment of the ceramic material of the New Kingdom brought to light during archaeological investigations between 2002 and It was also the occasion to find numerous objects and ceramic uncovered during the excavations in the same area in The objects discovered during the excavations led from 2002 till 2007 was stored in the Sheikh Labib B and different objects were registered for a transfer towards Luxor museum. During this mission, different epigraphic documents (doorjamb of Nimlot ; two doorjambs with the name of Amasis ; two blocks with the name of Chabaka) were recorded. During this mission, Samuel Guérin (Univ. Montpelier III) was able to finish the study of the macrolithic and lithic material of the Middle Kingdom and Late Period. They are mainly small tools maybe in contact with a workshop of pearls in this craft sector The demotic ostraka The aim of this short mission (14-24 February 2008) led by D. Devauchelle and G. Widmer (Univ. Lille III) was to review demotic ostraka found on the sites of the chapel of Osiris Wennefer Neb-djefau (and the adjacent building) and of the priests' house (near the Sacred lake) between 2002 and In the first group, it is advisable to mention a document without parallel in our knowledge : a list of persons registered year by year, between the year 3 and the year 14 of an emperor who could be identified with Tiberius. The documents of the second group were examined and readings previously made on photographs were confirmed. This mission was also the occasion to look for demotic ostraka discovered by P. Anus in 1970, at the time of the building of the Sound and Light terrace, in priests' house area (P. Anus, R. Sa'ad, «Habitations de prêtres dans le temple d'amon de Karnak», Kêmi 21, 1971, p ; J. Lauffray, R. Sa'ad, S. Sauneron, «Rapport sur les travaux de Karnak », Karnak 5, 1975, p ). It concerns about 800 documents sometimes very fragmentary, that D. Devauchelle had begun to study between 1981 and 1984 with G. Wagner, for the Greek part ; till now they remained inaccessible. They are apparently kept in Abou Djoud storeroom (outside Karnak). It was agreed, with J.-Fr. Gout (photographer CFEETK), to digitalize one hundred of negatives corresponding mainly to the fragments of letters drafted by the priests. In the storeroom of Sheikh Labib A, a box containing hieratic, demotic, greek and coptic ostraka of unknown origin was found. This group does not seem to have been examined for several years. The demotic part is mainly constituted with tax receipts and acknowledgements of debt. Finally, the exam of photographs taken during the removal of the Caracol storeroom to the Abou Djoud storeroom, allowed to recognize about forty demotic ostraka discovered to the North of the bubastite wall in 1969, which D. Devauchelle had begun to study between 1981 and Excavations of the central zone Until February 2008, R. Mensan finalized the study of the excavations which he led with G. Charloux in the central zone of the temple of Amun during these last years. The work mainly consists on the treatment of the graphic documentation (plans, sections) in order to publish this archaeological operation. 17

18 During the excavations led in the north courtyard of the IV th pylon between November 2004 and May 2007 by R. Le Bohec, several fragments of crystalline hard limestone belonging to the large dyade of Horemheb were discovered. Reassembled in the Museum of Cairo by H. Sourouzian in 1999, this group shows the god Amun sit on a throne beside the goddess Mut. A systematic sieving of debris covering the excavation sector and the disrupted floor allowed to bring to light several dozens of decorated fragments belonging to this group. It also confirmed the presence of pendants, notably in amazonite, having been able to be offered by the king to the gods statues. The fragments in crystalline hard limestone are numerous and varied. They would allow to complete advantageously the dyade in Museum of Cairo. The numerous fragments in black granite found in the sector maybe belong to a pedestal bearing this monument, as the carving prisoner could indicate. Numerous elements of finery complete the outfit of pendants found during the previous excavations. The location of the dyade in the courtyard is still now hypothetical, even though a place against the north enclosing wall remains the most plausible. No plan engraved on the sandstone floor and indicating the place of the monument was observed. The study of the foundation of the courtyard, while revealing some peculiarities of construction, did not let seem any particular base allowing to locate the position of the dyade of Horemheb. 5. THE NORTH AREA OF THE AMUN-RA PRECINCT 5.1. The temple of Ptah Since October 2008, a new program of study of the temple of Ptah was carried on, led on the field by Christophe Thiers and Pierre Zignani. The first step was to clean the temple and its vicinity. Inside the temple, the work concerned the beginning of the architectural, epigragraphic and architectural surveys. The previous publications were checked and many architectural obervations were already realized. Few re-used blocks were found on the roof of the temple and on the second gate (Chabaka) ; it seems they belong to the ramesside period. The first field drawings are in course of digitalization. This first survey allows us to better understand the different stages of building and restoration of this monument, from the time of Tuthmosis III till the Roman period (Tiberius). It also gives some valuable informations about the future restoration program. General view of the gates of the temple. This program intended to be a field-school for students and inspectors of the SCA The Treasure of Chabaka Nadia Licitra (Univ. Paris IV) investigated the Treasure of Chabaka during the month of october 2008 ; this first work concerned the cleaning of the monument. Before the beginning of this campaign, only the colonnade and few sandstone blocks were visible on the south-eastern corner of the Treasure, and they were buried under a remarkable mass of debris. At first, the vegetation infesting the whole area has been 18

