FIBERS F O O D & N U T R I T I O N E U R O P E

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1 FIBERS F O O D & N U T R I T I O N E U R O P E

2 Dietary Fibers - technical and nutritional functionality. WHAT IS DIETARY FIBER? Dietary fibers are the edible parts of plants which are not digested and absorbed in the human small intestine. In the food industry, dietary fibers are also referred to as non-starch polysaccharides. The dietary fibers can be divided into two groups: water and water fibers. Depending on the source, plants can contain both types of fibers in varying content. Examples of dietary fibers: inulin, oligosaccharides, acacia fiber, psyllium, beta-glucan, polydextrose. Examples of dietary fibers: wheat fiber, oat fiber, bamboo fiber, pea fiber, soy fiber. Fibers have different functions in food products. They have technical functionality relating to texture, as well as nutritional functionality relating to health. The technical and nutritional functionality of some and fibers will be described in the following chapters. INSOLUBLE DIETARY FIBERS Product characteristics In dietary fibers consist of plant cell wall material, of which cellulose is an important component. Cellulose fibers are made up of numerous microfibrils, which provide strength. Structurally, microfibrils have a high surface area and the capillary space between these fibrils work like a sponge and can trap water and oil. Bamboo Oat Pea 1 ) Soy Wheat Wood (cellulose) Appearance powder powder powder powder powder powder Dietary fiber content > 90% > 90% < 90% < 90% > 90% > 90% In fiber Soluble fiber Protein content Starch content 1) There are two varieties within pea fibers. The internal pea fiber derived from the cellwalls of the pea kernel, and external pea fiber derived from the hull. Internal pea fiber also contains starch. Fiber length The technical functionality (see below) depends on the fiber length. Depending on the plant source as well as on the processing of the fibers, the fiber length can range from 30 µm to 1000 µm. Water absorption: Oil absorption: 1 gram of fiber can absorb up to 10 grams of water. Water absorption capacity increases as the fiber length is increased. 1 gram of fiber can absorb up to 8 grams of oil. Oil absorption capacity increases as the fiber length is increased. Characteristics vary depending upon the plant source of the fiber. Within each source, different grades are available to target different functionalities. Page 2 of 10

3 Technical functionality Texture improvement The fiber network will provide more strength and an improved stability of the finished product. Water binding capacity Water is adsorbed in the microfibrils by capillarity. The water is linked to the fibers by hydrogen bonds and will stay there during food processing and storage, independent of temperature and ph. The water-binding capacity depends on the fiber length. Moisture will be evenly distributed throughout the finished product and syneris is prevented. Cryoprotectant, freeze-thaw-stability As the water is bound in capillaries, the formation of large ice-crystals is prevented. Also, during freeze-thaw cycles, ice crystals will not grow and therefore the structure of the food will not be damaged. Because the moisture is evenly distributed, the freezing and thawing process is faster. Oil and fat binding The capillary space can also absorb oils and fats. Therefore, fat or oil will not separate out during heat treatment. Anti-caking The absorption of moisture and oil has a positive effect on the free-flowing properties of grated cheeses, spices and dried fruit. SOLUBLE DIETARY FIBERS Product characteristics The range and properties of fibers is very wide. Therefore, this chapter is limited to fibers which also have important functionality in sugar reduction. Inulin is naturally present as reserve food in several plants, of which the chicory root is the most well known source for inulin production. Inulin is a linear chain of fructose units with mostly one terminal glucose unit. The chain length or degree of polymerisation (DP) ranges from 10 to 60. Oligofructose, synonym with fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), is a partially hydrolysed inulin with a DP of 2 to 10. Fructo-oligosaccharides can also be produced by biosynthesis from sucrose. The average DP of FOS from biosynthesis ranges from 3 to 5. Polydextrose is a randomly cross-linked, highly branched polysaccharide, manufactured through a polymerization process of d- glucose. FOS (chicory) FOS (biosynthesis) Inulin Polydextrose Appearance powder / syrup powder / syrup powder powder / syrup DP 1 ) Average 12 Carbohydrates on dry substance: DP > 3 2 ) DP1, DP2 2 ) > 85 % > 92 % < 15% < 8% > 60 % > 93 % < 40% < 7% > 85 % > 99,5% < 15% < 0,5% > 90 % Relative sweetness Not sweet Solubility 3 ) ) DP = degree of polymerisation 2) DP > 3 are polymers. Depending on fiber type, these are inulin, FOS or polydextrose. DP1 and DP2 are mono- and disaccharides. Depending on fiber type, these are fructose, glucose or sucrose. < 4% Page 3 of 10

