The history of Egypt is divided into dynasties of rulers. What is a dynasty? A succession of rulers from the same family or line is called a Dynasty.

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2 The history of Egypt is divided into dynasties of rulers What is a dynasty? A succession of rulers from the same family or line is called a Dynasty. 2

3 3

4 Predynasty: c BC Major Events: Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt Dynasties: I (c.3100 BC) II 4

5 Egypt was still learning the use of bronze tools It was originally divided into territories After some time the territories merged to form two rival kingdoms: Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt Around 3000 B.C. the Upper Egyptian kings conquered Lower Egypt and combined the two realms. 5

6 Image to know: * Palette of King Na rmer (both sides), Slate, c B.C. 6

7 The front: Na rmer is wearing a crown of Upper Egypt He is about to slay a defeated opponent and two others are held captive below him The symbols near Na rmer s head again represent the victory over Lower Egypt Na rmer is barefoot, symbolizing holy ground and more of a ritual act than a physical act 7

8 The back: The king is again depicted barefoot and is now wearing the crown of Lower Egypt In front of him are subjects walking to inspect beheaded bodies of prisoners At the bottom Na rmer is depicted as a bull trampling an enemy and knocking down a citadel The meaning of the centre is ambiguous It is debated that the beasts represent a union of the two kingdoms of Egypt 8

9 The Old Kingdom: c BC Major Events: Pyramids built Dynasties: III (c BC) Djoser IV (c BC) Sneferu, Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure V (c BC) VI (c BC) 9

10 Image = example of amastaba 10

11 Image = showing the interior structures of the mastabas with the chapel above ground and the burial chamber below ground 11

12 12

13 Image to know: * Imhotep, Pyramid of King Djoser, Saqqara, c B.C. 13

14 14

15 Image to know: * The Great Pyramids, Giza: (left) Menkaure, c B.C (centre) Khafre, c B.C. (right) Khufu, c B.C. 15

16 Bottom image = differences between mastabas, step pyramids, and the great pyramids Right image = the location of the great pyramids with surrounding mastabas 16

17 It is highly debated as to how the pyramids were actually built and who built them exactly: Some say it was the slaves or farmers who built them using ramps or pulleys to move the stones up Other sources say it was built by free men who worked on it in their spare time and were fed, clothed, and housed by the king Pyramids usually take about 20 years to build 17

18 Central features of a great pyramid 18

19 Image to know: * The Great Sphinx, Giza, c B.C. 19

20 The Sphinx was also covered up to its head in sand but was uncovered by Tuthmosis IV who dreamt that if he cleared it, he would be king 20

21 Image to know: * King Menkaure and His Queen, Slate, c B.C. 21

22 1 st Intermediate Period: c BC Major Events: Fall of Phaoronic power and a de unified Egypt Dynasties: VII and VIII (c BC) IX and X (c BC) The Middle Kingdom: c BC Major Events: Re unification of Egypt and the Hyksos takeover Dynasties: XI (c BC) XII (c BC) XIII and XIV (c ) 2 nd Intermediate Period: c BC Major Events: The reign (and subsequent banishment) of Hyksos kings and the reign of Theban kings Dynasties: XV and XVI Hyksoskings XVII and XVIII (c BC) Theban kings 22

23 23

24 Image to know: *Plan of Mentuhotep's Mortuary Temple, Deir el Bahari, c B.C. 24

25 The New Kingdom: c BC Major Events: Royal tombs built in the Valley of the Kings, great temples built, expansion of Egyptian empire, and emergence of new art style Dynasties: XVIII (c BC) Ahmose, Akhenaten, Tutankhamun XIX (c BC) Ramesses I and II XX (c BC) 25

26 26

27 Image to know: *The Temple of Queen Hatshepsut, Deir el Bahari, c B.C. Walls inside the temples were painted Tombs of pharaohs were now secretly located in these temples as pyramids were too easily robbed 27

28 The Amun cult had gained so much power that they posed a threat to the royal authority Amun was the god of Thebes 28

29 Image to know: *Akhenaten and His Family, Limestone, c B.C. 29

30 Image to know: *Queen Nefertiti, Limestone, c /5 B.C. (Left eye was never finished) 30

31 Tutankhamun is known for his spectacularly lavish coffin 31

32 32

33 Image to know: *Temple of Ra, Luxor, c. 13 th Century B.C. Even though some the design and construction of some temples had begun in the Middle Kingdom, Ramesses claimed ownership over them The pylon was a new feature added by Ramesses 33

34 **This final slide was added so that you could tell your students that Ancient Egypt did not end with the New Kingdom** 34

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