19 cut and after that, it has been possible to understand in a better way the nature of the blocks of sandstone in the south-eastern corner of the colonnade. The cleaning of the north-western corner and of the northern section allowed to identify two mud brick walls, apparently with east-western direction. These walls, cut by the pit of the colonnade, were built on a remarkable destruction layer, subsequent to the Treasure. The first excavation campaign of Chabaka s Treasure reveals in a clearer way the aspect of the monument and of the whole area. A general plan of the site and sections were drawn. 6. THE EXCAVATIONS IN FRONT OF THE KARNAK TEMPLES The project of the site management of the area located between the Karnak temples and the Nile started in 2007 under the supervision of the Supreme Council of Antiquities in collaboration with the Luxor City Council. This project is led by Mansour Boraik. During the field work were discovered new traces of a large embankment constructed in front of the temple over 250 m until now. The quay and also a ptolemaic baths were uncovered The quay This program is led on the field by El-Tayeb Gharib, Mohamed Hatem and Sa ad Bakheit (SCA). The quay locates to the south of the podium have been constructed as part of the embankment. It was designed as a big ramp made of sandtone blocks. It is 23 m in width. The south wall is 23,70 m x 3,10 m wide and 3,10 m high. The north wall of it is 23,70 m Because its ramp was very steep toward the Nile, Taharka built a small one in the middle. It is 3,60 m wide and its northern wall is 16,90 m lenght x 1,60 m high and the southern wall is 13,75 lengh and 1,40 m high. An important settlement dating back to the ptolemaic and roman periods was uncovered in two phases. With the help of the archaeologists, Matthieu Ghilardi studied and draw sections to better understand the Nile flood evolution in front of the quay. General view of the quay in front of the 1 st pylon. 19

20 6.2. The ptolemaic baths This program is led on the field by Salah el-masekh (SCA). Discovered 75 m to the North of the podium, the baths were directly built over the last course of the embankment. The building is characterized by its tholoi circular rooms, each with hip bathtubs (individuals seats for washing). The hip bathtubs are egg-shaped, 90 cm in lengh and 20 cm in width. The baths at Karnak are probably built between the beginning of the III rd century and the first decades of the II nd century B.C. General view of the ptolemaic baths during the restoration The Sphinx avenue The work is led by Mansour Boraik (SCA) in to sectors. The first one is the site of Luxor police station, approximatively 310 m to the north-west of Luxor temple. The part of the western row of sphinxes till now a total of five sphinxes have been revealed, as it is also for the pavement made of sandstone slabs in two courses. Inscriptions were found running on the bases of the sphinxes recording Nectanebo I s titles and eulogies. Also it was possible to found, reused in pavement, some blocks, one of them with the cartouche of Tuthmosis IV. The second sector lies behind the Suzanne Mubarak Library ; there, 24 sphinxes were revealed. A wine press with a canalization system was also uncovered in this area, with a lot of pottery from Roman time. A lot of sphinxes found in fragments were restored and reassembled by the restorers. One uncovered sphinx of Nectanebo I. 20