4 3) + Solubility of inulin: Inulin solutions up to 5% are clear solutions with a viscosity higher than a sucrose solution of equivalent concentration. Inulin solution of 10 to 15% are white and cloudy. At concentrations above 20%, an inulin dispersion is formed and leaving this dispersion for several hours will create a gel or cream like structure. Several inulin grades are developed to target different solubility or texturising requirements. +++ Solubility of FOS and polydextrose: Very good solubility, solutions of 75% are clear with a viscosity slightly higher than a sucrose solution of equivalent concentrations. Solubility increases with increasing temperature. Technical functionality Sugar replacement. When replacing sugar there are basically two properties to be taken into consideration. The taste and sweetness provided by sugar and the textural properties of sugar. In sugar reduced, sugar free or no sugar added products, the sweetness can be provided by intensive sweeteners *. The textural properties of sugar, which need to be replaced, are very diverse. For example: imparting mouthfeel and viscosity in beverages, providing bulk in bakery products and confectionary, freezing point depression in ice-cream and frozen products, and lowering water activity in fruit preparations. Sweetness FOS provides a certain degree of sweetness and inulin can provide some sweetness depending on the grade. Inulin and FOS show synergy with high intensity sweeteners (HIS) resulting in a lower dosage of HIS. By masking the aftertaste of HIS, the taste profile of the total formulation is improved. Polydextrose has a clean taste but is not sweet, thus giving possibilities to use it in savoury type applications. Bulking properties Inulin, FOS and polydextrose provide good bulking properties. Fat replacer, mouth-feel, creaminess. In dairy and ice-cream applications, inulin, FOS and polydextrose can provide a creamy mouth-feel and compensate for some fat reduction. Freezing point depression and lowering water activity. In general, a higher DP value creates less freezing point depression and will have less effect on lowering the water activity. NUTRITIONAL FUNCTIONALITY OF SOLUBLE AND INSOLUBLE DIETARY FIBERS Dietary fibers are essential for digestive health. In fibers absorb water in the human digestive system, resulting in increased bulk, softening stool and shortening of transit time. Inulin, FOS and polydextrose are prebiotics, which are fermented in the colon and stimulate the activity of beneficial bacteria flora, such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus. At the same time they also decrease the activity of potentially harmful bacteria. Fermentation products such as short chain fatty acids can lower the ph in the colon which may improve absorption of minerals. Fiber enrichment and weight management. Due to the low caloric value of the fibers, the addition of bulk and influence on satiety, both and fibers are important for weight management. EFSA recommendation. The opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the establishment of Dietary Reference Values for carbohydrates and dietary fiber. The panel considers a dietary intake of 25 grams per day to be adequate for normal laxation in adults. Whole grain cereals, pulses, fruit, vegetables and potatoes are the main sources of dietary fiber in our diet. The average dietary intake varies from 16 to 29 grams per day in adults. The role of dietary fibers on bowel function was considered the most suitable criterion for establishing the above mentioned adequate daily intake value. The EFSA panel notes that in adults there is evidence of a benefit to health associated with the consumption of diets rich in fiber-containing foods, at a dietary intake of greater than 25 gram per day. The health benefits include a reduced risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes and improved weight maintenance. * Please refer to: Brenntag Application Note Intensive Sweeteners Sweetener Blends with Neotame. Page 4 of 10