21 7. LANDSCAPE EVOLUTION AND PALAEOHYDROLOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF ANCIENT KARNAK The Karnak Land-and Waterscapes Survey (KLaWS) is led by Judith Bunbury and Angus Graham ; a mission was realized from 14 to 25 February Following the same methods developed since 2002, several profiles were realized by electric resistance (tomography) associated with manual core samplings to clarify the evolution of Karnak antique topography (took in the broad sense, from Karnak-North to Karnak-South) in particular the existence of secondary arms of the Nile. Two tomographic profiles were realized at Karnak-North, the first one on a distance of 87 m and which was able to reach 7,5 m in depth, revealing three abnormalities. Second, long 270 m, was able to reach 15 m under the surface ; weak resistance indicates an alluvial sedimentary deposit and a point was identified as being a sandy barrier forming the bed of a river (secondary arm of the Nile). A third profile was made between Khonsu temple and the courtyard of the IX th and X th py lonby using a manual auger until a depth of 9,2 m. Another core sampling was made on the location of the ptolemaic baths in the western area outside the temple of Karnak, putting in evidence a thick layer of alluvial sediments. Since october 2008, Matthieu Ghilardi (CFEETK, post-doctorate Cnrs) started a new program (Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of ancient fluvial harbours in Upper Egypt) and made manual auger boreholes in particular along the western side of Karnak temple. 8. WORK OF RESTORATION AND ANASTYLOSIS 8.1. Restoration According to a program set up since several seasons, the Franco-Egyptian team continued a thorough work on restoration and consolidation of limestone blocks in the Open Air Museum and upon benches near the Sheikh Labib storeroom. Within the framework of the work of the reorganization of the access to the temple of Amon, numerous archaeological materials were discovered : during the excavations led by the Supreme council of Antiquities concerning the ptolemaic baths (see above), a ptolemaic coins oar came to light, consisting of 316 coins which presented different states of corrosion. All the coins of this oar were cleaned and restored. The excavations made by the archaeologists in various sectors of Karnak were the occasion to restore sandstone and limestone blocks but also archaeological objects in various materials : metal, terra-cotta, clay, faience, granite, etc. Besides, the reassembly of a limestone statue of Cleopatra II, kept in the Sheikh Labib storeroom, was successfully achieved. The restoration of Opet temple, begun since 2006, continued this year (see above). It concerns the restoration and consolidation of the painted reliefs, the consolidation of the structure of the temple (in association with the stone-cutters). The project of restoration of the New Kingdom wall on the south-eastern area of the Sacred Lake is now almost finished ; the mud brick structure of this wall is now secured. The arrangement of the laboratory of restoration installed in the surrounding wall of the temple of Amun-Ra continued and is totally finished almost henceforth. 21

22 The Franco-Egyptian restorers team in the temple of Opet. Ptolemaic coin (from the oar of the Ptolemaic baths) after restoration Anastylosis The Franco-Egyptian team led by A. Garric, assisted by D. Pekkip, essentially worked this year on the complete reassembly of the wire saw. Located on the eastern area of the temple, it will be able to supply stones for the various reconstruction programs. This necessary work did not allow to let enough time to begin programs of anastylosis, also compromised by the absence of the crane for one year. However, in June 2008 the work was able to start again on the calcite chapel of Tuthmosis III in the Open Air Museum, by the inventory and the preparation of blocks. It was also possible to finish the inventory of blocks belonging to Netjery-menu, stored in the Open Air Museum and inside the Sheikh Labib. Before the beginning of the anastylosis of this monument, a preventive excavation was led by Sévérine Marchi (UMR 8152) in September 2008 at the entrance of the Open Air Museum. The area was already largely disturbed by trenches dug par H. Chevrier. The large pit test brought to light very bad 22

23 preserved structures in mud brick and in sandstone dated back to the 25 th -26 th dynasties (according to a ceramic survey made by Catherine Defernez). A technical follow-up of the program of Opet temple was realized. Besides, several expertises and estimation were proposed for projects of restoration / reconstruction at the request of American Research Center in Egypt. The wire saw in course of reassembling. 9. ARCHIVES AND SCIENTIFIC DOCUMENTATION Due to the absence of a person in charge of the documentation work, the follow-up of the filing and of the documentation was tiny. Supervised by J.-Fr. Gout, all the photographs (monuments, archaeological objects) were registered in the data base of the photographic service. The management of graphic information and the development of the GIS were supervised by E. Laroze, assisted by Louis Elia and of A. Marmousez. The library was not able to be really reinstalled, the books having been quickly arranged on new bookcases after the move from the former Center. A complete checking will be necessary before to adopt a new dispostion upon the bookshelves Photographic service The installation of the photographic service being effective since October 2007, the attention was brought to the installation of a studio inside the surrounding wall of the temple, near the storerooms, to avoid so to take out of the temple the archaeological objects. Supervised by J.-Fr. Gout, the team worked in several sectors, assuring a permanent collaboration with the researchers Recording of objects At the researchers request several hundred objects not informed before were brought to the studio to be photographed. Several hundred potteries and different objects resulting from excavations of the 23