5 APPLICATIONS BAKERY Bakery dough Waterbinding and improved water balance delivers increased freeze-thaw stability and improved machineability (e.g.: less adhesion to equipment). Bread both Fiber enrichment to provide healthy options Bread Extended shelf life: Waterbinding results in a reduction of moisture loss, therefore the bread keeps fresher for longer and has a softer crumb. Fine bakery both Fiber enrichment to provide healthy options in biscuits, cookies, cereal bars Fine bakery Fine bakery For wafers and crackers: Increases the strength, which subsequently reduces breakages and increases crispness Reduced adhesion to equipment Extended shelf life for cakes: Waterbinding results in a reduction of moisture loss, therefore the cake keeps fresher for longer and has a softer crumb Fine bakery Polydextrose interfers with the gluten formation, maintaining a short texture in biscuits and cookies. Fine bakery Sugar reduction and sugar replacement in biscuits, cookies, cakes, cereal bars Fine bakery Polydextrose is non sweet, making it possible to develop savoury tasting cakes, muffins or crackers using vegetables, spices and herbs. BEVERAGES Page 5 of 10

6 APPLICATIONS IN FOOD INDUSTRY, BEVERAGES (continued) Functional beverages Functional beverages enriched with fiber, breakfast drinks, smoothies, meal replacer drinks. Functional beverages Sugar reduced / free beverages Functional beverages enriched with fiber, bottled water, juices, smoothies, herbal drinks, mineral enriched beverages, breakfast drinks. Inulin and FOS show synergy with high intensity sweeteners (HIS) and can improve taste profile as well as add mouthfeel. CONFECTIONARY Confectionary Chocolate Polydextrose is non-crystallising and can therefore replace the syrup part in hard candy. The high solubility and high viscosity facilitates processing. The combination of polyols and polydextrose can replace a sugar and syrup system in hard candy. In no sugar added chocolate, polydextrose can be combined with polyols to improve texture, taste and toleration. CONVENIENCE FOOD Sauces, dressings, ketchup, soups Sauces, dressings, ketchup, soups Sauces, dressings, ketchup Page 6 of 10 both Fiber enrichment for healthy options Improved water and oil retention, decreased syneresis, supports emulsifiers Texture enhancement by thickening properties Can provide pulpy characteristics Sugar reduction and sugar replacement

7 DAIRY Beverages Fiber enriched products such as breakfast drinks, smoothies, meal replacer products. Beverages Fiber enrichment for healthy options and/or prebiotic dairy beverages Beverages Cheese, processed and fresh cheese (spreads) Cheese, shredded Ice-cream, frozen desserts Ice-cream, frozen desserts Sugar reduction and sugar replacement, inulin and FOS show synergy with high intensity sweeteners and can improve taste profile. Texture improvement and better slicing Improved water and oil retention, decreased syneresis, supports emulsifiers Improved spreadability Anticaking agent for shredded cheese.improves free flowing properties and therefore facilitates better dosing. Waterbinding characteristics result in improved freeze-thaw-stability and decreased re-crystallisation Sugar reduction and sugar replacement, inulin and FOS show synergy with high intensity sweeteners and can improve taste profile. Add mouthfeel and creaminess for fat reduced yoghurts Yoghurt both Fiber enrichment for healthy options and/or prebiotic yoghurts Yoghurt Decreased syneresis through waterbinding Yoghurt Sugar reduction and sugar replacement, inulin and FOS show synergy with high intensity sweeteners and can improve taste profile. Add mouthfeel and creaminess for fat reduced yoghurts FRUIT (JAMS, MARAMALADES, FRUIT PREPARATIONS) Page 7 of 10

8 APPLICATIONS IN FOOD INDUSTRY, FRUIT PREPARATIONS (continued) Fruit preparations Fiber enrichment for health options, for bakery as well as dairy applications. Fruit preparations Sugar reduction and sugar replacement, inulin and FOS show synergy with high intensity sweeteners and can improve taste profile. MEAT, POULTRY, FISH Ground fresh meat and cooked meat products (minced meat, hamburgers, sausages, pate, cooked ham) Ground fresh meat and cooked meat products (minced meat, hamburgers, sausages, pate) Improved water retention resulting in less shrinkage or moisture loss during heating and improved yield. Less moisture loss in vacuum packaging. Improved oil retention, resulting in less syneresis and emulsion stability. Texture improvement, shape retention in cold and hot conditions, provides firmness and bite. Improved freeze-thaw-stability Possibility for fat reduction OTHER APPLICATIONS Breakfast cereals both Fiber enrichment for healthy options Fried products, batter coatings Control of water and fat uptake resulting in improved crispiness and possible fat reduction Strengthening of the crust / coating. Improved freeze-thaw-stability Microwave products Moisture will be evenly distributed throughout the finished product resulting in consistent heating. Pasta, tortilla Moisture will be evenly distributed throughout the finished product resulting in shorter cooking time Improved texture, strength and bite Facilitates extrusion, less adhesion to equipment Pasta, tortilla both Fiber enrichment for healthy options Powder mixes Free flowing agent for powder mixes, spice mixes and carrier for aroma s. Page 8 of 10

9 REGULATORY Directive 2008/100/EC amending Directive 90/496/EEC on nutrition labelling for foodstuffs, as regards recommended daily allowances, energy conversion factors and definitions. The definition of fibers: Fiber means carbohydrate polymers with three or more monomeric units, which are neither digested nor absorbed in the human small intestine and belong to the following categories: - edible carbohydrate polymers naturally occurring in food; - edible carbohydrate polymers which have been obtained from food raw material by physical, enzymatic or chemical means and which have a beneficial physiological effect demonstrated by generally accepted scientific evidence; - edible synthetic carbohydrate polymers which have a beneficial physiological effect demonstrated by generally accepted scientific evidence. The caloric value of fibers: Average energy value for fiber: 8 kj/gram = 2 kcal/gram Regulation EC/1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods. Nutrition Claim: Source of fiber: A claim that a food is a source of fiber, and any claim likely to have the same meaning for the consumer, may only be made where the product contains at least 3 grams of fiber per 100 grams or at least 1,5 grams of fiber per 100 kcal. Nutrition Claim: High fiber A claim that a food is high in fiber and any claim likely to have the same meaning for the consumer, may only be made where the product contains at least 6 grams of fiber per 100 grams or at least 3 grams of fiber per 100 kcal. Health claims under regulation EC/1924/2006 are being evaluated by EFSA. EFSA publishes all its scientific outputs, including its scientific opinions, in the EFSA Journal. It also issues a range of supporting publications and corporate publications. A database with the opinions is accessible via The complete texts of the Regulations and Directives can be viewed and downloaded from: CONTACT US Brenntag Europe is delighted to offer its customers a wide portfolio of fibers. If you would like to discuss with one of our food dedicated specialists, which particular products would best meet your requirements, then please write a short to and your local Brenntag office will provide you with the requested information and samples. Information Sources: EFSA Journal 2010; 8 (3); 1462 Brochures and websites of our suppliers The data contained within this publication is intended for information purposes only and is correct to the best of our knowledge. Any recommendations or suggestions are made without warranty or guarantee. It is the sole responsibility of the user of the products to evaluate for each individual product, their suitability for a particular purpose and their legal and regulatory compliance. In addition, nothing contained within this publication should be construed as a recommendation to use any product in conflict with existing patents. Page 9 of 10

10 YOUR RIGHT INGREDIENT TODAY AND TOMORROW Brenntag Food & Nutrition Europe is committed to encouraging creativity and innovation that enables our partners to make the most out of trends and developments Please visit F O O D & N U T R I T I O N E U R O P E Brenntag Food & Nutrition Europe Stinnes Platz Mülheim an der Ruhr Germany Phone: +49 (0) Fax: +49 (0)

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