24 ptolemaic baths and from the quay were also treated as well as a group resulting from the sphinx avenue of Luxor Photographs of monuments In spite of a serious lack of lightings, several photographic works were able to be executed. Temple of Opet : at the restorers request, the completion of the photographs of the walls before restoration was realized ; this work will be again executed after restoration for the final publication. All the following monuments were photographed and recorded : chapel of Osiris from Coptos ; chapel of Osiris Neb-ankh ; chapel of Osiris Pa-Ished ; chapel of Osiris Wp-Ished ; pillared courtyard of Tuthmosis IV : updates, complements, photographs of architraves, were realized during two months and a half. Numerous registered blocks were photographed on the field as well as in storerooms. The survey of blocks stored upon benches and intended for the data base reached now the number of In October and November 2008 the photographic survey of the temple of Ptah was started and the survey of the gate of the II nd pylon achieved Orthophotogrammetric survey The photographic service participated actively in the photographic survey of the 134 columns of the hypostyle hall (see above). This operation is due to the initiative of the IGN and would not have been able to be realized without the collaboration and the inventiveness of the researchers of this Institute who were able to perfect three special software packages to make this work as well as to define the method of recording. The photographic service followed this operation and participated in it since its preparation in autumn and till the end. The installation of a base of calibration for the optics in summer made as well as the first wedging of objectives Communication and publication Numerous documents intended for the final publication of the pillared courtyard of Tuthmosis IV was delivered. The photographic service also supplied numerous documents for different publications in progress, assured the panels for the exhibition of the fortieth anniversary of CFEETK, supplied the documents exposed in Visitor Center Archaeological drawings The departure of the draftswoman Cnrs was very punishing for the drawing programs of the CFEETK. As long as this post will not have been replaced, it will be asked to the teams welcomed in the Center to foresee one draftsman / draftswoman to assure their drawings. In Opet temple, the statements of blocks discovered during excavations were assured punctually by different persons. Chr. Thiers also began the survey of ptolemaic blocks stored in the Sheikh Labib and also those lying upon the benches. The drawings of archaeological objects and potteries were assured by Memdouh Abdel Khasoul (SCA), in particular for current studies on excavations of the south-eastern area of the Sacred lake and of the Ouadjyt. Since october 2008, french students and SCA inspectors are trained with Memdouh Abdel Khasoul for the epigraphic drawings. 24

25 9.3. Inventory of the scattered blocks The documentation of the scattered blocks normally continued (metal patch with number, quick sketch, photography and insertion in a data base), this work being realized by Abdou Qoraïm (restorer), Mohamed Saïdi (photographer) and Romani Zaki (draftsman). 10. SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL FRANCO-EGYPTIAN COOPERATION Training program of the temple of Osiris from Coptos The excavation of the temple of Osiris from Coptos (see above) was conceived since its implementation as a field-school. It was the opportunity for four young inspectors of the SCA to practise the archaeological techniques. The presence of French students in this program also assures a fruitful exchange with the Egyptian colleagues Training Within the various programs of restoration led by Agnès Oboussier and Mohammed Hussein, the restorers of the SCA are associated to the various stages of restoration and conservation. This action mainly concerned the restoration of the blocks of limestone. Also, a Franco-Egyptian team assures the work of restoration in the temple of Opet (cleaning, consolidation, micro-sandblasting). These last years, the discoveries of plentiful archaeological material in metal led us to develop a bilateral action with the Centre d Études Alexandrines (CeAlex, USR 3134 of Cnrs ; dir. J.-Y. Empereur): three Egyptian restorers from Karnak were able to be trained to the restoration of the metal objects during one month in Alexandria (july 2008). It is necessary also to indicate that the coming of young French restorers and architects within CFEETK allows to develop links among young French professionals and their Egyptian homologues, within programs and within common activities on the field. Finally, within the framework of the program of 3D scan of the columns of the hypostyle hall, Louis Elia (topographer) participated in a training course in the ATM3D company (Congénies, France) during July This training allowed him to get acquainted with several software packages of topography and of 3D scan Course in French language Due to the financial support of the Centre Français de Culture et de Coopération (Cairo), French lessons were given to several inspectors of the SCA and to Egyptian members of CFEETK. This operation will be renewed in At the same time, Tayeb Gharib (SCA inspector) gave introductory lessons of Arabic language and writing to the French members of the Center. 25

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